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in modern times consist of a
family name In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name that indicates their family, tribe or community. Practices vary by culture. The family name may be placed at either the start of a person's full name ...
(surname) followed by a given name, in that order. Nevertheless, when a Japanese name is written in the Roman alphabet, ever since the
Meiji era The is an Japanese era name, era of History of Japan, Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an ...
official policy has been to cater to Western expectations and reverse the order, but as of 2019 the government has stated its intention to change this policy. Japanese names are usually written in ''
kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic scripts ''hiragana'' and ''katakana''. The Japanese term ''kanji'' for the Chinese ch ...
'', which are characters usually Chinese in origin but
Japanese
Japanese
in pronunciation. The pronunciation of ''kanji'' Japanese names follow a special set of rules. Parents also have the option of using
hiragana Also , is a Japanese language, Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with ''katakana'', ''kanji'' and in some cases Latin script. It is a phonetic lettering system. The word ''hiragana'' literally means "ordina ...
or
katakana is a Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golde ...
when giving a birth name to their newborn child. Names written in
hiragana Also , is a Japanese language, Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with ''katakana'', ''kanji'' and in some cases Latin script. It is a phonetic lettering system. The word ''hiragana'' literally means "ordina ...
or
katakana is a Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golde ...
are phonetic renderings, and so lack the visual meaning of names expressed in the
logographic In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it must be taught to children, who will pick up spoken language or sign la ...
kanji. According to estimates, there are over 100,000 different surnames in use today in Japan. The three most common family names in Japan are Satō (), Suzuki (), and
Takahashi is the third most common Japanese surname. Less common variants include , , , , , , , and . Notable people with the surname include: *Aaron Takahashi, American actor *, Japanese singer and actress *, Japanese kickboxer *, Japanese classical piani ...
(). Many Japanese surnames were created in the Muromachi period. Japanese peasants had surnames in
Edo period The or is between 1603 and 1867 in the history of Japan, history of Japan, when Japan was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional ''daimyō''. Emerging from the chaos of the Sengoku period, the Edo period was char ...
. However, they could not use them in public. Surnames occur with varying frequency in different regions; for example, the names Chinen (), Higa (), and Shimabukuro () are common in
Okinawa is a prefecture of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat ...
but not in other parts of Japan; this is mainly due to differences between the language and culture of
Yamato people The or David Blake Willis and Stephen Murphy-Shigematsu''Transcultural Japan: At the Borderlands of Race, Gender and Identity,'' p. 272: "“Wajin,” which is written with Chinese characters that can also be read “Yamato no hito” (Yamato pe ...
and Okinawans. Many Japanese family names derive from features of the rural landscape; for example, Ishikawa () means "river of the stones", Yamamoto () means "the base of the mountain", and
Inoue
Inoue
() means "above the well". While family names follow relatively consistent rules, given names are much more diverse in
pronunciationPronunciation is the way in which a word or a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing s ...
and character usage. While many common names can easily be spelled or pronounced, many parents choose names with unusual characters or pronunciations, and such names cannot in general be spelled or pronounced unless both the spelling and pronunciation are given. Unusual pronunciations have especially become common, with this trend having increased significantly since the 1990s. For example, the popular masculine name 大翔 is traditionally pronounced "Hiroto", but in recent years alternative pronunciations "Haruto", "Yamato (disambiguation), Yamato", "Taiga", "Sora", "Taito", "Daito", and "Masato" have all entered use. Male names often end in ''-rō'' ( "son", but also "clear, bright"; e.g. "Ichirō") ''-ta'' ( "great, thick"; e.g. "Kenta") or ''-o'' (男 / 雄 / 夫 "man"; e.g. "Teruo" or "Akio"), or contain ''ichi'' ( "first [son]"; e.g. "Ken'ichi"), ''kazu'' (also written with "first [son]", along with several other possible characters; e.g. "Kazuhiro"), ''ji'' ( "second [son]" or "next"; e.g. "Jiro (given name), Jirō"), or ''dai'' ( "great, large"; e.g. "Daichi (given name), Daichi"). Female names often end in ''-ko'' ( "child"; e.g. "Keiko (given name), Keiko") or ''-mi'' ( "beauty"; e.g. "Yumi (name), Yumi"). Other popular endings for female names include ''-ka'' ( "scent, perfume" or "flower"; e.g. "Reika") and ''-na'' (, or , meaning "greens" or "apple tree"; e.g. "Haruna (name), Haruna").


Structure

The majority of Japanese people have one surname and one given name with no other names, except for the Imperial House of Japan, Japanese imperial family, whose members bear no surname. The family name – ''myōji'' ( or ), ''uji'' () or ''sei'' () – precedes the given name, called the "name" – ( ''mei'') or "lower name" ( ''shita no namae''). The given name may be referred to as the "lower name" because, in vertically written Japanese, the given name appears under the family name. People with mixed Japanese and foreign parentage may have middle names.Power, p. C4-2. Historically, ''myōji'', ''uji'' and ''sei'' had different meanings. ''Sei'' was originally the patrilineal surname which is why up until now it has only been granted by the emperor as a title of male rank. The lower form of the name ''sei'' being ''tei'' which is a common name in Japanese men, although there was a male ancestor in ancient Japan from whom the name 'Sei' originally came. There were relatively few ''sei'', and most of the medieval noble clans trace their lineage either directly to these ''sei'' or to the courtiers of these ''sei''. ''Uji'' was another name used to designate patrilineal descent, but later merged with ''myōji'' around the same time. ''Myōji'' was, simply, what a family chooses to call itself, as opposed to the ''sei'' granted by the emperor. While it was passed on patrilineally in male ancestors including in male ancestors called haku (uncles), one had a certain degree of freedom in changing one's ''myōji''. See also Kabane. A single name-forming element, such as ''hiro'' ("expansiveness") can be written by more than one kanji (, , or ). Conversely, a particular kanji can have multiple meanings and pronunciations. In some names, Japanese characters phonetically "spell" a name and have no intended meaning behind them. Many Japanese personal names use puns.Hanks, Patrick, Kate Hardcastle, and Flavia Hodges. ''A Dictionary of First Names''. Oxford University Press, 2006
Appendix 8: Japanese Names
Retrieved from Google Books on April 1, 2012. , .
Very few names can serve either as surnames or as given names (for example Mayumi , Kaneko , Masuko , or Arata ). Therefore, to those familiar with Japanese names, which name is the surname and which is the given name is usually apparent, no matter which order the names are presented in. This thus makes it unlikely that the two names will be confused, for example, when writing in English while using the family name-given name naming order. However, due to the variety of pronunciations and differences in languages, some common surnames and given names may coincide when Romanized: e.g., (given name) and (surname). Although usually written in Kanji, Japanese names have distinct differences from Chinese names through the selection of characters in a name and pronunciation. A Japanese person can distinguish a Japanese name from a Chinese name by looking at it. Akie Tomozawa, author of "Japan's Hidden Bilinguals: The Languages of 'War Orphans' and Their Families After Repatriation From China," said that this was equivalent to how "Europeans can easily tell that the name 'Smith' is English and 'Schmidt' is German or 'Victor' is English or French and 'Vittorio' is Italian".


Characters

Japanese names are usually written in
kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic scripts ''hiragana'' and ''katakana''. The Japanese term ''kanji'' for the Chinese ch ...
(Chinese characters), although some names use
hiragana Also , is a Japanese language, Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with ''katakana'', ''kanji'' and in some cases Latin script. It is a phonetic lettering system. The word ''hiragana'' literally means "ordina ...
or even
katakana is a Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golde ...
, or a mixture of kanji and kana. While most "traditional" names use kunyomi, kun'yomi (native Japanese) kanji readings, a large number of given names and surnames use onyomi, on'yomi (Chinese-based) kanji readings as well. Many others use readings which are only used in names (nanori), such as the female name Nozomi (). The majority of surnames comprise one, two or three kanji characters. There are also a small number of four or five kanji surnames, such as Teshigawara (), Kutaragi () and Kadenokōji (), but these are extremely rare. The sound ''no,'' indicating possession (like the apostrophe in English), and corresponding to the character , is often included in names but not written as a separate character, as in the common name (''i-no-ue,'' well-(possessive)-top/above, top of the well), or historical figures such as Sen no Rikyū. Most personal names use one, two, or three kanji. Four-syllable given names are common, especially in eldest sons.Hakes, Molly. ''The Everything Conversational Japanese Book: Basic Instruction For Speaking This Fascinating Language In Any Setting''. Everything Books, 2004
122
Retrieved from Google Books on August 8, 2011. , .
As mentioned above, female given names often end in the syllable ''ko'', written with the kanji meaning "child" (), or ''mi'', written with the kanji meaning "beautiful" ().Hakes, Molly. ''The Everything Conversational Japanese Book: Basic Instruction For Speaking This Fascinating Language In Any Setting''. Everything Books, 2004
121
Retrieved from Google Books on August 8, 2011. , .
The usage of ''-ko'' () has changed significantly over the years: prior to the Meiji Restoration (1868), it was reserved for members of the imperial family. Following the restoration, it became popular and was overwhelmingly common in the Taishō period, Taishō and early Shōwa period, Shōwa era. The suffix ''-ko'' increased in popularity after the mid-20th century. Around the year 2006, due to the citizenry mimicking naming habits of popular entertainers, the suffix ''-ko'' was declining in popularity. At the same time, names of western origin, written in kana, were becoming increasingly popular for naming of girls. By 2004 there was a trend of using hiragana instead of kanji in naming girls. Molly Hakes, author of ''The Everything Conversational Japanese Book: Basic Instruction For Speaking This Fascinating Language In Any Setting'', said that this may have to do with using hiragana out of cultural pride, since hiragana is Japan's indigenous writing form, or out of not assigning a meaning to a girl's name so that others do not have a particular expectation of her. Names ending with ''-ko'' dropped significantly in popularity in the mid 1980s, but are still given, though much less than in the past. Male names occasionally end with the syllable ''ko'' as in ''Mako (actor), Mako'', but very rarely using the kanji (most often, if a male name ends in ''-ko'', it ends in ''-hiko'', using the kanji meaning "boy"). Common male name endings are ''-shi'' and ''-o''; names ending with ''-shi'' are often adjectives, e.g., ''Atsushi'' which might mean, for example, "(to be) faithful." In the past (before World War II), names written with katakana were common for women, but this trend seems to have lost favour. Hiragana names for women are not unusual. Kana names for boys, particularly those written in hiragana, have historically been very rare. This may be in part because the hiragana script is seen as feminine; in medieval Japan, women generally were not taught kanji and wrote exclusively in hiragana. Names cannot begin with the Syllabic consonant, syllable ''n'' (, ); this is in common with other proper Japanese words, though colloquial words may begin with , as in (''nmai'', variant of ''umai'', delicious). Some names end in ''n'': the male names Ken, Shin, and Jun are examples. The syllable ''n'' should not be confused with the consonant ''n'', which names ''can'' begin with; for example, the female name Naoko () or the male Naoya (). (The consonant ''n'' needs to be paired with a vowel to form a syllable). One large category of family names can be categorized as "''-tō''" names. The kanji , meaning ''wisteria'', has the on'yomi ''tō'' (or, with rendaku, ''dō''). Many Japanese people have surnames that include this kanji as the second character. This is because the Fujiwara clan () gave their samurai surnames (myōji) ending with the first character of their name, to denote their status in an era when commoners were not allowed surnames. Examples include Atō, Andō, Itō (name), Itō (although a different final kanji is also common), Udo (disambiguation), Udō, Eto, Etō, Endo (surname), Endō, Goto (name), Gotō, Jitō, Katō (surname), Katō, Kitō (surname), Kitō, Kudo (disambiguation), Kudō, Kondō, Saito (surname), Saitō, Satō, Shindō (surname), Shindō, Sudō, Naito (disambiguation), Naitō, Bitō, and Muto (disambiguation), Mutō. As already noted, some of the most common family names are in this list. Japanese family names usually include characters referring to places and geographic features.


Difficulty of reading names

A name written in kanji may have more than one common pronunciation, only one of which is correct for a given individual. For example, the surname written in kanji as may be read either ''Tōkairin'' or ''Shōji''. Conversely, any one name may have several possible written forms, and again, only one will be correct for a given individual. The character "" when used as a male given name may be used as the written form for "Hajime," "Hitoshi," "Ichi- / -ichi" "Kazu- / -kazu," and many others. The name "Hajime" may be written with any of the following: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , or . This many-to-many correspondence between names and the ways they are written is much more common with male given names than with surnames or female given names but can be observed in all these categories. The permutations of potential characters and sounds can become enormous, as some very overloaded sounds may be produced by over 500 distinct Kanji and some Kanji characters can stand for several dozen sounds. This can and does make the collation,
pronunciationPronunciation is the way in which a word or a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing s ...
, and romanization of a Japanese name a very difficult problem. For this reason, business cards often include the pronunciation of the name as furigana, and forms and documents often include spaces to write the reading of the name in kana (usually katakana). A few Japanese names, particularly family names, include Kyuujitai, archaic versions of characters. For example, the very common character ''shima'', island, may be written as or instead of the usual . Some names also feature very uncommon
kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic scripts ''hiragana'' and ''katakana''. The Japanese term ''kanji'' for the Chinese ch ...
, or even jinmeiyō kanji, kanji which no longer exist in modern Japanese. Japanese people who have such names are likely to compromise by substituting similar or simplified characters. This may be difficult for input of kanji in computers, as many kanji databases on computers only include common and regularly used kanji, and many archaic or mostly unused characters are not included. An odd problem occurs when an elderly person forgets how to write their name in old Kanji that is no longer used. An example of such a name is Saito (surname), Saitō. There are two common kanji for ''sai'' here. The two ''sai'' characters have different meanings: means "together" or "parallel", but means "to purify". These names can also exist written in archaic forms, as and respectively. Family names are sometimes written with periphrastic readings, called jukujikun, in which the written characters relate indirectly to the name as spoken. For example, would normally be read as ''shigatsu tsuitachi'' ("April 1st"), but as a family name it is read ''watanuki'' ("unpadded clothes"), because April 1 is the traditional date to switch from winter to summer clothes. In the same way would normally be read as ''kotori asobi'' ("little birds play") or ''shōchōyū'', but is read ''Takanashi'', because little birds (''kotori'') play (''asobi'') where there are no (''nashi'') hawks (''taka''). Most Japanese people and agencies have adopted customs to deal with these issues. Address books, for instance, often contain furigana or ruby characters to clarify the pronunciation of the name. Japanese nationals are also required to give a romanized name for their passport. The recent use of katakana in Japanese media when referring to Japanese celebrities who have gained international fame has started a fad among young socialites who attempt to invoke a cosmopolitan flair using katakana names as a badge of honor. All of these complications are also found in Japanese place names. Not all names are complicated. Some common names are summarized by the phrase ''tanakamura'' ("the village in the middle of the rice fields"): the three kanji: (''ta'', rice field), (''naka'', middle) and (''mura'', village), together in any pair, form a simple, reasonably common surname: Tanaka, Nakamura (surname), Nakamura, Murata (surname), Murata, Nakata (disambiguation), Nakata (Nakada), Muranaka, Tamura (surname), Tamura. Despite these difficulties, there are enough patterns and recurring names that most native Japanese will be able to read virtually all family names they encounter and the majority of personal names. Some common interesting names with phonetic puns include Michio Kaku, which could mean "Draw a path" or "Lead the way", and Tsutomu Hata, which can mean "Work for the flag (nation)", but the Kanji used to write them obscure these meanings.


Regulations

Kanji names in Japan are governed by the Japanese Ministry of Justice's rules on kanji use in names. , only the 843 "name kanji" (jinmeiyō kanji) and 2,136 "commonly used characters" (jōyō kanji) are permitted for use in personal names. This is intended to ensure that names can be readily written and read by those literate in Japanese. Rules also govern names considered to be inappropriate; for example, in 1993 two parents who tried to name their child Akuma (, which literally means "devil") were prohibited from doing so after a massive public outcry. Though there are regulations on the naming of children, many archaic characters can still be found in adults' names, particularly those born prior to the Second World War. Because the legal restrictions on use of such
kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic scripts ''hiragana'' and ''katakana''. The Japanese term ''kanji'' for the Chinese ch ...
cause inconvenience for those with such names and promote a proliferation of identical names, many recent changes have been made to increase rather than to reduce the number of
kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic scripts ''hiragana'' and ''katakana''. The Japanese term ''kanji'' for the Chinese ch ...
allowed for use in names. The Sapporo High Court held that it was unlawful for the government to deny registration of a child's name because it contained a kanji character that was relatively common but not included in the official list of name characters compiled by the Ministry of Justice. Subsequently, the Japanese government promulgated plans to increase the number of kanji "permitted" in names. The use of a space in given names (to separate first and middle names) is not allowed in official documents, because technically, a space is not an allowed character. However, spaces are sometimes used on business cards and in correspondence.


Customs

Until the Meiji Restoration, Japanese common people (people other than kuge and samurai) had no surnames, and when necessary, used a substitute such as the name of their birthplace. For example, Ichirō born in Asahi-mura (Asahi village) in the province of Musashi Province, Musashi would say "Ichirō from Asahi-mura of Musashi". Merchants were named after their stores or brands (for example, Denbei, the owner of Sagamiya, would be Sagamiya Denbei), and farmers were patronymic, named after their fathers (for example, Isuke, whose father was Genbei, would be "Isuke, son of Genbei"). After the Meiji Restoration, the government ordered all commoners to assume surnames in addition to their given names, as part of modernization and Westernization; this was specified in the Family Register Law of 1898. Many people adopted historical names, others simply made names up, chose names through divination, or had a Shinto or Buddhist priest choose a surname for them. This explains, in part, the large number of surnames in Japan, as well as their great diversity of spelling and pronunciation, and makes tracing ancestry past a certain point extremely difficult in Japan. During the period when typical parents had several children, it was a common practice to name sons by numbers suffixed with ''rō'' (, "son"). The first son would be known as "Ichirō", the second as "Jirō", and so on. Girls were often named with ''ko'' (, "child") at the end of the given name; this should not be confused with the less common male suffix ''hiko'' (). Both practices have become less common, although many children still have names along these lines. While some people may still believe this, Lafcadio Hearn (see below), in ''Shadowings'', makes it clear that at least in his time (1880 to 1905, the date of publication), the ending ''-ko'' () was not any part of the name, but an honorific suffix like ''-san''. Particularly, even though the symbol was "child", it meant "Lady" and was used only by upper-class females. It would have been ridiculous to apply to middle-class or lower-class women. Pretty much the same names were used by all classes, but Hana-ko was upper class, while lesser women would be O-Hana-san, with honorific prefix as well as suffix.


Speaking to and of others

The way in which a name is used in conversation depends on the circumstances and the speaker's relationships with the listener and the bearer of the name. Typically the family name is used, with given names largely restricted to informal situations and cases where the speaker is older than, superior to, or very familiar with the named individual. When addressing someone, or referring to a member of one's Uchi-soto, out-group, a title such as ''-san'' is typically added. Japanese people often avoid referring to their seniors or superiors by name at all, using just a title: within a family this might be a kinship relation such as ''okāsan'' ("mother"), in a school it could be ''sensei'' ("teacher"), while a company president would be addressed as ''shachō'' ("company president"). On the other hand, pronominals meaning "you" ( ''anata'', ''kimi'', ''omae'' ) are used rather little in Japanese. Using such words sometimes sounds disrespectful, and people will commonly address each other by name, title and honorific even in face-to-face conversations. Calling someone's name (family name) without any title or honorific is called ''yobisute'' (), and may be considered rude even in the most informal and friendly occasions. This faux pas, however, is readily excused for foreigners.


Nicknames

Corresponding to any given name there are one or more hypocoristics, affectionate nicknames. These are formed by adding the suffix -chan to a stem. There are two types of stem. One consists of the full given name. Examples of this type are ''Tarō-chan'' from ''Tarō'', ''Kimiko-chan'' from ''Kimiko'', and ''Yasunari-chan'' from ''Yasunari''. The other type of stem is a modified stem derived from the full given name. Examples of such names are: ''Ta-chan'' from ''Tarō'', ''Kii-chan'' from ''Kimiko'', and ''Yā-chan'' from ''Yasunari''. Hypocoristics with modified stems are more intimate than those based on the full given name. Hypocoristics with modified stems are derived by adding -chan to a stem consisting of an integral number, usually one but occasionally two, of Foot (prosody), feet, where a foot consists of two Mora (linguistics), moras. A mora is the unit of which a light syllable contains one and a heavy syllable two. For example, the stems that may be derived from ''Tarō'' are /taro/, consisting of two light syllables, and /taa/, consisting of a single syllable with a long vowel, resulting in ''Taro-chan'' and ''Tā-chan''. The stems that may be derived from ''Hanako'' are /hana/, with two light syllables, /han/, with one syllable closed by a consonant, and /haa/, with one syllable with a long vowel, resulting in ''Hanachan'', ''Hanchan'', and ''Hāchan''. The segmental content is usually a left substring of that of the given name. However, in some cases it is obtained by other means, including the use of another reading of the
kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic scripts ''hiragana'' and ''katakana''. The Japanese term ''kanji'' for the Chinese ch ...
used to write the name. For example, a girl named ''Megumi'' may be called ''Keichan'' or just ''Kei'', because the character used to write the ''Megumi'', , can also be read ''Kei''. The common Japanese practice of forming abbreviations by concatenating the first two Mora (linguistics), morae of two words is sometimes applied to names (usually those of celebrities). For example, , a famous Japanese actor and singer, becomes . This is sometimes applied even to non-Japanese celebrities: Brad Pitt, whose full name in Japanese is is commonly known as , and Jimi Hendrix is abbreviated as . Some tarento, Japanese celebrities have also taken names combining kanji and katakana, such as . Another slightly less common method is doubling one or two syllables of the person's name, such as the use of "MamiMami" for Mamiko Noto.


Names from other ethnic groups in Japan

Many ethnic minorities, mostly Korean and Chinese, living in Japan adopt Japanese names. The roots of this custom go back to the colonial-era policy of sōshi-kaimei, which forced Koreans to change their names to Japanese names. Nowadays, ethnic minorities, mostly Korean, who immigrated to Japan after WWII, take on Japanese names, sometimes called ''pass names'', to ease communication and, more importantly, to avoid Ethnic issues in Japan, discrimination. A few of them (e.g., Han Chang-Woo, founder and chairman of Maruhan Corp., pronounced ''Kan Shōyū'' in Japanese) still keep their native names. Sometimes, however, these ethnic Chinese people in Japan, Chinese and Zainichi Korean, Koreans in Japan who choose to renounce Permanent Resident status to apply for Japanese citizenship have to change the characters in their names, because not all characters are legally recognized in Japan for naming purposes. Japanese citizenship used to require adoption of a Japanese name. In recent decades, the government has allowed individuals to simply adopt katakana versions of their native names when applying for citizenship, as is already done when referring to non-East Asian foreigners: National Diet of Japan, National Diet member Marutei Tsurunen, Tsurunen Marutei (), originally ''Martti Turunen'', who is Finnish people, Finnish, is a famous example. Others transliterate their names into phonetically similar kanji compounds, such as activist Arudou Debito (), an American-Japanese known as ''David Aldwinckle'' before taking Japanese citizenship. (Tsurunen has similarly adopted 弦念 丸呈.) Still others have abandoned their native names entirely in favor of Yamato people, Yamato names, such as Lafcadio Hearn (who was half Anglo-Irish and half Greek people, Greek), who used the name "Koizumi Yakumo" (). At the time, to gain Japanese citizenship, it was necessary to be adopted by a Japanese family (in Hearn's case, it was his wife's family) and take their name. Individuals born overseas with Western given names and Japanese surnames are usually given a katakana name in Western order when referred to in Japanese. Eric Shinseki, for instance, is referred to as (Erikku Shinseki). However, sometimes Japanese parents decide to use Japanese order when mentioning the child's name in Japanese. Also, Japanese parents tend to give their children a name in kanji, hiragana or katakana, particularly if it is a Japanese name. Even individuals born in Japan, with a Japanese name, might be referred to using katakana, if they've established residency or a career overseas. Yoko Ono, for example, was born in Japan, with the name , and spent the first twenty years of her life there. However, having lived outside the country for more than fifty years, and basing her career in the United States, Ono is often referred to in the press as , preserving the Japanese order of her name (Ono Yōko), but rendering it in katakana. Japan's Christians traditionally have Christian names in addition to their native Japanese names. These Christian names are written using katakana, and are adapted to Japanese phonology from their Portuguese (language), Portuguese or Latin forms rather than being borrowed from English. Peter, for example, is ''Petoro'' (), John is ''Yohane'' (), Jacob is ''Yakobu'' (), Martin is ''Maruchino'' (), Dominic is ''Dominiko'' (), and so on. For most purposes in real life, the Christian names aren't used; for example, Taro Aso has a Christian name, Francis ( ''Furanshisuko''), which is not nearly as well-known. 16th century ''kirishitan'' ''daimyō'' Dom Justo Takayama, on the other hand, is far more well known by his Christian name Justo () than his birth name, Hikogorō Shigetomo.


Imperial names

The Emperor of Japan, Japanese emperor and his families have no surname for historical reasons, only a given name such as Hirohito (), which is almost universally avoided in Japan: Japanese prefer to say "the Emperor" or "the Crown Prince", out of respect and as a measure of politeness. When children are born into the Imperial family, they receive a standard given name, as well as a special title. For instance, the Emperor emeritus Akihito was born ''Tsugu-no-miya Akihito'' (), his title being Tsugu-no-miya ( "Prince Tsugu"), and was referred to as "Prince Tsugu" during his childhood. This title is generally used until the individual becomes heir to the throne or inherits one of the historical princely family names ( ''Hitachi-no-miya'', ''Mikasa-no-miya'', ''Akishino-no-miya'', etc.). When a member of the Imperial family becomes a noble or a commoner, the emperor gives him or her a family name. In medieval era, a family name "Minamoto clan, Minamoto" was often used. In modern era, princely family names are used. For example, many members of the extended Imperial family became commoners after World War II, and adopted their princely family names, minus the honorific "no-miya" ( "Prince"), as regular surnames. Conversely, at the time that a noble or a commoner become a member of the Imperial family, such as through marriage, his or her family name is lost. An example is Empress Michiko, whose name was Michiko Shōda before she married prince Akihito.


Historical names

The current structure (''family name'' + ''given name'') did not materialize until the 1870s when the government made the new family registration system. In feudal Japan, names reflected a person's social status, as well as their affiliation with Buddhist, Shintō, feudatory-military, Confucian-scholarly, mercantile, peasant, slave and imperial orders. Before feudal times, Japanese clan names figured prominently in history: names with ''no'' fall into this category. The Japanese Grammatical particle, particle ''no'' can be translated ''of'' and is similar in usage to the aristocratic ''von'' in German although the association is in the opposite order in Japanese, and is not generally explicitly written in this style of name. Thus, Minamoto no Yoritomo () was Yoritomo () of the Minamoto () clan. Fujiwara no Kamatari (), Ki no Tsurayuki (), and Taira no Kiyomori () are additional examples. These family names were recorded in the Shinsen Shōjiroku. The Ryukyuan people, Ryukyuan ruling class used names composed of Chinese characters, usually of one or two syllables and read in their Ryukyuan languages, own languages, like Korean and Chinese names. Before the government formalized the naming system in 1868, Japanese personal names were fluid. Men changed their names for a variety of reasons: to signify that they had attained a higher social status, to demonstrate their allegiance to a house or clan, to show that they had succeeded to the headship of a family or company, to shed bad luck that was attached to an inauspicious name, or simply to avoid being mistaken for a neighbor with a similar name.Plutschow, Herbert E. ''Japan's Name Culture: The Significance of Names in a Religious, Political and Social Context''. Psychology Press, 1995. Upper-class men often changed their names upon coming of age (genpuku), leaving behind their childhood name (which often ended with -maru) and taking on an adult name. When nobles and samurai received promotions in rank, they received new names, which might contain a syllable or character from their lord's name as a mark of favor. Changes in women's personal names were recorded less often, so they may not have changed their names as frequently as men did, but women who went into service as maids or entertainers frequently changed their names for the duration of their service. During their employment, their temporary names were treated as their legal names. For example, a maid who was involved in legal dealings in Kyoto in 1819-1831 signed legal documents as Sayo during one period of employment and as Mitsu during a later period of employment, but she signed as Iwa, presumably her birth name, when she was between jobs. A Japanese person could go by one of several names, depending on the occasion. For example, the 18th-century author, poet, and artist Iwase Samuru wrote under the name Santō Kyōden and worked as an illustrator under the name Kitao Masanobu. Artists and authors adopted a new name for each medium or form they worked in, whether or not they worked professionally. Some types of artistic names (''gō'' []) were referred to by special terminology—for example, ''haigō'' or ''haimei'' for a haiku poet, and ''kagō'' for a Waka (poetry), Waka poet. Scholars also gave themselves scholarly names, often using the Chinese reading of the characters of their Japanese name. People who entered religious orders adopted religious names. Death added to the number of a person's names. When a person died, their personal name was referred to as an and was no longer used. Instead, the person was referred to by their . The personal names of Japanese emperors were also referred to as ''imina'', even if the emperor was alive. Prior to Emperor Jomei, the ''imina'' of the emperors were very long and not used. The number of characters in each name diminished after Jomei's reign. ''Azana'' (), which is given at genpuku (), is used by others and one himself uses his real name to refer to him. ''Gō'' are commonly named after places or houses; e.g., Bashō, as in the Haiku poet Matsuo Bashō (), is named after his house, ''Bashō-an'' (). In the late shogunate period, many anti-government activists used several false names to hide their activities from the shogunate. Examples are Saidani Umetarō () for Sakamoto Ryōma (), Niibori Matsusuke () for Kido Takayoshi () and Tani Umenosuke () for Takasugi Shinsaku (). The famous writer Kyokutei Bakin () is known to have had as many as 33 names.


Professional names

Actors and actresses in Western culture, Western and Japanese dramatic forms, comedians, sumo wrestlers, Puroresu, Western-style professional wrestlers, and practitioners of traditional crafts often use professional names. Many stage names of television and film actors and actresses are unremarkable, being just like ordinary Japanese personal names, but a few are tongue-in-cheek. For example, Kamatari Fujiwara () chose the name of the aforementioned founder of the Fujiwara family, while Hino Yojin, Hino Yōjin ()'s name sounds like ''be careful with fire'' (although written differently). Many stand-up comics like the duo Takeshi Kitano, Beat Takeshi and Beat Kiyoshi choose a Western name for the act and use their own (or stage) given names. Writers also tend to be clever about their names, for example Edogawa Ranpo which is designed to sound like "Edgar Allan Poe". Sumo wrestlers take wrestling names called ''shikona'' ( or ). While a shikona can be the wrestler's own surname, most upper-division rikishi have a shikona different from their surname. A typical shikona consists of two or three kanji, rarely just one or more than three. Often, part of the name comes from the wrestler's master, a place name (such as the name of a Provinces of Japan, province, a river, or a sea), the name of a weapon, an item identified with Japanese tradition (like a koto (musical instrument), koto or brocade, nishiki), or a term indicating superiority. Often, ''waka'' indicates a wrestler whose father was also in sumo; in this case, the meaning is ''junior''. Wrestlers can change their shikona, as Takahanada did when he became Takanohana () and then Takanohana Koji, Takanohana (). Another notable example is the wrestler Sentoryu, which means ''fighting war dragon'' but is also homophonous with St. Louis, Missouri, St. Louis, his city of origin. Geisha and practitioners of traditional crafts and arts such as pottery, the tea ceremony, calligraphy, irezumi (tattooing) and ikebana (flower arranging) often take professional names. In many cases, these come from the master under whom they studied. Kabuki actors take one of the traditional surnames such as Nakamura (), Bandō or Onoe. Some names are inherited on succession, such as that of the famous Kabuki actor Bandō Tamasaburō V ( ''Godaime Bandō Tamasaburō'') through a Shūmei, naming ceremony.


In English and other Western languages

In English, the names of living or recently deceased Japanese are generally given surname last and without macrons. Historical figures are given surname first and with macrons, if available. As of 2008, when using English and other Western languages, Japanese people usually give their names in an order reversed from the traditional Japanese naming order, with the family name after the given name, instead of the given name after the family name. Beginning in Meiji Era Japan, in many English language publications, the naming order of modern-day Japanese people was reversed into the family name last order.
" Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Retrieved on May 23, 2011. ""
The adoption of a Western naming order by Japanese people when writing or speaking in European languages, and when attending Western style or international events such as balls, formed part of the wider Meiji period adoption of aspects of Western culture in efforts to present Japan as a country as developed and advanced as its global neighbours.Saeki, Shizuka.
First Name Terms
" ''Look Japan''. June 2001. Volume 47, No. 543. p. 35.
Japanese people often have nicknames that are shortened forms of their actual names, and sometimes use these names with foreigners for ease of understanding. For instance, a man named "" may call himself "Kaz" in the presence of those for whom Japanese is not a first language. Some Japanese people living abroad also adopt nicknames that they use with friends who are not Japanese. Most foreign publications reverse the names of modern Japanese people, and most Japanese people reverse their own names for materials or publications intended for foreign consumption; for example, a Japanese business executive or official usually has two business cards (), the first presenting their name in the Japanese order for Japanese people, and the second presenting their name in the Western order, intended for foreigners.Terry, Edith. ''How Asia Got Rich: Japan, China and the Asian Miracle''. M.E. Sharpe, 2002. , 9780765603562
632
In popular journalism publications, the Western order of naming is used. These practices stand in stark contrast to how English and generally Western names are treated in the Japanese language, where they are typically presented without reordering. In Russian, Russian names may be written with family name first and given name second, as well as the other way round, and this applies to Japanese names presented in Russian as well. In English, many historical figures are still referred to with the family name first. This is especially the case in scholarly works about Japan. Many scholarly works use the Japanese order with Japanese names in general, and a scholarly work is more likely to use Japanese order if the author specialises in subjects related to or about Japan. John Power, author of "Japanese names", wrote that "People who can speak and read Japanese have a strong resistance to switching Japanese names to the Western order." Books written by these authors often have notes stating that Japanese names are in the original order. Some books, however, do not have consistent naming order practices. of ''Look Japan'' said, "This is not only a headache for writers and translators, it is also a source of confusion for readers." Lynne E. Riggs of the Society of Writers, Editors and Translators (SWET), a professional writing organization headquartered in Tokyo, wrote that "When you publish a book about Japan, you are publishing it for people who want to know about Japan. So they are interested in learning something new or something as it is supposed to be." Edith Terry, author of ''How Asia Got Rich'', wrote that because Japanese people are "mastering" a "Western game", people have some pride and at the same time feel insecurity because the "game" is on "Western terms" rather than "Japanese terms." The standard presentation of Japanese names in English differs from the standard presentations of modern Chinese names and Korean names, which are usually not reversed to fit the Western order in English, except when the person is living or traveling abroad. Power wrote that the difference between the treatment of Japanese names and of Chinese and Korean names often results in confusion. Terry wrote, "it was one of the ironies of the late twentieth century that Japan remained stranded in the formal devices underlining its historical quest for equality with the West, while China set its own terms, in language as in big-power politics." wrote in 2001 that most Japanese people writing in English use the Western naming order, but that some figures had begun to promote the use of Japanese order as Japan became a major economic power in the 20th century. The ''Japan Style Sheet'', a 1998 guide for producing English language works about Japan written by SWET, advocates the use of the Japanese naming order as often as possible, in order to promote a consistency in naming order. In 1987, one publisher of English language textbooks in Japan used the Japanese order of naming, while in 2001 six of the eight publishers of English language textbooks in Japan used the Japanese order. In December 2000, the council on the National Language of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture recommended that English language productions begin using the Japanese naming order, as "it is in general desirable that personal names be presented and written in a way that preserves their unique forms, except for registries and other documents with specific standards." It recommended using capitalization () or commas () to clarify which part of the personal name is the family name and which part is the given name. In a January 2000 opinion poll from the Agency for Cultural Affairs on the preferred order of Japanese names in the English language, 34.9% had a preference for Japanese order, 30.6% had a preference for Western order, and 29.6% had no preference. In 1986, the Japan Foundation decided that it would use the Japanese naming order in all of its publications. A Japan Foundation publishing division spokesperson stated around 2001 that some SWET publications, including popular anglophone newspapers, continue to use the Western order. As of 2001, the agency's style sheet recommends using a different naming order style depending upon the context. For instance, it advocates using the Western order in publications for readers who are not familiar with Japan, such as international conference papers. The ''Chicago Manual of Style'' recommends indexing Japanese names according to the way the original text treats the name. If the text uses the Western order, the Japanese name is reinverted and indexed by the family name with a comma. If the text uses Japanese order, the name is listed by the family name with no inversion and no comma. On , Japanese Foreign Minister expressed his hope that foreign media would refer to then-Prime Minister in the Japanese custom: family name first (as ""). He added that he was currently planning to issue an official request to the international media in that respect. Some others in the government support moving to retaining the original order of names, in line with Chinese and Korean practice, in time for the several major global events the country will be host to during 2020, while others seem not to. On September 6, 2019, officials from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) announced that the ministry was to start using the traditional order for Japanese names in English in official documents. In 2020, ''The Economist'' announced plans to begin writing Japanese names in Japanese order based on a Japanese government decree that had been issued. NHK World-Japan began using Japanese names surname-first (with some exceptions) as early as March 29, 2020, but the new policy regarding name order was only announced early the next day.


In Chinese

In Chinese-speaking communities, Japanese names are pronounced according to the Chinese pronunciations of the characters. For example, in Standard Mandarin, (''Yamada Tarō'') becomes ''Shāntián Tàiláng'', while (''Hatoyama Yukio'') becomes ''Jiūshān Yóujìfū''. As a result, a Japanese person without adequate knowledge of Chinese would not understand their name when it is spoken in Chinese languages. Simply porting the kanji into Chinese and reading them as if they were Chinese is also different from the usual Chinese practice of approximating foreign names with similar-sounding Chinese characters. Sometimes, a Japanese name includes kokuji. These
kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanese syllabic scripts ''hiragana'' and ''katakana''. The Japanese term ''kanji'' for the Chinese ch ...
resemble Chinese characters but originate in Japan and do not have widely known Chinese pronunciations. For example, the word ''komu'' (, read as ''Yū'' in Chinese) is rarely used in modern Chinese reading. When words like this are encountered, usually the rule of "" ("Youbian dubian, read the side if any, read the middle part if there is no side") applies. Therefore, "" is read as "rù" which is derived from . Heng Ji, the author of "Improving Information Extraction and Translation Using Component Interactions", wrote that because Japanese names have "flexible" lengths, it may be difficult for someone to identify a Japanese name when reading a Chinese text. When consulting English texts a Chinese reader may have difficulty identifying a Japanese name; an example was when Chinese media mistook Obama's pet turkey ''Abe'' taken from Abe Lincoln (monosyllabic) for Shinzo Abe (disyllabic). One place where Japanese names may be transliterated into Chinese languages phonetically is in Japanese video games, anime and manga series. In May 2016, Nintendo sparked anger among fans in Hong Kong by announcing that its new ''Pokémon'' games, Pokémon Sun and Moon, ''Sun'' and ''Moon'', would use translations based upon Mandarin across all parts of China and Taiwan. As the variety of Chinese spoken in Hong Kong, Cantonese, has many phonological differences from Mandarin, this results in names of well-known characters such as Pikachu being rendered and pronounced much different from the original Japanese.


See also

* * *List of common Japanese surnames, List of most common Japanese family names *Onomastics *Amami name *Art-name *Japanese alias *Meishi *Okinawan family name *Chinese name *Korean name *Vietnamese name * *


Notes


References

* Power, John.
Japanese names
"
Archive
''The Indexer''. June 2008. Volume 26, Issue 2, p. C4-2-C4-8 (7 pages). . Accession number 502948569. Available on EBSCOHost. * Some materials taken from ''Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan'', article on "names"


Further reading

* Hoffman, Michael. "What's in a (Japanese) name?" ''Japan Times''. Sunday October 11, 2009. *
Which names are to be found where?
''Japan Times''. Sunday October 11, 2009. * Koop, Albert J., Hogitaro Inada. ''Japanese Names and How to Read Them'' 2005 Kegan Paul International Ltd. * Nichigai Associates, Inc. ( ''Nichigai Asoshiētsu Kabushiki Kaisha'') 1990. ''Nihon seimei yomifuri jiten'' ( "Dictionary of readings of Japanese names in Chinese characters"), vols. ''Sei-no bu'' (family names) and ''Mei-no bu'' (given names). Tokyo: Nichigai Associates. * O'Neill, P.G. ''Japanese Names'' 1972 Weatherhill Inc. * Plutschow, Herbert. ''Japan's Name Culture'' 1995 Routledge/Curzon * Poser, William J. (1990) "Evidence for Foot Structure in Japanese," ''Language'' 66.1.78-105. (Describes hypochoristic formation and some other types of derived names.) * Throndardottir, Solveig. ''Name Construction in Medieval Japan'' 200
Potboiler Press
* Society of Writers, Editors and Translators. ''Japan Style Sheet'' 1998 Stone Bridge Press


External links



o



Japanese names in Kanji and Hiragana.



surnames of Japan, Shizuoka prefecture, Okinawa prefecture and Germany.

Japanese names in Kanji and Hiragana.
("Museum of surnames)"
statistics of Japanese surnames.
Japanese Given Names
* Popula

1994 to 2003.

Namiko Abe, 2005
WWWJDIC
online dictionary with over 400,000 Japanese names.
How to read Japanese Names

Japanese Names Dictionary
{{Names_in_world cultures Japanese names, Names by culture