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The JAPANESE BUDDHIST PANTHEON designates the multitude (the Pantheon ) of various Buddhas , Bodhisattvas and lesser deities and eminent religious masters in Buddhism
Buddhism
. A Buddhist Pantheon exists to a certain extent in Mahāyāna , but is especially characteristic of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
, including Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
and especially Japanese Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism
Buddhism
, which formalized it to a great extent. In the ancient Japanese Buddhist Pantheon, more than 3,000 Buddhas or deities have been counted, although nowadays most temples focus on one Buddha and a few Bodhisattvas.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Hierarchical structure of the Buddhist pantheon

* 2.1 Level 1: Buddhas (Nyorai-bu)

* 2.1.1 Five Wisdom Buddha

* 2.2 Level 2: Bodhisattvas (Bosatsu-bu)

* 2.3 Level 3: Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
(Myōō-bu)

* 2.3.1 Five Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
* 2.3.2 Other Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings

* 2.4 Level 4: Heavenly deities (Ten-bu) * 2.5 Level 5: Circumstantial appearances (Suijakushin) * 2.6 Level 6: Religious
Religious
masters (Kōsō・Soshi)

* 3 Eight Legions (Japanese: 八部衆, Hachi Bushū) * 4 Notes

HISTORY

A Japanese mandala of the Five Dhyani Buddhas, and other Bodhisattvas , surrounding the central Buddha Mahavairocana .

Early , pre-sectarian Buddhism
Buddhism
had a somewhat vague position on the existence and effect of deities. Indeed, Buddhism
Buddhism
is often considered atheistic on account of its denial of a creator god and human responsibility to it. However, nearly all modern Buddhist schools accept the existence of gods of some kind; the main point of divergence is on the influence of these gods. Of the major schools, Theravada
Theravada
tends to de-emphasize the gods, whereas Mahayana
Mahayana
and Vajrayana
Vajrayana
do not.

The rich Buddhist Pantheon of northern Buddhism
Buddhism
ultimately derives from Vajrayana
Vajrayana
and Tantrism
Tantrism
. The historical devotional roots of pantheistic Buddhism
Buddhism
seem to go back to the period of the Kushan Empire . The first proper mention of a Buddhist Pantheon appears in the 3-4th century Guhyasamāja
Guhyasamāja
, in which five Buddhas are mentioned, the emanations of which constitute a family:

The five Kulas are Dvesa, Moha, Rāga, Cintāmani, and Samaya, which conduce to the attainment of all desires and emancipation — Guhyasamāja.

By the 9th century under the Pala king Dharmapala , the Buddhist Pantheon had already swelled to about 1,000 Buddhas. In Japan, Kūkai introduced Shingon
Shingon
Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
and its Buddhist Pantheon, also in the 9th century.

HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE OF THE BUDDHIST PANTHEON

The Buddhist Pantheon in Japanese Buddhism
Buddhism
is defined by a hierarchy in which the Buddhas occupy the topmost category, followed in order by the numerous Bodhisattvas, the Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
, the Deities, the "Circumstancial appearances" and lastly the patriarchs and eminent religious people.

LEVEL CATEGORY JAPANESE NOMENCLATURE

Level 1 Buddhas Nyorai-bu (如来部)

Level 2 Bodhisattvas Bosatsu-bu (菩薩部)

Level 3 Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
Myōō-bu (明王部)

Level 4 Heavenly deities Ten-bu (天部)

Level 5 Circumstantial appearances Gongen (権現)

Level 6 Religious
Religious
masters Kōsō - Soshi (高僧・祖師)

A famous statue group, the mandala located at Tō-ji
Tō-ji
temple in Kyōto , shows some of the main elements and structure of the Buddhist Pantheon. The mandala was made in the 9th century and offered to Kūkai
Kūkai
. A duplicate was brought to Paris
Paris
, France
France
, by Emile Guimet at the end of the 19th century, and is now located in the Musée Guimet .

Japanese Buddhism
Buddhism
incorporated numerous Shintō deities in its pantheon and reciprocally. Japanese Shingon
Shingon
also has other categories, such as the Thirteen Buddhas . Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
however clearly rejected the strong polytheistic conceptions of orthodox Buddhism.

LEVEL 1: BUDDHAS (NYORAI-BU)

Hōshō Nyorai / Ratnasambhava Buddha.

Five Wisdom Buddha

Main articles: Nyorai and Five Wisdom Buddhas

The five Wisdom Buddhas (五仏) are centered around Vairocana (Japanese: Dainichi Nyorai, 大日如来), the supreme Buddha. Each of the four remaining Buddhas occupies a fixed cardinal point . Each of them is a manifestation of Buddhahood, and each is active in a different world-period, in which they manifest themselves among Bodhisattvas and humans. The five Wisdom Buddhas, guarded by four Great Diamond Bodhisattvas at the corners. The Buddha at the front is at the South and is Ratnasambhava .

Fukūjōju Nyorai

(north)

Amida Nyorai

(west) Dainichi Nyorai

(principal deity) Ashuku Nyorai

(east)

Hōshō Nyorai

(south)

These " Dhyani Buddhas " form the core of the Buddhist pantheistic system, which developed from them in a multiform way. At the Musée Guimet, the five Buddhas are surrounded by protective Bodhisattvas. There is also a multitude of other Buddhas, such as Yakushi , the Buddha of medicine.

LEVEL 2: BODHISATTVAS (BOSATSU-BU)

Main article: Bodhisattvas Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Kongō-Haramitsu / Vajraparamita .

Bodhisattvas are personages who are on the point of entering Buddhahood
Buddhahood
but postpone doing so in order to help other beings attain enlightenment. Bodhisattvas are paragons of compassion in Mahayana Buddhism. In the Buddhist Pantheon, besides the past and future Buddhas, there are numerous Bodhisattvas as well.

Sometimes, five main "Matrix" Bodhisattvas are determined (五大菩薩), grouped around a central Bodhisattva, Kongō-Haramitsu (金剛波羅蜜菩薩) in the case of Tōji Temple. Five Matrix Bodhisattvas, guarded front right by Heavenly King Jikoku , and back right Heavenly King Tamon . Musée Guimet
Musée Guimet
.

Miroku

(north)

Kannon

(west) Kongō-Haramitsu

(principal deity) Fugen

(east)

Monju

(south)

Beyond these five main Bodhisattvas , there exists a huge number of other Bodhisattvas, all beings who have postponed enlightenment for the benefit of helping mankind.

*

Kongōhō Bosatsu/ Vajraratsa . *

Daizuigu . *

Jizō . *

Kokūzō . *

Seishi .

LEVEL 3: WISDOM KINGS (MYōō-BU)

Main article: Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
The Wisdom King
Wisdom King
Gundari
Gundari
is a manifestation of one of the Five Buddhas, Ratnasambhava / Hōshō Nyorai .

The Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
(Vidyârâjas) were initially divinities of Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
but were then later adopted by Japanese Buddhism
Buddhism
as a whole. These Gods are equipped with superior knowledge and power that give them influence on internal and external reality. These Kings became the object of personification, either peaceful in the case of female personifications, and wrathful in the case of male personifications. Their aggressivity expresses their will to get rid of negative forces in devotees and in the world. They are therefore an expression of the Buddha's compassion for all beings.

Five Wisdom Kings

Main article: Five Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
Five Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
. Front left is a protective deity: the Heavenly King Zōchō , and back left another one: Heavenly King Kōmoku .

The Five Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
(五大明王) are emanations of the Buddhas and protect them. They are usually represented as violent beings. They represent the ambivalent in nature, and seem to derive from ancient Yaksa and Brahmanical tradition.

Kongō-Yasha

(north)

Daiitoku

(west) Fudō-Myō

(principal deity) Gosanze

(east)

Gundari
Gundari

(south)

Beyond the five principal kings, numerous other Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
exist with a great variety of roles.

Other Wisdom Kings

Many more Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
also exist with numerous functions. In general, the Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
are viewed as the guardians of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.

*

Ususama . *

Hayagriva
Hayagriva
. *

Mahamayuri .

LEVEL 4: HEAVENLY DEITIES (TEN-BU)

Main article: Deva (Buddhism)
Deva (Buddhism)
The Heavenly King Jikoku (持国天).

Gods, although benefiting from an exceptional longevity, nevertheless are submitted to the cycle of rebirths, and remain outside of the world of enlightenment and Nirvana
Nirvana
. They are aiming to reach Nirvana eventually, however, and therefore endeavour to help Buddhism
Buddhism
and its devotees. According to Buddhist cosmology, adopted from Indian cosmology, the deities live in the Three Worlds and are positioned hierarchically according to their position in respect to the cosmic axis of Mount Sumeru . High above the mountain resides Brahma
Brahma
, on the summit reside the Thirty Three Gods with Indra
Indra
as their king, at half-height reside the God Kings of the Orient, and at the bottom inferior deities. Numerous deities are included in the Buddhist pantheon.

The term Ten (天) is the equivalent of the Indian Deva and designated the higher divinities from the Four Heavenly Kings up. The term Jin (神) designated lower-level deities.

The Four Heavenly Kings are an important part of these deities.

*

The Heavenly King Zōchō . *

Bonten (梵天)/ Brahma
Brahma
. *

King Nanda
Nanda
, one of the Hachi Dairyūō (八大竜王)/ Nagaraja .

*

Marishi-Ten (摩利支天)/ Marici. *

Ugajin (宇賀神), masculine form. *

Ugajin (宇賀神), feminine form.

Incomplete list of Mikkyō
Mikkyō
devas originated from Hindu deities
Hindu deities
:

* Kangiten (歓喜天) / Ganesha
Ganesha
* Taishakuten (帝釈天) / Indra
Indra
* Benzaiten
Benzaiten
(弁財天) / Saraswati
Saraswati
* Kisshōten (吉祥天) / Lakshmi
Lakshmi
* Bichūten (毘紐天) / Vishnu
Vishnu
* Daikokuten
Daikokuten
(大黒天) / Mahakala * Daijizaiten (大自在天) / Mahesvara * Umahi (烏摩妃) / Uma * Katen (火天) / Agni
Agni
* Jiten (地天) / Prthivi * Nitten (日天) / Surya
Surya
* Gatten (月天) / Chandra
Chandra
* Suiten (水天) / Varuna
Varuna
* Fūten (風天) / Vayu
Vayu
* Kumaraten (鳩摩羅天) / Kumara * Naraenten (那羅延天) / Narayana
Narayana
* Rago (羅睺) / Rahu * Izanaten (伊舎那天) / Ishana * Enma (閻魔) / Yama
Yama

LEVEL 5: CIRCUMSTANTIAL APPEARANCES (SUIJAKUSHIN)

Main articles: List of Japanese deities , Shintō , Gongen , and Shinbutsu shūgō
Shinbutsu shūgō

Although divinities are considered to be subjects to the law of impermanence, Buddhism
Buddhism
nevertheless considers that men should place themselves under their protection. When Buddhism
Buddhism
entered Japan
Japan
in the 6th century numerous Shintō divinities (kami ) were also present in the Japanese islands, although they had no iconography . The shuijakushin category is specific to Japan
Japan
and provides for the incorporation into Buddhism
Buddhism
of these Shintō kami.

The Buddhist term " Gongen " 権現 or " Avatar
Avatar
" (meaning the capability of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas to change their appearance to that of a Japanese kami to facilitate conversion of the Japanese) thus came into use in relation to these gods. Shintō deities came to be considered as local appearances in disguise of foreign Buddhas and Bodhisattvas (suijakushin (垂迹神, circumstantial appearance gods)). Thus numerous Shinto
Shinto
figures have been absorbed as Buddhist deities. This was also sometimes reciprocal, as in the case of Buddhist Benzaiten
Benzaiten
and Shinto
Shinto
kami Ugajin .

This syncretism was officially abolished by the establishment of the Meiji Emperor in 1868 with the Shinto
Shinto
and Buddhism
Buddhism
Separation Order (神仏分離令, also 神仏混淆禁止 Shinbutsu Konkō Kinshi).

*

Circumstantial appearances of Mount Atago
Mount Atago
(愛宕権現), in the shape of General Jizō . *

Kompira Daigongen (金毘羅大権現), divinity of the Inland Sea and ships. *

Sambō Kōjin (三宝荒神), the Fire Divinity. Uses the power of fire for the Buddhist cause. *

Zaō Gongen (蔵王権現), circumstantial appearance of Mount Yoshino .

LEVEL 6: RELIGIOUS MASTERS (KōSō・SOSHI)

"Daruma Daishi" Bodhidharma , the founder of Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
.

Buddhism
Buddhism
has also created an iconography for the saint men who assisted to its diffusion. These are historical beings, although some legendary elements can be attached to them. Some, such as Kōbō-Daishi , the founder of Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism
Buddhism
, are the subject of a devotion equivalent to that of the Buddhas or Bodhisattvas. Some have also acquired the qualities of protective spirits, such as Battabara protector of the baths, or Fudaishi , protector of monastical libraries. The list of these religious masters consists of men from the "Three Countries" where Buddhism
Buddhism
was born and then prospered along the Silk Road
Silk Road
: India
India
, China
China
, Japan
Japan
. The Sixteen Arhats
Sixteen Arhats
, saint men who were predecessors or disciples of the Buddha, are also part of this category.

*

Prince Shōtoku . *

Master Kōbō Daishi founder of Shingon
Shingon
Buddhism. *

Ingada sonja
Ingada sonja
, one of the Sixteen Arhats
Sixteen Arhats
. *

Battabara sonja , 跋陀婆羅尊者, protector of the baths. *

Fudaishi , 傅大士, an originator of Tendai
Tendai
and Zen
Zen
, also invented rotating libraries for prayers. *

Nichiren
Nichiren
Shōnin , 日蓮聖人, founder of the Nichiren Buddhism .

EIGHT LEGIONS (JAPANESE : 八部衆, HACHI BUSHū)

* Tenbu (Japanese : 天部) / Deva * Ryū (Japanese : 龍) / Naga * Yasha (Japanese : 夜叉) / Yaksha
Yaksha
* Kendatsuba (Japanese : 乾闥婆) / Gandharva
Gandharva
* Ashura (Japanese : 阿修羅) / Asura * Karura (Japanese : 迦楼羅) / Garuda * Kinnara (Japanese : 緊那羅) / Kinnara * Magoraka (Japanese : 摩睺羅伽) / Mahoraga

NOTES

* ^ Religion of the Samurai Kaiten Nukariya p.87 * ^ An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism Benoytosh Bhattacharyya p.120 * ^ A B C Buddhist art & antiquities of Himachal Pradesh, up to 8th century A.D. Omacanda Hāṇḍā p.82 * ^ A B An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism Benoytosh Bhattacharyya p.121 * ^ Buddhist art & antiquities of Himachal Pradesh, up to 8th century A.D. Omacanda Hāṇḍā p.83 * ^ The body: toward an Eastern mind-body theory Yasuo Yuasa, Thomas P. Kasulis p.125 * ^ Notice at Musée Guimet
Musée Guimet
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J Musée Guimet
Musée Guimet
exhibit * ^ A B Sources of Japanese tradition William Theodore De Bary, p.338 * ^ Religion of the Samurai Kaiten Nukariya p.88 * ^ Religion in Nepal by K. R. van Kooij p.22 * ^ The Hero with a Thousand Faces Joseph Campbell p.129 * ^ Tantric Buddhism
Buddhism
and altered states of consciousness Louise Child p.109 * ^ Ishii, Ayako, ed. (2008). Butsuzō no Mikata Handobukku (in Japanese). Tokyo
Tokyo
: Ikeda Shoten. p. 120. ISBN 978-4-262-15695-8 . * ^ http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/hachi-bushu.shtml#karura

* v * t * e

Japanese Buddhist pantheon
Japanese Buddhist pantheon

Buddhas (Nyorai-bu)

* Vairocana
Vairocana
(Dainichi Nyorai) * Amoghasiddhi
Amoghasiddhi
(Fukujoju Nyorai) * Amitābha
Amitābha
(Amida Nyorai) * Akshobhya
Akshobhya
(Ashuku Nyorai) * Ratnasambhava (Hossho Nyorai) * Shakyamuni (Shaka Nyorai) * Bhaisajyaguru (Yakushi Nyorai)

Bodhisattvas (Bosatsu-bu)

* Vajraparamita (Kongō-Haramitsu) * Vajrasattva (Kongosatta) * Maitreya
Maitreya
(Miroku) * Avalokitesvara (Kannon) * Samantabhadra (Fugen) * Manjusri (Monju) * Mahapratisara (Daizuigu) * Kshitigarbha
Kshitigarbha
(Jizo) * Akasagarbha (Kokuzo) * Mahasthamaprapta (Seishi)

Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
(Myōō-bu)

* Five Wisdom Kings
Wisdom Kings
* Acala
Acala
(Fudo-Myoo) * Rāgarāja (Aizen-Myoo) * Ucchusma (Ususama) * Hayagriva
Hayagriva
(Bato Kannon) * Mahamayuri (Kujaku-Myoo) * Yamantaka (Daiitoku)

Heavenly deities (Ten-bu)

* Shitennō * Marici (Marishi-ten) * Mahākāla ( Daikokuten
Daikokuten
) * Saraswati
Saraswati
( Benzaiten
Benzaiten
) * Brahma
Brahma
(Bonten) * Hotei * Jurōjin * Fukurokuju
Fukurokuju
* Vaisravana
Vaisravana
(Bishamonten) * Ebisu * Ugajin * Kangiten * Laxmi ( Kisshōten )

Circumstantial appearances (Suijakushin-bu)

* Izuna Gongen * Atago Gongen * Konpira Daigongen

Religious
Religious
masters (Kōsō・Soshi-bu)

* Bodhidharma * Prince Shōtoku * Kūkai
Kūkai
* Saichō
Saichō
* Eisai
Eisai
* Dōgen Kigen * Honen * Shinran * Nichiren
Nichiren
* Sixteen Arhats
Sixteen Arhats

* Zen
Zen
* Tendaishū * Pure Land * Vajrayana
Vajrayana
* Tantrism
Tantrism
* Shingon
Shingon
* Nichiren
Nichiren
* Japanese mythology

* v * t * e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

* Glossary * Index * Outline

FOUNDATIONS

* Three Jewels

* Buddha * Dharma
Dharma
* Sangha

* Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
* Noble Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path
* Nirvana
Nirvana
* Middle Way
Middle Way

THE BUDDHA

* Tathāgata
Tathāgata
* Birthday * Four sights
Four sights
* Physical characteristics * Footprint * Relics * Iconography
Iconography
in Laos and Thailand * Films * Miracles

* Family

* Suddhodāna (father) * Māyā (mother) * Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) * Yasodhara (wife) * Rāhula
Rāhula
(son) * Ānanda (cousin) * Devadatta (cousin)

* Places where the Buddha stayed * Buddha in world religions

KEY CONCEPTS

* Avidyā (Ignorance) * Bardo
Bardo
* Bodhicitta
Bodhicitta
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddha-nature * Dhamma theory * Dharma
Dharma
* Enlightenment * Five hindrances
Five hindrances
* Indriya * Karma * Kleshas * Mind Stream * Parinirvana * Pratītyasamutpāda
Pratītyasamutpāda
* Rebirth * Saṃsāra * Saṅkhāra * Skandha
Skandha
* Śūnyatā
Śūnyatā
* Taṇhā (Craving) * Tathātā
Tathātā
* Ten Fetters

* Three marks of existence
Three marks of existence

* Impermanence
Impermanence
* Dukkha
Dukkha
* Anatta
Anatta

* Two truths doctrine
Two truths doctrine

COSMOLOGY

* Ten spiritual realms

* Six realms
Six realms

* Heaven * Human realm * Asura realm * Hungry Ghost realm * Animal realm * Hell

* Three planes of existence

PRACTICES

* Bhavana * Bodhipakkhiyādhammā

* Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara

* Mettā * Karuṇā
Karuṇā
* Mudita * Upekkha

* Dāna
Dāna
* Devotion * Dhyāna * Faith * Five Strengths
Five Strengths
* Iddhipada

* Meditation

* Mantras * Kammaṭṭhāna * Recollection * Smarana * Anapanasati * Samatha * Vipassanā
Vipassanā
( Vipassana movement
Vipassana movement
) * Shikantaza * Zazen
Zazen
* Kōan
Kōan
* Mandala * Tonglen * Tantra
Tantra
* Tertön
Tertön
* Terma

* Merit

* Mindfulness

* Satipatthana

* Nekkhamma * Pāramitā * Paritta
Paritta

* Puja

* Offerings * Prostration * Chanting

* Refuge

* Satya
Satya

* Sacca

* Seven Factors of Enlightenment
Seven Factors of Enlightenment

* Sati * Dhamma vicaya
Dhamma vicaya
* Pīti
Pīti
* Passaddhi

* Śīla

* Five Precepts * Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow * Prātimokṣa

* Threefold Training

* Śīla * Samadhi
Samadhi
* Prajñā

* Vīrya

* Four Right Exertions

NIRVANA

* Bodhi
Bodhi
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddhahood
Buddhahood
* Pratyekabuddha
Pratyekabuddha

* Four stages of enlightenment

* Sotāpanna
Sotāpanna
* Sakadagami * Anāgāmi * Arhat

MONASTICISM

* Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
* Bhikkhuni
Bhikkhuni
* Śrāmaṇera * Śrāmaṇerī * Anagarika * Ajahn * Sayadaw * Zen
Zen
master * Rōshi * Lama
Lama
* Rinpoche * Geshe * Tulku
Tulku
* Householder * Upāsaka and Upāsikā

* Śrāvaka

* The ten principal disciples

* Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery

MAJOR FIGURES

* Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
* Kaundinya * Assaji
Assaji
* Sāriputta * Mahamoggallāna * Mulian * Ānanda * Mahākassapa * Anuruddha * Mahākaccana * Nanda
Nanda
* Subhuti
Subhuti
* Punna * Upali * Mahapajapati Gotamī * Khema
Khema
* Uppalavanna * Asita * Channa * Yasa * Buddhaghoṣa
Buddhaghoṣa
* Nagasena
Nagasena
* Angulimala
Angulimala
* Bodhidharma * Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
* Asanga
Asanga
* Vasubandhu * Atiśa
Atiśa
* Padmasambhava * Nichiren
Nichiren
* Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
* Emperor Wen of Sui
Emperor Wen of Sui
* Dalai Lama
Lama
* Panchen Lama
Lama
* Karmapa
Karmapa
* Shamarpa
Shamarpa
* Naropa
Naropa
* Xuanzang
Xuanzang
* Zhiyi
Zhiyi

TEXTS

* Tripiṭaka
Tripiṭaka
* Madhyamakālaṃkāra * Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras * Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
* Chinese Buddhist canon * Tibetan Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon

BRANCHES

* Theravada
Theravada

* Mahayana
Mahayana

* Chan Buddhism
Buddhism

* Zen
Zen
* Seon * Thiền

* Pure Land * Tiantai
Tiantai
* Nichiren
Nichiren
* Madhyamaka * Yogachara

* Navayana
Navayana

* Vajrayana
Vajrayana

* Tibetan * Shingon
Shingon
* Dzogchen
Dzogchen

* Early Buddhist schools * Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Buddhism
* Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

COUNTRIES

* Afghanistan * Bangladesh * Bhutan * Cambodia * China
China
* India
India
* Indonesia * Japan
Japan
* Korea * Laos * Malaysia * Maldives * Mongolia * Myanmar * Nepal * Pakistan * Philippines

* Russia

* Kalmykia * Buryatia

* Singapore * Sri Lanka * Taiwan * Thailand * Tibet * Vietnam

* Middle East

* Iran

* Western countries

* Argentina * Australia * Brazil * France
France
* United Kingdom * United States * Venezuela

HISTORY

* Timeline * Ashoka
Ashoka
* Buddhist councils
Buddhist councils

* History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India
India

* Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India
India

* Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
* Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
* Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world * Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West * Silk Road
Silk Road
transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
* Persecution of Buddhists * Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal * Buddhist crisis
Buddhist crisis
* Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism * Buddhist modernism
Buddhist modernism
* Vipassana movement
Vipassana movement
* 969 Movement
969 Movement
* Women in Buddhism
Buddhism

PHILOSOPHY

* Abhidharma
Abhidharma
* Atomism * Buddhology * Creator * Economics * Eight Consciousnesses
Eight Consciousnesses
* Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
* Eschatology * Ethics * Evolution * Humanism * Logic * Reality * Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
* Socialism * The unanswered questions

CULTURE

* Architecture

* Temple * Vihara
Vihara
* Wat
Wat
* Stupa * Pagoda
Pagoda
* Candi * Dzong architecture
Dzong architecture
* Japanese Buddhist architecture
Buddhist architecture
* Korean Buddhist temples * Thai temple art and architecture * Tibetan Buddhist architecture
Buddhist architecture

* Art

* Greco-Buddhist

* Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree * Budai
Budai
* Buddharupa
Buddharupa
* Calendar * Cuisine * Funeral

* Holidays

* Vesak
Vesak
* Uposatha * Magha Puja
Magha Puja
* Asalha Puja * Vassa

* Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Bodhi
* Kasaya * Mahabodhi Temple

* Mantra
Mantra

* Om mani padme hum
Om mani padme hum

* Mudra
Mudra
* Music

* Pilgrimage

* Lumbini
Lumbini
* Maya Devi Temple * Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
* Sarnath
Sarnath
* Kushinagar

* Poetry * Prayer beads * Prayer wheel
Prayer wheel

* Symbolism

* Dharmachakra
Dharmachakra
* Flag * Bhavacakra
Bhavacakra
* Swastika
Swastika
* Thangka

* Temple of the Tooth * Vegetarianism

MISCELLANEOUS

* Abhijñā
Abhijñā
* Amitābha
Amitābha

* Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara

* Guanyin
Guanyin

* Brahmā * Dhammapada * Dharma
Dharma
talk * Hinayana * Kalpa * Koliya
Koliya
* Lineage * Maitreya
Maitreya
* Māra * Ṛddhi
Ṛddhi

* Sacred languages

* Pali
Pali
* Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* Siddhi * Sutra
Sutra
* Vinaya

COMPARISON

* Bahá\'í Faith

* Christianity

* Influences * Comparison

* East Asian religions * Gnosticism * Hinduism * Jainism * Judaism * Psychology * Science * Theosophy * Violence * Western philosophy

LISTS

* Bodhisattvas * Books

* Buddhas

* named

* Buddhists * Suttas * Temples

* Category * Portal
Portal

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