HOME
The Info List - Japanese Occupation Of The Philippines





 United States

Commonwealth of the Philippines

Hukbalahap

Unaffiliated Moro Muslim insurgents

 Japan

 Second Philippine Republic

Commanders and leaders

GA Douglas MacArthur (26 July 1941 – 30 June 1946) Pres. Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
† (15 Nov. 1935 – 1 Aug. 1944) Pres. Sergio Osmeña (1 Aug. 1944 – 28 May 1946) Maj Gen. Basilio J. Valdez (1 Jan. 1939 – 7 Nov. 1945)

Chairman Luis Taruc

Moro leaders

Datu
Datu
Gumbay Piang Salipada Pendatun Sultan of Sulu Jainal Abirin Sultan of Ramain Alonto Datu
Datu
Pino Datu
Datu
Busran Kalaw Amer Manalao Mindalano Sultan Mohamad Ali Dimaporo Datu
Datu
Lacub Datu
Datu
Dimalaung

Lt Gen. Masaharu Homma (3 Jan. 1942 – 8 June 1942) Gen. Shizuichi Tanaka (8 June 1942 – 28 May 1943) Gen. Shigenori Kuroda (28 May 1943 – 26 Sept. 1944) Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita (26 Sept. 1944 – 2 Sept. 1945) Pres. José P. Laurel (14 Oct. 1943 – 17 Aug. 1945)

Units involved

Armed Forces

Philippines

Philippine Commonwealth Army Philippine Constabulary
Philippine Constabulary
(from 1944) Philippine Army Air Corps
Philippine Army Air Corps
(from 1945)

United States

United States
United States
Army United States
United States
Marine Corps United States
United States
Navy United States
United States
Army Air Force

Resistance and Irregular Forces

Hunters ROTC Markings Filipino-American Guerrillas Other local recognized guerrilla units

Hukbalahap
Hukbalahap
fighters

Moro Juramentados

Imperial Japan

Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Makapili

Second Philippine Republic

Bureau of Constabulary (until 1944)

v t e

Pacific War

Central Pacific

Hawaii Marshalls-Gilberts raids Doolittle Raid Coral Sea Midway RY Solomons Gilberts & Marshalls Marianas & Palau Volcano & Ryukyu Truk

Southeast Asia

Indochina (1940) Indian Ocean (1940–45) Philippines
Philippines
1941–42 Franco-Thai War Thailand Dutch East Indies Malaya Hong Kong Singapore Indochina (1945) Malacca Strait Jurist Tiderace Zipper Strategic bombing (1944–45)

Burma

Burma (1941–42) Burma (1942–43) Burma (1944) Burma (1944–45)

Southwest Pacific

Dutch East Indies 1941–42 Portuguese Timor Australia New Guinea Philippines
Philippines
1944–45 Borneo 1945

North America

Attack on Pearl Harbor Ellwood K Aleutian Islands Estevan Point Lighthouse Fort Stevens Lookout Air Raids Fire balloon Project Hula PX

Japan

Air raids Mariana Islands Volcano & Ryukyu Is Tokyo Starvation Naval bombardments Yokosuka Sagami Bay Kure Downfall Hiroshima & Nagasaki Kurils Karafuto Japanese surrender

Manchuria

Kantokuen Manchuria (1945) Mutanchiang Sakhalin Island Kuril Islands Shumshu

Second Sino-Japanese War

Part of a series on the

History of the Philippines

Prehistory (pre–900) Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age

Awidon Mesa Formation Callao Limestone Formation

Neolithic
Neolithic
age

Callao and Tabon peoples Arrival of the Negritos Austronesian expansion Angono Petroglyphs Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens Jade culture

Iron age

Sa Huyun Culture Society of the Igorot Ancient barangays

Events/Artifacts

Balangay grave goods Manunggul Jar Prehistoric gems Sa Huyun-Kalanay Complex Maitum Anthropomorphic Pottery

Archaic epoch (900–1565) Historically documented city-states/polities (by geography from North to South)

Samtoy chieftaincy Caboloan Tondo Namayan Rajahnate of Maynila Ma-i Madja-as Chiefdom of Taytay Rajahnate of Cebu Kedatuan of Dapitan Rajahnate of Butuan Sultanate of Maguindanao Lanao confederacy Sultanate of Sulu

Legendary

Suwarnapumi Chryse Ophir Tawalisi Wāḳwāḳ Sanfotsi Zabag kingdom Ten Bornean Datus

Events/Artifacts

Maragtas Laguna Copperplate Inscription Butuan Ivory Seal Limestone tombs Batanes citadels Golden Tara Gold Kinnara Ticao Stone Inscription Butuan Silver Paleograph Buddhist art Majapahit conflict Brunei War

Colonial period (1521–1946) Spanish era

First Mass in the Philippines Catholic Church in the Philippines Santo Niño de Cebú Battle of Mactan Sandugo Spanish capture of Manila New Spain Captaincy General Spanish East Indies Manila
Manila
galleon Revolts and uprisings Chinese invasion Castilian War Sulu Sea pirates Doctrina Christiana Dutch invasions Brunei Civil War Bohol
Bohol
secession British Invasion Silang Revolt Confradia de San Jose Florante at Laura Dutch invasions Brunei Civil War Bohol
Bohol
secession British Invasion Florante at Laura Propaganda Movement Gomburza Noli me tangere La Solidaridad El filibusterismo La Liga Filipina Katipunan Cry of Pugad Lawin Philippine Revolution Execution of Rizal Tejeros Convention Execution of Bonifacio Republic of Biak-na-Bato Spanish–American War Battle of Manila
Manila
Bay American capture of Manila Declaration of Independence Siege of Baler Malolos Congress First Republic Philippine–American War Assassination of Gen. Antonio Luna Death of Gen. Gregorio del Pilar Capture of Pres. Aguinaldo

American colonial period

Tagalog Republic Negros Republic Zamboanga Republic Moro Rebellion Iglesia Filipina Independiente Execution of Sakay Philippine Constabulary Insular Government Philippine Assembly Flag Act of 1907 Rizal Monument Iglesia ni Cristo Bayan Ko Jones Law Tydings–McDuffie Act Commonwealth Japanese occupation Establishment of Hukbalahap Fall of Bataan
Bataan
and Corregidor Bataan
Bataan
Death March Second Republic Return of Gen. Douglas MacArthur Battle of Leyte
Battle of Leyte
Gulf Destruction of Manila

Post-colonial period (1946–1986)

Treaty of Manila Third Republic Cold War Hukbalahap
Hukbalahap
Rebellion SEATO Bandung Conference Magsaysay plane crash Filipino First policy Agricultural Land Reform Code North Borneo dispute Jabidah massacre Marcos dictatorship ASEAN Declaration CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Moro Conflict Spratly islands dispute Vietnamese boat people Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr. Escalante massacre 1986 Snap Presidential Elections

Contemporary history (1986–present)

People Power Revolution 1986–90 coup attempts MV Doña Paz
MV Doña Paz
Tragedy Pinatubo eruption Sarmenta-Gomez Rape-slay case Execution of Flor Contemplacion Ozone Disco Tragedy Sarah Balabagan case 1997 Asian financial crisis 2000 All-out war against MILF Second EDSA Revolution EDSA III War on Terror Oakwood mutiny Hello Garci scandal 2006 state of national emergency Manila
Manila
Peninsula siege NBN–ZTE deal MV Princess of the Stars
MV Princess of the Stars
Tragedy South China Sea disputes Death of Corazon Aquino Tropical Storm Ondoy Maguindanao massacre Manila
Manila
hostage crisis Corona Impeachment case K+12 Program Pork barrel scam Super Typhoon Yolanda Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement Mamasapano massacre Mary Jane Veloso
Mary Jane Veloso
case Valenzuela factory fire Philippine Drug War Battle of Marawi Shooting of Kian delos Santos Davao City mall fire Death of Joanna Demafelis

By topic

Arts Languages Cuisine Demographic Ancient religions Rulers List of Queen consorts Military History Honorifics Military Science and technology Political Communications Transportation

Timeline

Archaeology

Philippines
Philippines
portal

v t e

The Japanese occupation of the Philippines
Philippines
(Filipino: Pananakop ng mga Hapones sa Pilipinas; Japanese: 日本のフィリピン占領; Hepburn: Nihon no Firipin Senryō) occurred between 1942 and 1945, when Imperial Japan occupied the Commonwealth of the Philippines during World War II. The invasion of the Philippines
Philippines
started on 8 December 1941, ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. As at Pearl Harbor, American aircraft were severely damaged in the initial Japanese attack. Lacking air cover, the American Asiatic Fleet
Asiatic Fleet
in the Philippines
Philippines
withdrew to Java
Java
on 12 December 1941. General
General
Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
was ordered out, leaving his men at Corregidor
Corregidor
on the night of 11 March 1942 for Australia, 4,000 km away. The 76,000 starving and sick American and Filipino defenders on Bataan
Bataan
surrendered on 9 April 1942, and were forced to endure the infamous Bataan Death March
Bataan Death March
on which 7,000–10,000 died or were murdered. The 13,000 survivors on Corregidor
Corregidor
surrendered on 6 May. Japan occupied the Philippines
Philippines
for over three years, until the surrender of Japan. A highly effective guerilla campaign by Philippine resistance forces controlled sixty percent of the islands, mostly jungle and mountain areas. MacArthur supplied them by submarine, and sent reinforcements and officers. Filipinos remained loyal to the United States, partly because of the American guarantee of independence, and also because the Japanese had pressed large numbers of Filipinos into work details and even put young Filipino women into brothels.[1] General
General
MacArthur kept his promise to return to the Philippines
Philippines
on 20 October 1944. The landings on the island of Leyte
Leyte
were accompanied by a force of 700 vessels and 174,000 men. Through December 1944, the islands of Leyte
Leyte
and Mindoro
Mindoro
were cleared of Japanese soldiers. During the campaign, the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
conducted a suicidal defense of the islands. Cities such as Manila
Manila
(the second most destroyed Allied city in WWII) were reduced to rubble. Between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Filipinos died during the occupation.

Contents

1 Background 2 The occupation

2.1 Resistance

3 End of the occupation 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading

6.1 Primary sources

Background[edit] Main article: Philippines
Philippines
Campaign (1941–1942) Japan launched an attack on the Philippines
Philippines
on 8 December 1941, just ten hours after their attack on Pearl Harbor.[2] Initial aerial bombardment was followed by landings of ground troops both north and south of Manila.[3] The defending Philippine and United States
United States
troops were under the command of General
General
Douglas MacArthur, who had been recalled to active duty in the United States
United States
Army earlier in the year and was designated commander of the United States
United States
Armed Forces in the Asia-Pacific region.[4] The aircraft of his command were destroyed; the naval forces were ordered to leave; and because of the circumstances in the Pacific region, reinforcement and resupply of his ground forces were impossible.[5] Under the pressure of superior numbers, the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan
Bataan
Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor
Corregidor
at the entrance to Manila
Manila
Bay.[6] Manila, declared an open city to prevent its destruction,[7] was occupied by the Japanese on 2 January 1942.[8] The Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of U.S.-Philippine forces on the Bataan
Bataan
Peninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor
Corregidor
in May.[9] Most of the 80,000 prisoners of war captured by the Japanese at Bataan
Bataan
were forced to undertake the infamous "Bataan Death March" to a prison camp 105 kilometers to the north.[9] Thousands of men, weakened by disease and malnutrition and treated harshly by their captors, died before reaching their destination.[10] Quezon and Osmeña had accompanied the troops to Corregidor
Corregidor
and later left for the United States, where they set up a government-in-exile.[11] MacArthur was ordered to Australia, where he started to plan for a return to the Philippines.[12] The occupation[edit]

Warning for local residents to keep their premises sanitary or face punishment.

A 100 Pesos note made by the Japanese during the occupation.

Main articles: Philippine Executive Commission, Second Philippine Republic, Japanese war crimes, Manila
Manila
Massacre, Moros during World War II, and Comfort women The Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines. Although the Japanese had promised independence for the islands after occupation, they initially organized a Council of State through which they directed civil affairs until October 1943, when they declared the Philippines
Philippines
an independent republic.[13] Most of the Philippine elite, with a few notable exceptions, served under the Japanese.[14] The puppet republic was headed by President José P. Laurel.[15] Philippine collaboration in puppet government began under Jorge B. Vargas, who was originally appointed by Quezon as the mayor of Greater Manila
Manila
before Quezon departed Manila.[16] The only political party allowed during the occupation was the Japanese-organized KALIBAPI.[17] During the occupation, most Filipinos remained loyal to the United States,[18] and war crimes committed by forces of the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
against surrendered Allied forces[19] and civilians were documented.[20] Throughout the Philippines
Philippines
more than a thousand women, some being under the age of 18, were imprisoned as "comfort women", kept in sexual slavery for Japanese military personnel during the occupation.[21] Each of the Japanese military installations in the Philippines
Philippines
during the occupation had a location were the women were held, which they called a "comfort station".[22] One such place where these women were imprisoned is Bahay na Pula.[23] Resistance[edit] Main article: Philippine resistance against Japan Japanese occupation of the Philippines
Philippines
was opposed by active and successful underground and guerrilla activity that increased over the years and that eventually covered a large portion of the country. Opposing these guerrillas were a Japanese-formed Bureau of Constabulary (later taking the name of the old Constabulary during the Second Republic),[24][25] Kempeitai,[24] and the Makapili.[26] Postwar investigations showed that about 260,000 people were in guerrilla organizations and that members of the anti-Japanese underground were even more numerous. Such was their effectiveness that by the end of the war, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces.[27] The Philippine guerrilla movement continued to grow, in spite of Japanese campaigns against them. Throughout Luzon
Luzon
and the southern islands, Filipinos joined various groups and vowed to fight the Japanese. The commanders of these groups made contact with one another, argued about who was in charge of what territory, and began to formulate plans to assist the return of American forces to the islands. They gathered important intelligence information and smuggled it out to the U.S. Army, a process that sometimes took months. General MacArthur formed a clandestine operation to support the guerrillas. He had Lieutenant Commander Charles "Chick" Parsons smuggle guns, radios and supplies to them by submarine. The guerrilla forces, in turn, built up their stashes of arms and explosives and made plans to assist MacArthur's invasion by sabotaging Japanese communications lines and attacking Japanese forces from the rear.[28] Various guerrilla forces formed throughout the archipelago, ranging from groups of U.S. Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) forces who refused to surrender to local militia initially organized to combat banditry brought about by disorder caused by the invasion.[29] Several islands in the Visayas
Visayas
region had guerrilla forces led by Filipino officers, such as Colonel Macario Peralta in Panay,[29][30] Major Ismael Ingeniero in Bohol,[29][31] and Captain Salvador Abcede in Negros.[29][32] The island of Mindanao, being farthest from the center of Japanese occupation, had 38,000 guerrillas who were eventually consolidated under the command of American civil engineer Colonel Wendell Fertig.[29] Fertig's guerrillas included many American and Filipino troops who had been part of the force on Mindanao
Mindanao
under Major General William F. Sharp. When Wainwright had ordered Sharp's forces to surrender, Sharp considered compelled to obey this order. Many of the American and Filipino officers refused to surrender, since they reasoned that Wainwright, now a prisoner who could be considered under duress, had no authority to issue orders to Sharp. For several reasons it was unknown how many did not surrender, although probably around 100 to 200 Americans ended up with Fertig's guerrillas. The names of new Filipino recruits were purposefully left off the lists of men to be surrendered. In other cases, documents were fabricated to report fewer men than were actually under Sharp. Other troops died for various reasons after getting away and others left Mindanao entirely.[33] One resistance group in the Central Luzon
Luzon
area was known as the Hukbalahap
Hukbalahap
(Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon), or the People's Anti-Japanese Army, organized in early 1942 under the leadership of Luis Taruc, a communist party member since 1939. The Huks armed some 30,000 people and extended their control over portions of Luzon.[34] However, guerrilla activities on Luzon
Luzon
were hampered due to the heavy Japanese presence and infighting between the various groups,[35] including Hukbalahap
Hukbalahap
troops attacking American-led guerrilla units.[36][37] Lack of equipment, difficult terrain and undeveloped infrastructure made coordination of these groups nearly impossible, and for several months in 1942, all contact was lost with Philippine resistance forces. Communications were restored in November 1942 when the reformed Philippine 61st Division on Panay
Panay
island, led by Colonel Macario Peralta, was able to establish radio contact with the USAFFE command in Australia. This enabled the forwarding of intelligence regarding Japanese forces in the Philippines
Philippines
to SWPA command, as well as consolidating the once sporadic guerrilla activities and allowing the guerrillas to help in the war effort.[29] Increasing amounts of supplies and radios were delivered by submarine to aid the guerrilla effort. By the time of the Leyte
Leyte
invasion, four submarines were dedicated exclusively to the delivery of supplies.[29] Other guerrilla units were attached to the SWPA, and were active throughout the archipelago. Some of these units were organized or directly connected to pre-surrender units ordered to mount guerrilla actions. An example of this was Troop C, 26th Cavalry.[38][39][40] Other guerrilla units were made up of former Philippine Army
Philippine Army
and Philippine Scouts
Philippine Scouts
soldiers who had been released from POW camps by the Japanese.[41][42] Others were combined units of Americans, military and civilian, who had never surrendered or had escaped after surrendering, and Filipinos, Christians and Moros, who had initially formed their own small units. Colonel Wendell Fertig organized such a group on Mindanao
Mindanao
that not only effectively resisted the Japanese, but formed a complete government that often operated in the open throughout the island. Some guerrilla units would later be assisted by American submarines which delivered supplies,[43] evacuate refugees and injured,[44] as well as inserted individuals and whole units,[45] such as the 5217th Reconnaissance Battalion,[46] and Alamo Scouts.[46] By the end of the war, some 277 separate guerrilla units, made up of some 260,715 individuals, fought in the resistance movement.[47] Select units of the resistance would go on to be reorganized and equipped as units of the Philippine Army
Philippine Army
and Constabulary.[48] End of the occupation[edit] Main article: Philippines
Philippines
Campaign (1944–1945) When General
General
MacArthur returned to the Philippines
Philippines
with his army in late 1944, he was well supplied with information; it is said that by the time MacArthur returned, he knew what every Japanese lieutenant ate for breakfast and where he had his hair cut. But the return was not easy. The Japanese Imperial General
General
Staff decided to make the Philippines
Philippines
their final line of defense, and to stop the American advance toward Japan. They sent every available soldier, airplane, and naval vessel to the defense of the Philippines. The Kamikaze
Kamikaze
corps was created specifically to defend the Philippines. The Battle of Leyte Gulf ended in disaster for the Japanese and was the biggest naval battle of World War II. The campaign to re-take the Philippines
Philippines
was the bloodiest campaign of the Pacific War. Intelligence information gathered by the guerrillas averted a disaster—they revealed the plans of Japanese General
General
Yamashita to trap MacArthur's army, and they led the liberating soldiers to the Japanese fortifications.[28] MacArthur's Allied forces landed on the island of Leyte
Leyte
on 20 October 1944, accompanied by Osmeña, who had succeeded to the commonwealth presidency upon the death of Quezon on 1 August 1944. Landings then followed on the island of Mindoro
Mindoro
and around Lingayen Gulf on the west side of Luzon, and the push toward Manila
Manila
was initiated. The Commonwealth of the Philippines
Commonwealth of the Philippines
was restored. Fighting was fierce, particularly in the mountains of northern Luzon, where Japanese troops had retreated, and in Manila, where they put up a last-ditch resistance. The Philippine Commonwealth troops and the recognized guerrilla fighter units rose up everywhere for the final offensive.[49] Filipino guerrillas also played a large role during the liberation. One guerrilla unit came to substitute for a regularly constituted American division, and other guerrilla forces of battalion and regimental size supplemented the efforts of the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
units. Moreover, the cooperative Filipino population eased the problems of supply, construction and civil administration and furthermore eased the task of Allied forces in recapturing the country.[50][51] Fighting continued until Japan's formal surrender on 2 September 1945. The Philippines
Philippines
had suffered great loss of life and tremendous physical destruction by the time the war was over. An estimated one million Filipinos between military and civilians had been killed from all causes; of these 131,028 were listed as killed in seventy-two war crime events.[52] According to a United States
United States
analysis released years after the war, U.S. casualties were 10,380 dead and 36,550 wounded; Japanese dead were 255,795. Filipino deaths, on the other hand, has no official count but was estimated to be more than one million, an astounding percentage of the national population at the time. The Philippine population decreased continuously for the next 5 years due to the spread of diseases and the lack of basic needs, far from Filipino lifestyle prior to the war where the country used to be the second richest in Asia, ironically, next only to Japan.[52] See also[edit]

Escape to the Hills Hunters ROTC Emergency circulating notes Japanese government-issued Philippine fiat peso Military history of the Philippines
Military history of the Philippines
during World War II Santo Tomas Internment Camp Second Philippine Republic Heritage Towns and Cities of the Philippines

References[edit]

This article incorporates public domain text from the Library of Congress July 1994, Retrieved on 11 November 2008

^ The Philippines
Philippines
Campaign 20 October 1944 – 15 August 1945 – World War II
World War II
Multimedia Database ^ MacArthur General
General
Staff (1994). "The Japanese Offensive in the Philippines". Report of General
General
MacArthur: The Campaigns of MacArthur in the Pacific Volume I. GEN Harold Keith Johnson, BG Harold Nelson, Douglas MacArthur. United States
United States
Army. p. 6. LCCN 66-60005. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ Astor, Gerald (2009). Crisis in the Pacific: The Battles for the Philippine Islands by the Men Who Fought Them. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 52–240. ISBN 978-0-307-56565-5. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  "Japanese Landings in the Philippines" (PDF). ADBC (American Defenders of Bataan
Bataan
and Corregidor) Museum. Morgantown Public Library System. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ "Douglas MacArthur". History.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ Morton, Louis. "The First Days of War". In Greenfield, Kent Roberts. The Fall of the Philippines. United States
United States
Army in World War II. Orlando Ward. Washington, D.C.: United States
United States
Army. pp. 77–97. LCCN 53-63678. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ Morton, Louis (1960). "The Decision To Withdraw to Bataan". In Greenfield, Kent Roberts. Command Decisions. Washington, D.C.: United States Army. pp. 151–172. LCCN 59-60007. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ " Manila
Manila
an Open City". Sunday Times. 28 December 1941. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  ^ " Manila
Manila
Occupied by Japanese Forces". Sunday Morning Herald. 3 January 1942. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  "Timeline: World War II
World War II
in the Philippines". American Experience. WGBH. 1999. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  Kintanar, Thelma B.; Aquino, Clemen C. (2006). Kuwentong Bayan: Noong Panahon Ng Hapon : Everyday Life in a Time of War. UP Press. p. 564. ISBN 978-971-542-498-1. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ a b " Philippines
Philippines
Map". American Experience. WGBH. 1999. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). U.S. Marine Corps World War II
World War II
Order of Battle: Ground and Air Units in the Pacific War, 1939–1945. Gale virtual reference library. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-313-31906-8. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ "The Bataan
Bataan
Death March". Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Army. United States
United States
Army. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  " Bataan
Bataan
Death March". History.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  Dyess, William E. (1944). Bataan
Bataan
Death March: A Survivor's Account. University of Nebraska Press. p. xxi. ISBN 978-0-8032-6656-8. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  "New Mexico National Guard's involvement in the Bataan
Bataan
Death March". Bataan
Bataan
Memorial Museum Foundation, Inc. 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  ^ Hunt, Ray C.; Norling, Bernard (2000). Behind Japanese Lines: An American Guerilla in the Philippines. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-0-8131-2755-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  Rogers, Paul P. (1990). The Good Years: MacArthur and Sutherland. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 160–169. ISBN 978-0-275-92918-3. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ Rogers, Paul P. (1990). The Good Years: MacArthur and Sutherland. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-275-92918-3. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  "President Roosevelt to MacArthur: Get out of the Philippines". History.com. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  Bennett, William J. (2007). America: The Last Best Hope, Volume 1: From the Age of Discovery to a World at War, 1492–1914. Thomas Nelson Inc. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-59555-111-5. Retrieved 24 March 2013.  ^ Guillermo, Artemio R. (2012). Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East Series. Scarecrow Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-8108-7246-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  ^ Schirmer, Daniel B.; Shalom, Stephen Rosskamm, eds. (1897). "War Collaboration and Resistance". The Philippines
Philippines
Reader: A History of Colonialism, Neocolonialism, Dictatorship, and Resistance. International Studies. South End Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-89608-275-5. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  Ooi, Keat Gin, ed. (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 368–369. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  Riedinger, Jeffrey M. (1995). Agrarian Reform in the Philippines: Democratic Transitions and Redistributive Reform. Stanford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8047-2530-9. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  ^ Abinales, Patricio N.; Amoroso, Donna J. (2005). State And Society in the Philippines. State and Society in East Asia Series. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 159–160. ISBN 978-0-7425-1024-1. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  ^ Pomeroy, William J. (1992). The Philippines: Colonialism, Collaboration, and Resistance. International Publishers Co. pp. 116–118. ISBN 978-0-7178-0692-8. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  ^ Hunt, Ray C.; Norling, Bernard (2000). Behind Japanese Lines: An American Guerilla in the Philippines. University Press of Kentucky. p. 142. ISBN 978-0-8131-2755-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  ^ Cyr, Arthur I.; Tucker, Spencer (2012). "Collaboration". In Roberts, Priscilla. World War II: The Essential Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-61069-101-7. Retrieved 23 March 2013.  ^ "People & Events: Japanese Atrocities in the Philippines". WGBH. PBS. 2003. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  ^ Dexter, Frank (3 April 1945). "Appalling Stories of Jap Atrocities". The Argus. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  AAP (24 March 1945). "Japs Murdered Spaniards in Manila". The Argus. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  Gordon L. Rottman (2002). World War 2 Pacific Island Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-313-31395-0. War crime trail affidavits list 131,028 Filipino civilians murdered in seventy-two large-scale massacres and remote incidents.  Werner Gruhl (31 December 2011). Imperial Japan's World War Two: 1931–1945. Transaction Publishers. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-4128-0926-9.  ^ Mosbergen, Dominique (29 August 2017). "Harrowing Story Of Filipina Women Enslaved In Japan's Wartime Rape Camps". Huffington Post. New York, New York. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  "Filipino 'comfort women' survivors stage rally in Manila". ABS CBN News. Kyodo News. 20 November 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  Whaley, Floyd (29 January 2016). "In Philippines, World War II's Lesser-Known Sex Slaves Speak Out". New York Times. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  ^ Yap, DJ (29 January 2016). "PH comfort women remember the horror". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  ^ McMullen, Jane (17 June 2016). "The house where the Philippines' forgotten 'comfort women' were held". BBC Our World. BBC News. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  ^ a b "The Guerrilla War". American Experience. PBS. Retrieved 24 February 2011.  ^ Jubair, Salah. "The Japanese Invasion". Maranao.Com. Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2011.  ^ "Have a bolo will travel". Asian Journal. Retrieved 24 February 2011.  ^ Caraccilo, Dominic J. (2005). Surviving Bataan
Bataan
And Beyond: Colonel Irvin Alexander's Odyssey As A Japanese Prisoner Of War. Stackpole Books. pp. 287. ISBN 978-0-8117-3248-2.  ^ a b War in the Pacific ^ a b c d e f g "Guerrilla Activities in the Philippines". Reports of General
General
MacArthur.  chapter= ignored (help) ^ " General
General
Macario Peralta, Jr". University of the Philippines
Philippines
– Reserve Officers' Training Corps. Retrieved 4 February 2011.  ^ Villanueva, Rudy; Renato E. Madrid (2003). The Vicente Rama reader: an introduction for modern readers. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 140. ISBN 971-550-441-8. Retrieved 4 January 2011.  ^ Bradsher, Greg (2005). "The "Z Plan" Story: Japan's 1944 Naval Battle Strategy Drifts into U.S. Hands, Part 2". Prologue Magazine. The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 37 (3). Retrieved 4 February 2011.  ^ Schmidt, Larry S. (20 May 1982). American Involvement In The Filipino Resistance Movement On Mindanao
Mindanao
During The Japanese Occupation, 1942-1945 (PDF) (Master of Military Art and Science). United States
United States
Army Command and General
General
Staff College. Retrieved 30 March 2018.  ^ Dolan, Ronald E. "World War II, 1941–45". Philippines : a country study (4th ed.). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ISBN 0-8444-0748-8.  ^ Schaefer, Chris (2004). Bataan
Bataan
Diary. Riverview Publishing. p. 434. ISBN 0-9761084-0-2.  ^ Houlahan, J. Michael (27 July 2005). " Book
Book
Review". Philippine Scouts Heritage Society. Retrieved 25 January 2011.  ^ Valeriano, Napoleon D.; Charles T. R. Bohannan (2006). Counter-guerrilla operations: the Philippine experience. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-275-99265-1. Retrieved 7 May 2011.  ^ Map of known insurgent activity ^ Norling, Bernard (2005). The Intrepid Guerrillas of North Luzon. University Press of Kentucky. p. 284. ISBN 9780813191348. Retrieved 21 May 2009.  ^ "The Intrepid Guerrillas of North Luzon". Defense Journal. 2002. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2009.  ^ "Last of cavalrymen a true hero". Old Gold & Black. Wake Forest University. 6 March 2003. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2009.  ^ My Father by Jose Calugas Jr. ^ Hogan, David W., Jr. (1992). U.S. Army
U.S. Army
Special
Special
Operations in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army. p. 81. Retrieved 25 January 2011.  ^ Roscoe, Theodore; Richard G. Voge, United States
United States
Bureau of Naval Personnel (1949). United States
United States
submarine operations in World War II. Naval Institute Press. p. 577. ISBN 0-87021-731-3. Retrieved 25 January 2011.  ^ Holian, Thomas (2004). "Saviors and Suppliers: World War II Submarine Special
Special
Operations in the Philippines". Undersea Warfare. United States
United States
Navy. Summer (23). Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2011.  ^ a b Rottman, Gordon L. (2005). US Special
Special
Warfare Units in the Pacific Theater 1941–45. Osprey Publishing. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1-84176-707-9. Retrieved 3 December 2009.  ^ Schmidt, Larry S. (1982). American Involvement in the Filipino Resistance Movement on Mindanao
Mindanao
During the Japanese Occupation, 1942–1945 (PDF) (Master of Military Art and Science thesis). U.S. Army Command and General
General
Staff College. Retrieved 5 August 2011.  ^ Rottman, Godron L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific island guide. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-313-31395-0. Retrieved 7 May 2011.  ^ Chambers, John Whiteclay; Fred Anderson (1999). The Oxford companion to American military history. New York City: Oxford University Press US. p. 547. ISBN 978-0-19-507198-6. Retrieved 7 May 2011.  ^ http://www.history.army.mil/books/amh/AMH-23.htm World War II: The war against Japan by Robert W. Coakley. The Philippines
Philippines
Campaign ^ https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bataan/peopleevents/p_filipinos.html Bataan
Bataan
Rescue. Filipinos and the war ^ a b Rottman, Gordon L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific island guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-313-31395-0. Retrieved 9 January 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

Agoncillo Teodoro A. The Fateful Years: Japan's Adventure in the Philippines, 1941–1945. Quezon City, PI: R.P. Garcia Publishing Co., 1965. 2 vols Hartendorp A. V.H. The Japanese Occupation of the Philippines. Manila: Bookmark, 1967. 2 vols. Lear, Elmer. The Japanese Occupation of the Philippines: Leyte, 1941–1945. Southeast Asia Program, Department of Far Eastern Studies, Cornell University, 1961. 246p. emphasis on social history Steinberg, David J. Philippine Collaboration in World War II. University of Michigan Press, 1967. 235p.

Primary sources[edit]

Ephraim, Frank (2003). Escape to Manila: From Nazi Tyranny to Japanese Terror. University of Illinois Press. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-252-02845-8. 

v t e

Empire of Japan

Overview

Agriculture Censorship Demographics Economy Economic history Education Eugenics Foreign commerce and shipping Industrial production Militarism Nationalism Statism Internal politics State Shinto Kazoku

Emperors

Meiji (Mutsuhito) Taishō (Yoshihito) Shōwa (Hirohito)

Symbols

Flag of Japan Rising Sun Flag Imperial Seal of Japan Government Seal of Japan State Seal of Japan Privy Seal of Japan Kimigayo

Policies

Constitution Charter Oath Foreign relations Imperial Rescript on Education Kokutai National Spiritual Mobilization Movement Peace Preservation Law Political parties Supreme Court of Judicature Taisei Yokusankai Tokkō Tonarigumi Greater East Asia Conference

Government

Administration (Ministries)

Imperial Household Home Ministry War Army Navy Treasury Foreign Affairs Agriculture and Commerce Commerce and Industry Munitions Colonial Affairs Greater East Asia East Asia Development Board (Kōain)

Legislative & Deliberative Bodies

Daijō-kan Privy Council Gozen Kaigi Imperial Diet

Peers Representatives

Military

Armed Forces

Imperial General
General
Headquarters Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors

Senjinkun military code

Nuclear weapons program Kamikaze War crimes Supreme War Council

Imperial Japanese Army

General
General
Staff Air Service Railways and Shipping Imperial Guard Imperial Way Faction (Kōdōha) Japanese holdout Tōseiha

Imperial Japanese Navy

General
General
Staff Air Service Land Forces Fleet Faction Treaty Faction

History

Meiji period

Meiji Restoration Boshin War Satsuma Rebellion First Sino-Japanese War Triple Intervention Boxer Rebellion Anglo-Japanese Alliance Russo-Japanese War

Taishō period

World War I Siberian Intervention General
General
Election Law Washington Naval Treaty

Shōwa period

Shōwa financial crisis Pacification of Manchukuo Anti-Comintern Pact Second Sino-Japanese War Soviet–Japanese border conflicts Tripartite Pact Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact Pacific War Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Soviet–Japanese War Surrender (Potsdam Declaration, Gyokuon-hōsō) Occupation

Territories

Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

Karafuto Korea Kwantung Manchukuo South Pacific Taiwan

Occupied territories

Borneo Burma Hong Kong Dutch East Indies Malaya Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

Other topics

Sonnō jōi Fukoku kyōhei Hakkō ichiu Internment camps German pre– World War II
World War II
industrial co-operation Racial Equality Proposal Shinmin no Michi Shōwa Modan Socialist thought Yasukuni Shrine International Military Tribunal for the Far East Japanese dissidence during the Shōwa period

v t e

Countries and territories occupied by Imperial Japan during World War II

British Empire

Burma Christmas Island Hong Kong India: Andaman Islands Malaya Nauru New Guinea Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan and British North Borneo Singapore Solomon Islands

United States

Attu Guam Kiska Philippines Wake Island

Other

China

Mengkiang

France

Cambodia Laos Vietnam

Netherlands

Indonesia

Portugal

East Timor

1870–1937

Karafuto Korea Manchukuo South Pacific Mandate: Northern Marianas Taiwan

v t e

Philippines articles

History

Timeline

Prehistory (Pre-900) Archaic Era (900–1521) Colonial era (1521–1946)

Spanish period (1521–1898) American period (1898–1946)

Postcolonial era (1946–1986)

Third Republic (1946–65) Marcos dictatorship (1965–86)

Contemporary history (1986–present)

By topic

Archaeology Demographic Discoveries Economic history Inventions Military

Geography

Bays Biosphere reserves Climate Earthquakes Ecoregions Environmental issues Extreme points Island groups

islands

Lakes Landmarks Mountains National parks Protected areas Ramsar sites Rivers Volcanoes Wildlife World Heritage Sites

Politics

Government

Executive

President

Executive Office

Cabinet Civil service National Police

Legislature

Congress

Senate

Senate President President pro tem

House of Representatives

Speaker

Judiciary

Supreme Court Judiciary Court of Appeals

Law

Constitution Philippine legal codes Human rights

Intelligence

National Bureau of Investigation National Counter-Terrorism Action Group National Intelligence Coordinating Agency Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency

Uniformed

Armed Forces of the Philippines

Philippine Air Force Philippine Army Philippine Navy Philippine Marine Corps

Philippine Coast Guard

Administrative divisions Elections Foreign relations Political parties

Economy

Agriculture Business process outsourcing Central Bank Energy Fiscal policy National debt Labor Peso Stock Exchange Taxation Telecommunications Tourism Transportation Science and technology Water and Sanitation

Society

Corruption Crime Demographics Education Ethnic groups Health Income inequality Languages Poverty Provinces by HDI Refugees Religion Women

Culture

Architecture Art Cinema Cuisine Cultural Properties Dance Fashion and clothing Festivals Historical Markers Literature Media Music Mythology Public holidays Psychology Sexuality Sports Traditional games Value system

Symbols

Anthem Coat of arms Arnis Flag Name Narra Philippine eagle Sampaguita

Book Category Philip

.