January observances
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January is the first month of the year in the Julian and
Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the calendar A calendar is a system of organizing days. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months and years. A calendar date, date is the designation of a single, speci ...
s and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as
New Year's Day New Year's Day is a festival observed in most of the world on 1 January, the first day of the year in the modern Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modi ...

New Year's Day
. It is, on average, the coldest month of the year within most of the
Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remain ...

Northern Hemisphere
(where it is the second month of winter) and the warmest month of the year within most of the
Southern Hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere of Earth ** Northern Hemisphere ** Southern Hemisphere ** Eastern Hemisphere ** Western He ...

Southern Hemisphere
(where it is the second month of summer). In the Southern hemisphere, January is the seasonal equivalent of July in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa.
Ancient Roman In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC ...
observances during this month include Cervula and Juvenalia, celebrated January 1, as well as one of three
Agonalia An Agonalia or Agonia was an obscure archaic religious observance celebrated in ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the coll ...
, celebrated January 9, and
Carmentalia Carmentalia was the two feast days (11 January and 15 January) of the Roman goddess Carmenta. She had her temple atop the Capitoline Hill and the Servian Wall The Capitolium or Capitoline Hill ( ; it, Campidoglio ; la, Mons Capitolinus ) ...
, celebrated January 11. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.


History

January (in Latin, ''
Ianuarius ''Ianuarius'', fully ''Mensis Ianuarius'' ("month of Janus"), was the first month of the Roman calendar, ancient Roman calendar, from which the Julian calendar, Julian and Gregorian calendar, Gregorian month of January derived. It was followed by ...
'') is named after
Janus In ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ethnic religion of Ancient Rome that the ancient Romans, Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, ...

Janus
, the god of beginnings and transitions in
Roman mythology Roman mythology is the body of myths of ancient Rome as represented in the Latin literature, literature and Roman art, visual arts of the Romans. One of a wide variety of genres of Roman folklore, ''Roman mythology'' may also refer to the moder ...
. Traditionally, the original
Roman calendar The Roman calendar was the calendar used by the Roman kingdom and Roman Republic, republic. The term often includes the Julian calendar established by the reforms of the Roman dictator, dictator Julius Caesar and Roman emperor, emperor August ...
consisted of 10 months totaling 304 days, winter being considered a month-less period. Around 713 BC, the semi-mythical successor of
Romulus Romulus () was the legendary foundation of Rome, founder and King of Rome, first king of Ancient Rome, Rome. Various traditions attribute the establishment of many of Rome's oldest legal, political, religious, and social institutions to Romulus ...
, King
Numa Pompilius Numa Pompilius (; 753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome The king of Rome ( la, rex Romae) was the chief magistrate Chief magistrate is a public official, executive or judicial, whose office is the highest ...

Numa Pompilius
, is supposed to have added the months of January and
February February is the second month of the year in the Julian calendar, Julian and Gregorian calendars. The month has 28 days in common years or 29 in leap years, with the 29th day being called the ''leap day''. It is the first of five months not to ...
, so that the calendar covered a standard lunar year (354 days). Although
March March is the third month of the year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 3 ...

March
was originally the first month in the old Roman calendar, January became the first month of the calendar year either under Numa or under the
Decemvirs The decemviri or decemvirs (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...
about 450 BC (Roman writers differ). In contrast, each specific calendar year was identified by the names of the two
consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ...

consul
s, who entered office on May 1 or March 15 until 153 BC, from when they entered office on January 1. Various Christian feast dates were used for the
New Year New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's calendar era, year count increments by one. Many cultures celebrate the event in some manner. In the Gregorian calendar, the most widely used calendar system ...

New Year
in
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
during the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, including March 25 (
Feast of the Annunciation The Feast of the Annunciation, contemporarily the Solemnity of the Annunciation, and also called Lady Day In the Western liturgical year The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consis ...
) and December 25. However, medieval calendars were still displayed in the Roman fashion with twelve columns from January to December. Beginning in the 16th century, European countries began officially making January 1 the start of the New Year once again—sometimes called ''Circumcision Style'' because this was the date of the
Feast of the Circumcision The Feast of the Circumcision of Christ is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New T ...
, being the seventh day after December 25. Historical names for January include its original Roman designation, Ianuarius, the
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languag ...
term ''Wulf-monath'' (meaning "wolf month") and
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
's designation Wintarmanoth ("winter / cold month"). In
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
, it is traditionally called ''prosinec''. The name, associated with
millet Millets () are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in Indi ...

millet
bread and the act of asking for something, was first written in 1466 in the
Škofja Loka Škofja Loka (; german: Bischoflack) is a town in Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl, Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Centra ...

Škofja Loka
manuscript. According to
Theodor Mommsen Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (; 30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity, and in the Western world The Western world, also known a ...

Theodor Mommsen
, 1 January became the first day of the year in 600 AUC of the Roman calendar (153 BC), due to disasters in the
Lusitanian War The Lusitanian War, called ''Pyrinos Polemos'' ("the Fiery War") in Greek, was a war of resistance fought by the Lusitanian tribes of Hispania Ulterior Hispania Ulterior (English: "Further Hispania", or occasionally "Thither Hispania") was a regi ...
. A Lusitanian chief called Punicus invaded the Roman territory, defeated two Roman governors, and killed their troops. The Romans resolved to send a consul to
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testame ...

Hispania
, and in order to accelerate the dispatch of aid, "they even made the new consuls enter into office two months and a half before the legal time" (March 15).


January symbols

* January's
birthstone A birthstone is a gemstone A gemstone (also called a fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound wi ...
is the
garnet Garnets () are a group of silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science c ...

garnet
, which represents constancy. * Its birth flower is the cottage pink ''
Dianthus caryophyllus ''Dianthus caryophyllus'', commonly known as the carnation or clove pink, is a species of '' Dianthus''. It is probably native to the Mediterranean region but its exact range is unknown due to extensive cultivation for the last 2,000 years.Med- ...
'' or
galanthus
galanthus
. *The Japanese floral emblem of January is the
camellia ''Camellia'' (pronounced or ) is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organism ...

camellia
(''
Camellia sinensis ''Camellia sinensis'' is a species of evergreen shrubs or small trees in the flowering plant family Theaceae whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. Common names include "tea plant", "tea shrub", and "tea tree" (not to be confused w ...

Camellia sinensis
''). *In Finnish, the month of ''tammikuu'' means the heart of the winter and because the name literally means "
oak An oak is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including on ...

oak
moon", it can be inferred that the oak tree is the heart of the grand forest with many valuable trees as opposed to the typical Arctic forests, which are typically pine and spruce. The photograph of a large tree covered with ice against a blue sky is a familiar scene during Finland's winter. *The
zodiac The zodiac is a belt-shaped region of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic The ecliptic is the plane (geometry), plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. From the perspecti ...

zodiac
signs for the month of January were
Capricorn Capricorn (pl. ''capricorni'' or ''capricorns'') may refer to: Places * Capricorn and Bunker Group, islands of the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia *Capricorn District Municipality, Limpopo province, South Africa Animals *Capricorn, an anim ...
(until January 19, 2020) and
Aquarius Aquarius may refer to: Astrology * Aquarius (astrology) Aquarius () is the eleventh astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the Aquarius (constellation), constellation Aquarius. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun is in the Aqu ...
(January 20, 2020 onwards). For 2021 the dates will shift to 18–19, due to the leap day in 2020.. Signs in UT/GMT for 1950–2030. *The name of the
full moon The full moon is the lunar phase s in 2022 as viewed from the Southern Hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere Hemisphere may refer to: * A half of a sphere As half of the Earth * A hemispheres of Earth, hemisphere o ...

full moon
occurring in January is the wolf moon.


January observances

''This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.''


Month-long observances

* Alzheimer's Awareness Month (
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
) *
Dry January Dry January is a public health campaign urging people to Teetotalism, abstain from alcohol for the month of January, practised both in Europe and the United States. The campaign, as a formal entity, appears to be relatively recent, being described ...
(
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
) *National Codependency Awareness Month (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) *
National Mentoring Month. National Mentoring Month is a civil society campaign, campaign held each January to promote youth mentoring in the United States. It was inaugurated in 2002, and is spearheaded by the Harvard School of Public Health, MENTOR, and the Corporation for ...
(
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) *National Healthy Weight Awareness Month (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) * Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) *Stalking Awareness Month (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) * Veganuary


Food months in the United States

''This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.'' * Be Kind to Food Servers Month (by proclamation,
State of Tennessee Tennessee (, ), officially the State of Tennessee, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The St ...
) * California Dried Plum Digestive Health Month * Hot Tea Month * National Soup Month * Oatmeal Month


Non-Gregorian observances, 2021 dates

''All Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown on the date in question.'' *
List of observances set by the Bahá'í calendar A ''list'' is any enumeration An enumeration is a complete, ordered listing of all the items in a collection. The term is commonly used in mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity ( ...
*
List of observances set by the Chinese calendar The traditional Chinese holidays are an essential part of harvests or prayer offerings. The most important Chinese holiday is the Chinese New Year Chinese New Year ( ), Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year, is the festival that celebrates the ...
* List of observances set by the Hebrew calendar *
List of observances set by the Islamic calendar Please note that all Islamic observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted. Holidays for 1441 (2019-2020) {, class="wikitable" !width=20%, Date on Islamic Calendar ! ...
* List of observances set by the Solar Hijri calendar


Moveable observances, 2020 dates

''This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.'' *See:
List of movable Western Christian observances {{Use mdy dates, date=July 2017 This is a list of movable observances within Western Christianity. It includes secular observances which are calculated by religious observances. ''This list does not necessarily imply either official status nor gen ...
*See:
List of movable Eastern Christian observances This is a chronological list of moveable Eastern Christian observances. Most of these are calculated by the date of Easter, Pascha. It includes secular observances which are calculated by religious observances. ''This list does not necessarily impl ...
January 2 unless that day is a Sunday, in which case
January 3 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – The Roman legions on the Rhine refuse to declare their allegiance to Galba Galba (; born Servius Sulpicius Galba; 24 December 3 BC – 15 January AD 69) was a Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of t ...
: January 2 * New Year Holiday (Scotland) First Friday: January 3 *
Children's Day Children's Day is a commemorative date celebrated annually in honor of children, whose date of observance varies by country. In 1925, International Children's Day was first proclaimed in Geneva during the World Conference on Child Welfare. Sinc ...
(
Bahamas The Bahamas (), known officially as The Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a sovereign country within the Lucayan Archipelago of the West Indies in the Atlantic. It takes up 97% of the Lucayan Archipelago's land area and is home to 88% of the a ...

Bahamas
) Second Saturday: January 11 *
Children's Day Children's Day is a commemorative date celebrated annually in honor of children, whose date of observance varies by country. In 1925, International Children's Day was first proclaimed in Geneva during the World Conference on Child Welfare. Sinc ...
(
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
) Second Monday: January 13 * Birthday of Eugenio María de Hostos (
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) *
Coming of Age Day Come may refer to: *Comè Comè is a town and located in the of . The commune covers an area of 163 square kilometres and as of 2012 had a population of 33,507 people. It was home to a refugee camp for Togolese refugees until it was closed in ...

Coming of Age Day
(
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
) Friday before third Monday: January 17 * Lee–Jackson Day (
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) Third Friday: January 17 * International Fetish Day Sunday closest to January 22: January 19 *
National Sanctity of Human Life Day National Sanctity of Human Life Day is an observance declared by several President of the United States, United States Presidents who opposed abortion typically proclaimed on or near the anniversary of the Supreme Court's decision in ''Roe v. Wade' ...
(
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) Third full week of January: January 19–25 *
Hunt for Happiness Week Secret Society of Happy People (SOHP) is an organization that celebrates the expression of happiness. Founded in August 1998, the society encourages thousands of members from all around the globe to recognize their happy moments and think about h ...
(
International observance A national or international awareness day or observance is a date usually set by a major organisation or government to commemorate a public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of Preventive healthcare, preventing d ...
) * National Non-Smoking Week (
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
) Last full week of January: January 19–25 * National School Choice Week (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) Third Monday: January 20 * Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) ** Idaho Human Rights Day (
Idaho Idaho () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Idaho
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) Wednesday of the third full week of January: January 22 * Weedless Wednesday (
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
) Friday between January 19–25: January 24 * Husband's Day (
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...

Iceland
) Last Saturday: January 25 * (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) Last Sunday: January 26 * Liberation of Auschwitz Memorial Day (
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
) January 30 or the nearest Sunday: January 26 *
World Leprosy Day World Leprosy Day is observed internationally every year on the last Sunday of January to increase the public awareness Awareness is the state of being conscious of something. More specifically, it is the ability to directly know and perceive, t ...
Last Monday in January: January 27 * Fourth Monday: January 27 * Community Manager Appreciation Day (
International observance A national or international awareness day or observance is a date usually set by a major organisation or government to commemorate a public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of Preventive healthcare, preventing d ...
) *
National Heroes' Day Heroes' Day or National Heroes' Day may refer to a number of commemorations of national heroes in different countries. It is often held on the birthday A birthday is the anniversary of the birth Birth is the act or process of bearing or ...
(
Cayman Islands The Cayman Islands () is a self-governing British overseas territories, British Overseas Territory, the largest by population, in the western Caribbean Sea. The territory comprises the three islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac and Little Caym ...

Cayman Islands
) Monday Closest to January 29: * Auckland Anniversary Day


Fixed observances

*December 25 – January 5:
Twelve Days of Christmas The Twelve Days of Christmas, also known as Twelvetide, is a festive Christian season celebrating the Nativity of Jesus The nativity of Jesus, nativity of Christ, birth of Christ or birth of Jesus is described in the Biblical gospels of Go ...
(
Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings ...
) *December 26 – January 1:
Kwanzaa Kwanzaa () is an annual celebration of African-American culture African-American culture refers to the contributions of African Americans African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Amer ...
(
African Americans African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
) *December 31 – January 1, in some cases until January 2:
Hogmanay ''Hogmanay'' (; ) is the Scots word for the last day of the old year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's calendar era, year count ...
(
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
) *
January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365 ...
**
Feast of the Circumcision of Christ The Feast of the Circumcision of Christ is a Christian celebration of the circumcision of Jesus in accordance with Religious male circumcision, Jewish tradition, eight days (according to the Semitic and southern European calculation of intervals o ...
***
Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus The Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus is a feast of the liturgical year The liturgical year, also known as the church year or Christian year, as well as the kalendar, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in Christian churches that det ...
(
Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating of bread and drinking of wine, re ...
,
Lutheran Church Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a major ...

Lutheran Church
) ***
Feast of Fools The Feast of Fools ( la, festum fatuorum, festum stultorum) was a feast day The calendar of saints is the traditional method of organizing a by associating each day with one or more s and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of sa ...
(
Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
) ** Constitution Day (Italy) **
Dissolution of Czechoslovakia The Dissolution of Czechoslovakia ( cs, Rozdělení Československa, sk, Rozdelenie Česko-Slovenska) took effect on January 1, 1993, and was the self-determined split of the federal republic A federal republic is a federation A fede ...
-related observances: *** Day of the Establishment of the Slovak Republic (
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk, Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk, Slovenská republika, links=no ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to th ...

Slovakia
) *** Restoration Day of the Independent Czech State (
Czech Republic The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name Czechia and formerly known as Bohemia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast, and Slovakia to ...
) ** Euro Day (
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
) ** Flag Day (Lithuania) ** Founding Day (Taiwan) ** Global Family Day **
Independence Day An independence day is an annual event commemorating the anniversary An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that ...
(
Brunei Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ), is a sovereign state, country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coa ...

Brunei
, Cameroon, Haiti, Sudan) **International Nepali Dhoti and Nepali Topi Day **Jump-up Day (Montserrat, British Overseas Territories) **Kalpataru Day (Ramakrishna Movement) **List of food days#January, National Bloody Mary Day (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) **Arbor Day, National Tree Planting Day (Tanzania) **
New Year's Day New Year's Day is a festival observed in most of the world on 1 January, the first day of the year in the modern Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modi ...

New Year's Day
***Japanese New Year ***Novy God Day (Russia) ***Okinawan festivals and observances, Sjoogwachi (Okinawa Islands) **Polar bear plunge, Polar Bear Swim Day (
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
and
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) **Public Domain Day (multiple countries) **Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God (Catholic Church) ***World Day of Peace **Triumph of the Revolution (Cuba) *January 2 **Ancestry Day (Haiti) **Berchtoldstag, Berchtold's Day (Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and the Alsace) **Carnival, Carnival Day (Saint Kitts and Nevis) **Thomas Roy#List of days, Happy Mew Year For Cats Day (Thomas Roy) **Kakizome (
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
) **List of food days#January, National Creampuff Day (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) **National Science Fiction Day (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) **The second day of
New Year New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's calendar era, year count increments by one. Many cultures celebrate the event in some manner. In the Gregorian calendar, the most widely used calendar system ...

New Year
(a holiday in Armenia, Kazakhstan, North Macedonia, Culture of Mauritius, Mauritius, Montenegro, Public holidays in New Zealand, New Zealand, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, and Ukraine) **Public holidays in Bhutan#Winter solstice, Nyinlong (Bhutan) **Victory of Armed Forces Day (Cuba) *
January 3 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – The Roman legions on the Rhine refuse to declare their allegiance to Galba Galba (; born Servius Sulpicius Galba; 24 December 3 BC – 15 January AD 69) was a Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of t ...
**Public holidays in Burkina Faso, Anniversary of the 1966 Coup d’état (Burkina Faso) **Thomas Roy#List of days, Memento Mori (Thomas Roy) **Public holidays in Armenia, Nakhatsenendyan toner (Armenia): January 3–5 **Public holidays in Indonesia, Ministry of Religious Affairs Day (Indonesia) **List of food days#January, National Chocolate Covered Cherry Day (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) **Tamaseseri Festival (Hakozaki Shrine, Fukuoka,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
) *January 4 **Day of the Fallen against the Colonial Repression (Angola) **Day of the Martyrs (Democratic Republic of the Congo) **Thomas Roy#List of days, Dimpled Chad Day (Thomas Roy) **Okinawan festivals and observances, Hwinukan mukee (Okinawa Islands,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
) **Independence Day (Myanmar) **Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People, Ogoni Day (Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People) **World Health Observances, World Braille Day *January 5 **National Bird Day (United States) **List of food days#January, National Whipped Cream Day (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) **List of food days#United Kingdom, Sausage Day (
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
) **List of food days#Japan, Strawberry day (
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
) **Take Our Daughters and Sons to Work Day (Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane, Australia) **Serbian Christmas traditions#Tucindan, Tucindan (Serbia, Montenegro) *January 6 **Armed Forces Day (Iraq) **Epiphany (holiday), Epiphany or Three Kings' Day (
Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings ...
) or Theophany (Eastern Christianity), and its related observances: ***Befana Day (Italy) ***Christmas#Using the Julian calendar, Christmas (Armenian Apostolic Church) ***Christmas in Russia, Christmas Eve (Russia) ***Christmas in Ukraine, Christmas Eve (Ukraine) ***Public holidays in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Christmas Eve (Bosnia and Herzegovina) ***Public holidays in North Macedonia, Christmas Eve (North Macedonia) ***Little Christmas (Gaelic calendar, Ireland) ***Þrettándinn (
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...

Iceland
) ***Biblical Magi#Traditions of the Epiphany, Three Wise Men Day **Pathet Lao Day (Laos) *January 7 **Christmas (Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches using the Julian Calendar, Rastafari#Grounding, Rastafari) ***Christmas in Russia ***Christmas in Ukraine ***Public holidays in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Christmas (Bosnia and Herzegovina) ***Public holidays in Armenia, Remembrance Day of the Dead (Armenia) **Distaff Day (
Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
) **Nanakusa no sekku (
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
) **Public holidays in Liberia, Pioneer's Day (Liberia) **Flag of Italy, Tricolour day (Italy) **Public holidays in Cambodia, Victory from Genocide Day (Cambodia) *January 8 **Thomas Roy#List of days, Show and Tell Day at Work (Thomas Roy) **The Eighth (United States) (defunct observance) **Typing Day (international observance) *January 9 **Start of Hōonkō, Hōonkō (Nishi Honganji) January 9–16 (Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism) **Martyrs' Day (Panama) **List of food days#January, National Cassoulet Day (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) **Non-Resident Indian Day (India) **Republic Day (Republika Srpska) (defunct, declared unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina) **St. Stephen's Day (Eastern Orthodox) *January 10 **Fête du Vodoun (Benin) **Public holidays in the Bahamas, Majority Rule Day (
Bahamas The Bahamas (), known officially as The Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a sovereign country within the Lucayan Archipelago of the West Indies in the Atlantic. It takes up 97% of the Lucayan Archipelago's land area and is home to 88% of the a ...

Bahamas
) *January 11 **
Children's Day Children's Day is a commemorative date celebrated annually in honor of children, whose date of observance varies by country. In 1925, International Children's Day was first proclaimed in Geneva during the World Conference on Child Welfare. Sinc ...
(Tunisia) **Eugenio María de Hostos Day (
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
) **German Apples Day (Germany) **Public holidays in Morocco, Independence Manifesto Day (Morocco) **Kagami biraki (
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
) **List of awareness days#January, National Human Trafficking Awareness Day (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) **Republic Day (Albania) *January 12 **Memorial Day (Turkmenistan) **International Duties Memorial Day, Prosecutor General's Day (Russia) **National Youth Day (India) **Zanzibar Revolution Day (Tanzania) *January 13 **Constitution Day (Mongolia) **Democracy Day (Cape Verde) **Liberation Day (Togo) **Old New Year's Eve (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro, Republic of Srpska, North Macedonia), and its related observances: ***Malanka (Ukraine, Russia, Belarus) **St. Knut's Day (Sweden and Finland) **Stephen Foster Memorial Day (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) *January 14 **Azhyrnykhua (Abkhazia) **Public holidays in Uzbekistan, Day of Defenders of the Motherland (Uzbekistan) **Feast of Divina Pastora (Barquisimeto) **Feast of the Ass (Medieval Christianity) **Flag Day (Georgia) **National Forest Conservation Day (
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
) **Ratification Day (United States) **Public holidays in Tunisia, Revolution and Youth Day (Tunisia) **Yennayer (Berbers) *January 15 **Arbor Day (Egypt) **Armed Forces Day (Nigeria) **Indian Army Day (India) **John Chilembwe Day (Malawi) **Korean Alphabet Day (North Korea) **Sagichō at Tsurugaoka Hachimangū (Kamakura, Japan) **Teacher's Day (Venezuela) **List of unofficial observances by date, Wikipedia Day (international observance) *January 16 **National Nothing Day (Thomas Roy) **National Religious Freedom Day (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) **Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God (Coptic Church) **Teacher's Day (Myanmar) **Teachers' Day (Thailand) **Okinawan festivals and observances, Zuuruku Nichi (Okinawa Islands,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
) **Thiruvalluvar#Memorials, Thiruvalluvar Day (Tamil Nadu, India) *January 17 **Hardware Freedom Day (international observance) **Thomas Roy#List of days, Judgement Day **Menorca#Middle Ages, National Day (Menorca) **The opening ceremony of Patras Carnival, celebrated until Clean Monday (Patras) *January 18 **Public holidays in Tunisia, Revolution and Youth Day (Tunisia) **Royal Thai Armed Forces Day (Thailand) **Week of Prayer for Christian Unity (January 18–25) (Christianity) *January 19 **Confederate Memorial Day, Confederate Heroes Day (Texas), and its related observance: ***Robert E. Lee Day (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia and Mississippi) ***Lee–Jackson–King Day (
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
, United States, defunct) ** Husband's Day (
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...

Iceland
) **Kokborok Day (Tripura, India) **List of food days#January, National Popcorn Day (United States) **Theophany / Epiphany (holiday), Epiphany (Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy), and its related observances: ***Timkat, (on 20th during Leap Year) (Ethiopian Orthodox) ***''Vodici'' or Baptism of Jesus (North Macedonia) *January 20 **Public holidays in Mali, Armed Forces Day (Mali) **List of food days#January, Cheese Day (United States) **Public holidays in Cape Verde, Heroes' Day (Cape Verde) **Inauguration Day, held every four years in odd-numbered years, except when January 20 falls on a Sunday (United States) **Martyrs' Day (Azerbaijan) *January 21 **Babinden (Bulgaria, Serbia) **Flag flying days in Norway, Birthday of Princess Ingrid Alexandra (Norway) **Errol Barrow Day (Barbados) **Flag Day (Quebec) **National Grandparents Day#Poland, Grandmother's Day (Poland) **Día de la Altagracia, Lady of Altagracia Day (Dominican Republic) **Lincoln Alexander, Lincoln Alexander Day (
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
) **National Hug Day (United States) *January 22 **Thomas Roy#List of days, Answer Your Cat's Question Day **Act Zluky, Day of Unity of Ukraine (Ukraine) **Public holidays in Poland, Grandfather's Day (Poland) **List of food days#January, National Hot Sauce Day (United States) *January 23 **Bounty Day (Pitcairn Island) **Espousals of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Roman Catholic Church) **American Pie Council#National Pie Day, National Pie Day (United States) **Public holidays in India#Secular holidays, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose's Jayanti (Orissa, India, Orissa, Tripura, and West Bengal, India) **Thomas Roy#List of days, Snow Plow Mailbox Hockey Day **World Freedom Day (Taiwan and South Korea) *January 24 **Feast of Our Lady of Peace (Roman Catholic Church), and its related observances: ***''Feria de Alasitas'' (La Paz) **List of awareness days#January, Moebius Syndrome Awareness Day (international observance) **American Pie Council#National Pie Day, National Peanut Butter Day (United States) **Public holidays in Romania, Unification Day (Romania) *January 25 **Public holidays in Egypt, 2011 Revolution Day (Egypt) **Thomas Roy#List of days, A Room of One's Own Day **Burns night (Scotland, Scottish people, Scottish community) **Dydd Santes Dwynwen (Wales) **Feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul (Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Anglican and Lutheran churches, which concludes the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity) **National Police Day (Egypt) **National Voters' Day (India) **Tatiana Day (Russia, Eastern Orthodox) *January 26 **Australia Day (Australia) **Juan Pablo Duarte, Duarte Day (Dominican Republic) **Engineer's Day (Panama) **List of awareness days, International Customs Day **Liberation Day (Uganda) **Republic Day (India) *January 27 **Days of Military Honour, Day of the lifting of the siege of Leningrad (Russia) **Auschwitz concentration camp, Liberation of the remaining inmates of Auschwitz-related observances: ***Holocaust Memorial Day (UK) ***Holocaust Memorial Days, Holocaust Remembrance Day (Sweden) ***International Holocaust Remembrance Day ***Memorial Day (Italy) ***Holocaust Memorial Days, Memorial Day for the Victims of the Holocaust and Prevention of Crimes against Humanity (Czech Republic) ***Holocaust Memorial Days, Memorial Day for the Victims of National Socialism (Germany) ***Holocaust Memorial Days, National Holocaust Memorial Day (Greece) **List of awareness days#January, Family Literacy Day (Canada) **Public holidays in Serbia, Feast of Saint Slava (Serbia) **List of food days#January, National Chocolate Cake Day (United States) **Public holidays in Monaco, Saint Devota's Day (Monaco) *January 28 **Public holidays in Armenia, Army Day (Armenia) **Data Privacy Day (international observance) *January 29 **Kansas Day (Kansas, United States) *January 30 **Public holidays in Azerbaijan, Day of Azerbaijani customs (Azerbaijan) **Saudade, Day of ''Saudade'' (Brazil) **Fred Korematsu Day (California,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) **Martyrdom of Mahatma Gandhi-related observances: ***Martyrs' Day (India) ***School Day of Non-violence and Peace (Spain) ***Start of the Season for Nonviolence January 30 – April 4 **Thomas Roy#List of days, National Inane Answering Message Day (
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) **Teacher's Day (Greece) *January 31 **Amartithi (Meherabad, India, followers of Meher Baba) **Independence Day (Nauru) **Me-Dam-Me-Phi (Ahom people, Ahom people) **Jugend Eine Welt, Street Children's Day (Austria)


References

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