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Jannah
Jannah
(Arabic: جنّة‎ Jannah; plural: Jannat), lit. "garden", generally indicates the final abode of the righteous[1] and the Islamic believers, but also the Garden
Garden
of Eden, where Adam and Hawwa dwelt. Firdaws (Arabic: فردوس) is the literal term meaning paradise, but the Quran
Quran
generally uses the term Jannah
Jannah
symbolically referring to paradise. However "Firdaus" also designates the highest layer of heaven.[2] In contrast to Jannah, the words Jahannam, Dozukh, and Nār are used to refer to the concept of hell. There are many words in the Arabic language for both Heaven and Hell
Hell
and those words also appear in the Quran
Quran
and ahadith. Most of them have become part of the Islamic traditions.[3] Jannah
Jannah
is often compared to Christian concepts of Heaven.

Contents

1 Heaven and Jannah 2 Images and descriptions of Jannah 3 Inhabitants of Jannah

3.1 Non-Muslims in Jannah 3.2 Number of people who will enter Jannah

4 Quranic names of Jannah

4.1 Layers of Jannah 4.2 Doors of Jannah

5 See also 6 References

Heaven and Jannah[edit] "Heaven" in the Quran
Quran
can be read as "sky", "paradise" then referring to the "Garden" in the afterlife or a celestial sphere. Islamic Cosmology generally depicts 7 layers of heaven analogous to the 7 layers of hell. These heavens are held to be the abode for the righteous after death. According to Sufi cosmology, Paradise
Paradise
is often depicted over the seven heavens, between the 8th and the 9th heaven.[4] In some modern interpretations, based on Surah
Surah
21:30 and 67:5, the lowest heaven is also interpretated as the observable universe, with the other 6 heavens beyond, once were a mess together with the earths and later expanded.[5][4] Images and descriptions of Jannah[edit]

An artists representation of "Muhammed's Paradise". A Persian miniature from The History of Mohammed, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris.

The Paradise
Paradise
is described as surrounded by eight principal gates, each level generally being divided into a hundred degrees guarded by angels (in some traditions Ridwan). The highest level is known as firdaws (sometimes called Eden) or Illiyin. Entrants will be greeted by angels with salutations of peace or As-Salamu Alaykum.[6] Furthermore, paradise is considered to be "as vast as the heavens and the earth".[7] In the Quran, "the Garden" is described with material delights, such as beautiful maidens, precious stones, delicious foods, and constantly flowing water—the latter especially appealing to the desert dwelling Arabs, who spend most of their life in arid lands. The Islamic texts describes life for its immortal inhabitants as: one that is happy—without hurt, sorrow, fear or shame—where every wish is fulfilled. Traditions relate that inhabitants will be of the same age (33 years), and of the same standing. Their life is one of bliss including wearing sumptuous robes, bracelets and perfumes as they partake in exquisite banquets served in priceless vessels by immortal youths (Houri), as they recline on couches inlaid with gold or precious stones. According to Muslim
Muslim
belief, everything one longs for in this world will be there in Paradise.[8] They will eat delicious food and drink, and every bowl will have a new taste. They will take eructation which will digest the food and there will be perfumed sweating for the digestion of water. Inhabitants will rejoice in the company of their parents, spouses, and children (provided they were admitted to paradise)—conversing and recalling the past.[9] The food in Jannah
Jannah
never rotting and so delicious it will make any person on earth live without feeling hunger forever. The dwellings for inhabitants will be pleasant, with lofty gardens, shady valleys, fountains scented with camphor or ginger; rivers of water, milk, honey and Sharab-un-Tahoora (pure drink); delicious fruits of all seasons without thorns;

One day in paradise is considered equal to a thousand years on earth. Palaces are made from bricks of gold, silver, pearls, among other things. Traditions also note the presence of horses and camels of "dazzling whiteness", along with other creatures. Large trees are described, mountains made of musk, between which rivers flow in valleys of pearl and ruby.[6]

The names of four rivers are Saihan (Syr Darya), Jaihan (Amu Darya), Furat (Euphrates) and Nil (Nile).[10] Salsabil is the name of a spring that is the source of the rivers of Rahma (mercy) and Al-Kawthar (abundance).[11] Sidrat al-Muntaha
Sidrat al-Muntaha
is a Lote tree that marks the end of the seventh heaven, the boundary where no creation can pass.[citation needed] In spite of the goodly dwellings given to the inhabitants of paradise, the approval of God and nearness to him is considered greater. According to the Quran, God will bring the elect near to his throne (‘arsh), a day on which "some faces shall be shining in contemplating their Lord." The vision of God is regarded as the greatest of all rewards, surpassing all other joys.[6] The true beauty of paradise is also understood as the joy of beholding God, the creator.[12][13] Besides the material notion of the paradise, those descriptions are also interpreted as allegories, explaining the state of joy people will get. For some theologicans, seeing God is not a question of sight, but of awareness of Gods presence.[14] The Persian theologian Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
said:

This life belongs to the world of earth and the world of visibility; the hereafter belongs to the world of transcendental and the world of beings. By this life I understand your state before death, by hereafter I understand your state after death ... However, it is impossible to explain the world of beings in this life by any other means than allegories.

Inhabitants of Jannah[edit] According to the Quran, the basic criterion for salvation in the afterlife is the belief in the oneness of God (tawḥīd), Angels of God, revealed books of God, all messengers of God, as well as repentance to God, and doing good deeds. Though one must do good deeds and believe in God, salvation can only be attained through God's judgment.[15] Regarding salvation from hell, according to hadith literature, Muhammad
Muhammad
said, “Surely a time will come over hell when its gates shall be blown by wind, there shall be none in it, and this shall be after they have remained therein for many years.”[16] Still in the Hadith
Hadith
literature, Muhammad
Muhammad
is reported to have said, "Allah will bring out people from the Fire and admit them into Paradise."[17] Otherwise some hadiths indicate, that the majority of mankind will not access heaven.[18] According to Sunni Islam, a Muslim, even if condemned to hell, will eventually enter Heaven.[19] As in life there are many trials which one must face. This is also a condition individuals must encounter in order to enter Jannah.

Or do ye think that ye shall enter the Garden
Garden
(of bliss) without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you? They encountered suffering and adversity, and were so shaken in spirit that even the Messenger and those of faith who were with him cried: "When (will come) the help of Allah?" Ah! Verily, the help of Allah is (always) near! — Qur'an, sura 2 (al-Baqarah), ayah 214[20]

Did ye think that ye would enter Heaven without Allah testing those of you who fought hard (In His Cause) and remained steadfast? — Qur'an, sura 3 (Al-i-Imran), ayah 142[21]

Non-Muslims in Jannah[edit] There are different opinions among scholars in regard wether Non-Muslims could enter Jannah. Some Muslims and Islamic scholars argued Surah
Surah
2:62 indicates Jannah
Jannah
is not exclusively for Muslims.

Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans—those who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness—will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.2:62

On the other hand, other scholars hold this verse is abrogated by Surah
Surah
3:85 and just applied until the arrival of Muhammad.[22][23] For example, before Jesus was born, Jewish will enter Jannah
Jannah
alike Christians, who lived before Muhammad
Muhammad
enter Jannah, but every religious group needs to accept the newest prophet.[24]

And whoever desires other than Islam
Islam
as religion - never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be among the losers.3:85

Scholars like Ibn Arabi
Ibn Arabi
did not hold the first to be abrogated by the latter, since "Islam" in this context, does not apply to Islam
Islam
as a religious tradition, but to "submission".[25][26] Ghazali distinguished between the "saved" and "those who will attain success". Therefore, righteous Non-Muslims, will neither enter hell nor Jannah, but will stay in Araf.[27] Finally, most scholars agrees that Non-Muslims who did not hear the message of Islam
Islam
and Non-Muslims who died in childhood are eligible for Jannah
Jannah
as well[28]:

… And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning).17:15

Number of people who will enter Jannah[edit] Several precise numbers are mentioned in the hadith literature which show the extremely small number of humanity that will qualify for Jannah. For instance, a small select elite group of 70,000 people from the followers of Muhammad
Muhammad
will initially enter Jannah
Jannah
without any accountability of their sins.[29] After the above group, only 1 out of 1,000 people from the rest of humanity ( Muslim
Muslim
and Non-Muslim) would qualify for Jannah. Was it to be assumed that all of these would be Muslims, that would mean roughly only 1 out of every 300 Muslims would end up in Jannah.[30] Quranic names of Jannah[edit] Layers of Jannah[edit]

Firdaws – The Highest Gardens of the Paradise
Paradise
(al-Kahf,[31] Al-Mu’minoon[32]) Dār al-maqāmah – The Home (Fāṭir[33]) Dār al-salām – Home of Peace (Yūnus,[34] Al-An'am[35]) Dār al-Ākhirah – The Home in the Hereafter (al-‘Ankabūt[36]) al- Jannah
Jannah
– This is the most commonly used term in the Quran
Quran
and Hadith. (al-Baqarah,[37] Āl ‘Imran, ,[38][39]) Jannat al-ʿadn – Gardens of Everlasting Bliss (al-Tawbah:[40] 72, al-Ra‘d[41]) Jannat al-Khuld – The Eternal Gardens (al-Furqān[42]) Jannat al-Ma’wā – Garden
Garden
of Abode (al-Najm[43]) Jannat al-Na‘īm – The Gardens of Delight (al-Mā’idah,[44] Yūnus,[45] al-Ḥajj[46]) Maq‘ad al-Ṣidq – Assembly of Truth (al-Qamar[47]) al-Maqām al-Amīn – The House of Security (al-Dukhān[48])

Doors of Jannah[edit] According to hadith, there are eight doors of Jannah. Their names are as following:[49]

Bāb al-Ṣalāh: For those who were punctual in prayer Bāb al-Jihād: For those who took part in jihad Bāb al-Ṣadaqah: For those who gave charity more often Bāb al-Rayyān: For those who fasted (siyam) Bāb al-Ḥajj: For those participated in the annual pilgrimage Bāb al-Kāẓimīn al-Ghayẓ wa-al-‘Āfīn ‘an al-Nās: For those who withheld their anger and forgave others Bāb al-Aymān: For those who by virtue of their faith are saved from reckoning and chastisement Bāb al-Dhikr: For those who showed zeal in remembering God

See also[edit]

Elysium Garden
Garden
of Eden Isra and Mi'raj Riyāḍ al- Jannah
Jannah
( Garden
Garden
of Heaven) is a part of Al-Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet)

References[edit]

^ Joseph Hell
Hell
Die Religion des Islam
Islam
Motilal Banarsidass Publishe 1915 ^ Asad, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1984). The Message of the Qu'rán (PDF). Gibraltar, Spain: Dar al-Andalus Limited. pp. 712–713. ISBN 1904510000.  ^ Asad, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1984). The Message of the Qu'rán (PDF). Gibraltar, Spain: Dar al-Andalus Limited. p. 531. ISBN 1904510000.  ^ a b Sachiko Murata The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought SUNY Press 1992 ISBN 978-0-791-40913-8 page 127 ^ Muzaffar Iqbal Contemporary Issues in Islam
Islam
and Science, Band 2 Routledge 2017 ISBN 978-1-351-94915-6 ^ a b c "Jannah", Encyclopaedia of Islam
Encyclopaedia of Islam
Online ^ "Quran". Quran.com. Retrieved 20 November 2017.  ^ Annemarie Schimmel. Islam
Islam
and The Wonders of Creation: The Animal Kingdom. Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2003. Page 46 ^ Quran
Quran
55:56-58, 56:15-25 ^ Hughes, Patrick (1995). "EDEN". A Dictionary of Islam. New Delhi, India: Asian Educational Services. p. 106. ISBN 9788120606722. ISBN 81-206-0672-8.  ^ Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi (2004). Divine sayings (Mishkat al-Anwar). Oxford, UK: Anqa Publishing. pp. 105, note 7. ISBN 0-9534513-5-6.  ^ Mouhanad Khorchide, Sarah Hartmann Islam
Islam
is Mercy: Essential Features of a Modern Religion Verlag Herder GmbH ISBN 978-3-451-80286-7 chapter 2.4 ^ Farnáz Maʻsúmián Life After Death: A Study of the Afterlife
Afterlife
in World Religions Kalimat Press 1995 page 81 ^ Cyril Glassé, Huston Smith The New Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
Rowman Altamira 2003 ISBN 978-0-759-10190-6 page 237 ^ Moiz Amjad. "Will Christians enter Paradise
Paradise
or go to Hell? Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine.". Renaissance - Monthly Islamic journal 11(6), June, 2001. ^ Ibn Jarir al-Tabari in Mujma Al Kabir ^ "Allah will bring out people from the Fire and admit them into Paradise". sunnah.com. Retrieved 2016-02-23.  ^ "4203: How many will enter Paradise? - islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 2018-04-07.  ^ A F Klein Religion Of Islam
Islam
Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-136-09954-0 page 92 ^ Quran 2:214 ^ Quran 3:142 ^ David Marshall Communicating the Word: Revelation, Translation, and Interpretation in Christianity
Christianity
and Islam
Islam
Georgetown University Press 2011 ISBN 978-1-589-01803-7 p. 8 ^ Lloyd Ridgeon Islamic Interpretations of Christianity
Christianity
Routledge 2013 ISBN 978-1-136-84020-3 ^ "Who are the Jews and Christians who will enter Paradise? - islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 2018-04-04. As far as the Jews are concerned, their faith meant believing in the Tawraat (original Torah) and following the way of Moosa (peace be upon him) until ‘Eesa came, after which whoever continued to follow the Torah and the way of Moosa, and did not leave this and follow ‘Eesa, was doomed. As far as the Christians are concerned, their faith meant believing in the Injeel (original Gospel) and following the laws of ‘Eesa; whoever did this was a believer whose faith was acceptable to Allah, until Muhammad
Muhammad
(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came, after which whoever did not follow Muhammad
Muhammad
(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and leave the way of ‘Eesa and the Injeel that he had been following before, was doomed.  ^ Robert McKim Religious Perspectives on Religious Diversity Philosophy of Religion - World Religions BRILL 2016 ISBN 978-9-004-33043-6 page 155 ^ William C. Chittick The Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn al-Arabi's Metaphysics of Imagination SUNY Press 1989 ISBN 978-088-706885-0 page 197 ^ Mohammad Hassan Khalil Islam
Islam
and the Fate of Others: The Salvation Question Oxford University Press, USA 2012 ISBN 978-0-199-79666-3 page 45-46 ^ "The fate of kuffaar who did not hear the message of Islam
Islam
- islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 2018-04-04.  ^ "4203: How many will enter Paradise? - islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 2018-04-07.  ^ "22836: The ratio of people of Paradise
Paradise
to people of Hell
Hell
- islamqa.info". islamqa.info. Retrieved 2018-04-07.  ^ Quran 18:107 ^ Quran 23:11 ^ Quran 35:35 ^ Quran 10:25 ^ Quran 6:127 ^ Quran 29:64 ^ Quran 2:35 ^ Quran 3:133 ^ Quran 5:72 ^ Quran 3:72 ^ Quran 13:23 ^ Quran 25:15 ^ Quran 53:15 ^ Quran 5:65 ^ Quran 10:9 ^ Quran 22:56 ^ Quran 54:55 ^ Quran 44:51 ^ The Eight Doors of Jannah
Jannah
Archived 2010-06-05 at the Wayback Machine.

v t e

Afterlife
Afterlife
locations

Abrahamic religions

Judaism

7 Heavens and 7 Earths Throne of God Garden
Garden
of Eden Olam Haba Sheol

Christianity

Heaven Hell Kingdom of God Garden
Garden
of Eden Paradise Purgatory Limbo New Jerusalem Pearly gates

Islam

Barzakh Naar Jannah
Jannah
(and Jabarut) Sidrat al-Muntaha A'raf As-Sirāt

Mormonism

Celestial Kingdom Terrestrial Kingdom Telestial Kingdom Spirit world

European mythologies

Celtic

Otherworld

Annwn Tír na nÓg Mag Mell Tech Duinn

Finnic

Tuonela

Germanic

Asgard Fólkvangr Valhalla Neorxnawang Gimlé Helheimr

Greek

Hades Elysium Erebus Orcus Asphodel Meadows Myth of Er Empyrean Tartarus Fortunate Isles

Slavic

Iriy

Eastern/Asian religions

Buddhism

Naraka Deva (Buddhism)

Hinduism

14 planetary systems Ādi Śeṣa Svarga Naraka Vaikuntha Kailash Goloka Akshardham

Sikhism

Sach Khand

Taoism

Grotto-heavens

Chinese

Tian Diyu Youdu

Japanese

Yomi

Zoroastrianism

Chinvat Bridge Hamistagan

Others

Mesoamerican

Mictlan Tamoanchan Thirteen Heavens Tlalocan Xibalba

Plains Indians

Happy hunting ground

Tupi

Land without evil

Wicca

The Summerland

Theosophy

Summerland Devachan Nirvana

Ancient Egyptian

Aaru Duat

Millennialism Utopianism Great unity Golden Age Arcadia Avalon The Guf Well of Souls Existential planes Underworld List of m

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