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The Janiculum
Janiculum
(/dʒəˈnɪkjʊləm/; Italian: Gianicolo, pronounced [dʒaˈniːkolo]) is a hill in western Rome, Italy. Although the second-tallest hill (the tallest being Monte Mario) in the contemporary city of Rome, the Janiculum
Janiculum
does not figure among the proverbial Seven Hills of Rome, being west of the Tiber
Tiber
and outside the boundaries of the ancient city.

Contents

1 Sights 2 History

2.1 Ancient history and mythology 2.2 The water mills 2.3 19th century to present

3 Monuments 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Sights[edit] The Janiculum
Janiculum
is one of the best locations in Rome
Rome
for a scenic view of central Rome
Rome
with its domes and bell towers. Other sights on the Janiculum
Janiculum
include the church of San Pietro in Montorio, on what was formerly thought to be the site of St Peter's crucifixion; a small shrine known as the Tempietto, designed by Donato Bramante, marks the supposed site of Peter's death. The Janiculum
Janiculum
also houses a Baroque fountain built by Pope Paul V
Pope Paul V
in the late 17th century, the Fontana dell'Acqua Paola, and several foreign research institutions, including the American Academy in Rome
Rome
and the Spanish Academy in Rome. The Hill is also the location of The American University of Rome, Pontifical Urban University, and Pontifical North American College, as well as the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Roma "La Sapienza"
Orto Botanico dell'Università di Roma "La Sapienza"
and the Palazzo Montorio, residence of the Ambassadors of Spain. The Villa Lante al Gianicolo
Villa Lante al Gianicolo
by Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano
(1520-21) is an important early building by the Mannerist
Mannerist
master, also with magnificent views. History[edit] Ancient history and mythology[edit] The Janiculum
Janiculum
was a center for the cult of the god Janus: its position overlooking the city made it a good place for augurs to observe the auspices. In Roman mythology, Janiculum
Janiculum
is the name of an ancient town founded by the god Janus (the two-faced god of beginnings). In Book VIII of the Aeneid
Aeneid
by Virgil
Virgil
(Publius Vergilius Maro), King Evander shows Aeneas
Aeneas
(the Trojan hero of this epic poem) the ruins of Saturnia and Janiculum
Janiculum
on the Capitoline Hill
Capitoline Hill
near the Arcadian city of Pallanteum (the future site of Rome) (see line 54, Bk. 8). Virgil
Virgil
uses these ruins to stress the significance of the Capitoline Hill
Capitoline Hill
as the religious center of Rome. According to Livy, the Janiculum
Janiculum
was incorporated into ancient Rome during the time of king Ancus Marcius
Ancus Marcius
to prevent an enemy from occupying it. It was fortified by a wall, and a bridge was built across the Tiber
Tiber
to join it to the rest of the city.[1] During the war between Rome
Rome
and Clusium in 508 BC, it is said that the forces of Lars Porsena
Lars Porsena
occupied the Janiculum
Janiculum
and laid siege to Rome.[2] The water mills[edit] See also: List of Roman watermills The Aurelian Walls
Aurelian Walls
were continued up the hill by the emperor Aurelian (reigned AD 270–275) to include the water mills used to grind grain to provide bread flour for the city. The mills were supplied from an aqueduct, where it plunged down a steep hill. Thus the site resembles Barbegal, although excavations in the late 1990s suggest that they may have been undershot[clarification needed] rather than overshot in design. The mills were in use in AD 537, when the Goths
Goths
besieging the city cut off their water supply. But they were later restored and may have remained in operation until at least the time of Pope Gregory IV (827–844).[3] 19th century to present[edit] The Janiculum
Janiculum
is the site of a battle in 1849 between the forces of Garibaldi, defending the revolutionary Roman Republic against French forces, who were fighting to restore the temporal power of the Pope over Rome. Several monuments to Garibaldi and to the fallen in the wars of Italian independence are on the Janiculum. Daily at noon, a cannon fires once from the Janiculum
Janiculum
in the direction of the Tiber
Tiber
as a time signal. This tradition goes back to December 1847, when the cannon of the Castel Sant'Angelo
Castel Sant'Angelo
gave the sign to the surrounding belltowers to start ringing at midday. In 1904, the ritual was transferred to the Janiculum
Janiculum
and continued until 1939. On 21 April 1959, popular appeal convinced the Commune of Rome
Rome
to resume the tradition after a twenty-year interruption. The hill is featured in the third section of Ottorino Respighi's famous orchestral piece The Pines of Rome. Monuments[edit] The crest of the Janiculum
Janiculum
is dominated by the 1895 equestrian Monument to Garibaldi, designed by Italian sculptor Emilio Gallori. This site was chosen for its proximity to the Villa Doria Pamphili, where Garibaldi mounted a military defense of the short-lived Roman Republic in late April 1849.[4] The hill also features a number of statues and monuments of prominent Italians. A 2011 guide published by the local Associazione Amilcare Cipriani group, after an extensive restoration of these monuments, lists a total of 84 busts on the hill.[5] See also[edit]

Seven hills of Rome Aventine Hill
Aventine Hill
(Aventino) Caelian Hill
Caelian Hill
(Celio) Capitoline Hill
Capitoline Hill
(Capitolino) Cispian Hill (Cispio) Esquiline
Esquiline
Hill (Esquilino) Monte Mario Oppian Hill (Oppio) Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
(Palatino) Pincian Hill
Pincian Hill
(Pincio) Quirinal Hill
Quirinal Hill
(Quirinale) Vatican Hill
Vatican Hill
(Vaticano) Velian Hill
Velian Hill
(Velia) Viminal Hill
Viminal Hill
(Viminale)

References[edit]

^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1:33 ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 2.9–15 ^ Örjan Wikander, 'Water-mills in Ancient Rome' Opuscula Romana XII (1979), 13–36. ^ The Architecture of Modern Italy: Vol. 1: The Challenge of Tradition, 1750-1900, by Terry Kirk, 2005, page 239 ^ http://www.appasseggio.it/getFile.php?id=306 (Italian-language; pdf file)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Janiculum.

Media related to il Gianicolo (Rome) at Wikimedia Commons The Janiculum
Janiculum
at Lacus Curtius Roman Bookshelf – The Pauline Fountain (Janiculum) – views from the 18th and 19th century Recent excavations of the mills Passegiata del Gianicolo (in Italian)

Coordinates: 41°53′30″N 12°27′40″E / 41.89167°N 12.46111°E / 41.891

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