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JAMMU AND KASHMIR (/ˈdʒæmuː ənd ˌkæʃˈmɪər, ˈdʒʌ-, ˈkæʃmɪər/ ( listen ) ) is a state in northern India
India
, often denoted by the acronym J"> Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh (1895–1961) The Instrument of Accession of Kashmir
Kashmir
to India was accepted by Governor General Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma .

Maharaja Hari Singh
Maharaja Hari Singh
became the ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
in 1925, and he was the reigning monarch at the conclusion of the British rule in the subcontinent in 1947. With the impending independence of India, the British announced that the British Paramountcy over the princely states would end, and the states were free to choose between the new Dominions of India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
or to remain independent. It was emphasised that independence was only a `theoretical possibility' because, during the long rule of the British in India, the states had come to depend on British Indian government for a variety of their needs including their internal and external security.

Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
had a Muslim majority (77% Muslim by the previous census in 1941 ). Following the logic of Partition , many people in Pakistan
Pakistan
expected that Kashmir
Kashmir
would join Pakistan. However, the predominant political movement in the Valley of Kashmir ( Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
National Conference ) was secular, and was allied with the Indian National Congress since the 1930s. So many in India
India
too had expectations that Kashmir
Kashmir
would join India. The Maharaja was faced with indecision.

On 22 October 1947, rebellious citizens from the western districts of the State and Pushtoon tribesmen from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan
Pakistan
invaded the State, backed by Pakistan. The Maharaja initially fought back but appealed for assistance to the India
India
, who agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India. Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession on 26 October 1947 in return for military aid and assistance, which was accepted by the Governor General the next day. While the Government of India
India
accepted the accession, it added the proviso that it would be submitted to a "reference to the people" after the state is cleared of the invaders, since "only the people, not the Maharaja, could decide where Kashmiris wanted to live." It was a provisional accession.

Once the Instrument of Accession was signed, Indian soldiers entered Kashmir
Kashmir
with orders to evict the raiders. The resulting Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 lasted till the end of 1948. At the beginning of 1948, India
India
took the matter to the United Nations Security Council. The Security Council passed a resolution asking Pakistan
Pakistan
to withdraw its forces as well as the Pakistani nationals from the territory of Jammu and Kashmir, and India
India
to withdraw the majority of its forces leaving only a sufficient number to maintain law and order, following which a Plebiscite would be held. A ceasefire was agreed on 1 January 1949, supervised by UN observers.

A special United Nations Commission for India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
(UNCIP) was set up to negotiate the withdrawal arrangements as per the Security Council resolution. The UNCIP made three visits to the subcontinent between 1948 and 1949, trying to find a solution agreeable to both India
India
and Pakistan. It passed a resolution in August 1948 proposing a three-part process. It was accepted by India but effectively rejected by Pakistan. In the end, no withdrawal was ever carried out, India
India
insisting that Pakistan
Pakistan
had to withdraw first, and Pakistan
Pakistan
contending that there was no guarantee that India
India
would withdraw afterwards. No agreement could be reached between the two countries on the process of demilitarisation.

India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
fought two further wars in 1965 and 1971 . Following the latter war, the countries reached the Simla Agreement , agreeing on a Line of Control between their respective regions and committing to a peaceful resolution of the dispute through bilateral negotiations .

DEBATE OVER ACCESSION

The primary argument for the continuing debate over the ownership of Kashmir
Kashmir
is that India
India
did not hold the promised plebiscite. In fact, neither side has adhered to the UN resolution of 13 August 1948; while India
India
chose not to hold the plebiscite, Pakistan
Pakistan
failed to withdraw its troops from Kashmir
Kashmir
as was required under the resolution.

India
India
gives the following reasons for not holding the plebiscite: "WE, THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR,

having solemnly resolved, in pursuance of the ACCESSION OF THIS STATE TO INDIA which took place on the twenty sixth day of October, 1947, to further define the existing RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATE WITH THE UNION OF INDIA AS AN INTEGRAL PART THEREOF, and to secure to ourselves-

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among us all;

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity of the nation;

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this seventeenth day of November, 1956, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION." -PREAMBLE OF CONSTITUTION OF JAMMU "> * Another reason for the abandonment of the referendum is because demographic changes after 1947 have been effected in Pakistan-administered Kashmir , as generations of Pakistani individuals non-native to the region have been allowed to take residence in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. Furthermore, India alleges that in Jammu
Jammu
and General Assembly Resolution 2625 (1970) subsequently affirmed the right of internal self-determination, which the population of Kashmir
Kashmir
has consistently been deprived of * The popular Kashmiri insurgency which erupted on 1989 demonstrates that the Kashmiri people no longer wish to remain within India. Pakistan
Pakistan
suggests that this means that Kashmir
Kashmir
either wants to be with Pakistan
Pakistan
or independent. * According to the two-nation theory , which is one of the theories that is cited for the partition that created India
India
and Pakistan, Kashmir
Kashmir
should have been with Pakistan, because it has a Muslim majority. * India
India
has shown disregard to the resolutions of the UN Security Council and the United Nations Commission in India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
by failing to hold a plebiscite to determine the future allegiance of the state. * In 2007 there have been reports of extrajudicial killings in Indian-administered Kashmir
Kashmir
by Indian security forces while claiming they were caught up in encounters with militants. The encounters go largely uninvestigated by the authorities, and the perpetrators are spared criminal prosecution. Human rights organisations have strongly condemned Indian troops for widespread abuses and murder of civilians while accusing these civilians of being militants.

Diplomatic relations between India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
soured for many other reasons and eventually resulted in three further wars in Kashmir
Kashmir
the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 , the Indo- Pakistan
Pakistan
War of 1971 and the Kargil War in 1999 . India
India
has control of 60% of the area of the former Princely State of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
( Jammu
Jammu
, Kashmir Valley , Ladakh
Ladakh
and Siachen Glacier
Siachen Glacier
); Pakistan
Pakistan
controls 30% of the region ( Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir ). China
China
administers 10% (Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract ) of the state since 1962.

The Chenab formula was a compromise proposed in the 1960s, in which the Kashmir
Kashmir
valley and other Muslim-dominated areas north of the Chenab river
Chenab river
would go to Pakistan, and Jammu
Jammu
and other Hindu-dominated regions would go to India.

The eastern region of the erstwhile princely state of Kashmir
Kashmir
has also been beset with a boundary dispute. In the late 19th- and early 20th centuries, although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Tibet, Afghanistan and Russia over the northern borders of Kashmir, China
China
never accepted these agreements, and the official Chinese position did not change with the communist revolution in 1949 . By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the northeast portion of Ladakh.

By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and western Tibet
Tibet
. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962. China
China
has occupied Aksai Chin since 1962 and, in addition, an adjoining region, the Trans-Karakoram Tract was ceded by Pakistan
Pakistan
to China
China
in 1963.

For intermittent periods between 1957, when the state approved its own Constitution, and the death of Sheikh Abdullah
Sheikh Abdullah
in 1982, the state had alternating spells of stability and discontent. In the late 1980s, however, simmering discontent over the high-handed policies of the Union Government and allegations of the rigging of the 1987 assembly elections triggered a violent uprising which was backed by Pakistan.

Since then, the region has seen a prolonged, bloody conflict between separatists and the Indian Army
Indian Army
, both of whom have been accused of widespread human rights abuses , including abductions, massacres, rapes and armed robbery. The army has officially denied these allegations. However, violence in the state has been on the decline since 2004 with the peace process between India
India
and Pakistan.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Main article: Geography of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
Tso Moriri (lake) on the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe in Ladakh
Ladakh

Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
is home to several valleys such as the Kashmir Valley , Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley , Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Lidder Valley . The main Kashmir Valley is 100 km (62 mi) wide and 15,520.3 km2 (5,992.4 sq mi) in area. The Himalayas
Himalayas
divide the Kashmir valley from Ladakh
Ladakh
while the Pir Panjal range, which encloses the valley from the west and the south, separates it from the Great Plains of northern India. Along the northeastern flank of the Valley runs the main range of the Himalayas. This densely settled and beautiful valley has an average height of 1,850 metres (6,070 ft) above sea-level but the surrounding Pir Panjal range has an average elevation of 5,000 metres (16,000 ft).

Because of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir's wide range of elevations, its biogeography is diverse. Northwestern thorn scrub forests and Himalayan subtropical pine forests are found in the low elevations of the far southwest. These give way to a broad band of western Himalayan broadleaf forests running from northwest-southeast across the Kashmir Valley. Rising into the mountains, the broadleaf forests grade into western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests . Above the tree line are found northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows . Much of the northeast of the state is covered by the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe . Around the highest elevations, there is no vegetation, simply rock and ice. Srinagar- Yatra- Hindu
Hindu
holy cave

DIVISION AREA KM2 PERCENTAGE AREA

Kashmir 15,948 15.73%

Jammu 26,293 25.93%

Ladakh 59,146 58.33%

INDIA-ADMINISTRATED JAMMU AND KASHMIR 101,387 KM2 100%

The Jhelum River
Jhelum River
is the only major Himalayan river which flows through the Kashmir
Kashmir
valley. The Indus , Tawi , Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers flowing through the state. Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
is home to several Himalayan glaciers. With an average altitude of 5,753 metres (18,875 ft) above sea-level, the Siachen Glacier
Siachen Glacier
is 76 km (47 mi) long making it the longest Himalayan glacier.

The climate of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
varies greatly owing to its rugged topography. In the south around Jammu, the climate is typically monsoonal, though the region is sufficiently far west to average 40 to 50 mm (1.6 to 2 inches) of rain per month between January and March. In the hot season, Jammu
Jammu
city is very hot and can reach up to 40 °C (104 °F) whilst in July and August, very heavy though erratic rainfall occurs with monthly extremes of up to 650 millimetres (25.5 inches). In September, rainfall declines, and by October conditions are hot but extremely dry, with minimal rainfall and temperatures of around 29 °C (84 °F).

Across from the Pir Panjal range, the South Asian monsoon is no longer a factor and most precipitation falls in the spring from southwest cloudbands. Because of its closeness to the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
, Srinagar
Srinagar
receives as much as 635 millimetres (25 in) of rain from this source, with the wettest months being March to May with around 85 millimetres (3.3 inches) per month. Across from the main Himalaya Range, even the southwest cloudbands break up and the climate of Ladakh
Ladakh
and Zanskar is extremely dry and cold. Annual precipitation is only around 100 mm (4 inches) per year and humidity is very low. In this region, almost all above 3,000 metres (9,750 ft) above sea level, winters are extremely cold. In Zanskar, the average January temperature is −20 °C (−4 °F) with extremes as low as −40 °C (−40 °F). All the rivers freeze over and locals make river crossings during this period because their high levels from glacier melt in summer inhibits crossing. In summer in Ladakh
Ladakh
and Zanskar, days are typically a warm 20 °C (68 °F), but with the low humidity and thin air nights can still be cold.

*

Lake Tso Moriri *

Topographic map
Topographic map
of J">

Mountains in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
*

Nageen Lake *

River rafting in the Zanskar subdistrict of Kargil
Kargil
*

View from the Gulmarg
Gulmarg
slopes. Cable car is used as ski lift *

Mountains near Rohtang Pass *

Natural Rock and Sand Formations along Sumkhel Lungpa River in More Plains

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main article: List of districts in Jammu and Kashmir Indian-administered Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir

Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
consists of three divisions: Jammu, Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley and Ladakh, and is further divided into 22 districts. The Siachen Glacier , although under Indian military control, does not lie under the administration of the state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. Kishtwar , Ramban , Reasi , Samba
Samba
, Bandipora , Ganderbal , Kulgam
Kulgam
and Shopian are newly formed districts, and their areas are included with those of the districts from which they were formed.

DIVISION NAME HEADQUARTERS AREA (KM²) Population 2001 Census Population 2011 Census

Jammu
Jammu
Kathua District Kathua 2,651 550,084 615,711

Jammu
Jammu
District Jammu
Jammu
3,097 1,343,756 1,526,406

Samba District Samba
Samba
904 245,016 318,611

Udhampur District Udhampur 4,550 475,068 555,357

Reasi District Reasi 1,719 268,441 314,714

Rajouri District Rajouri 2,630 483,284 619,266

Poonch District Poonch 1,674 372,613 476,820

Doda District Doda 11,691 320,256 409,576

Ramban District Ramban 1,329 180,830 283,313

Kishtwar District Kishtwar 1,644 190,843 231,037

_Total for division_ _ Jammu
Jammu
_ _26,293_ _4,430,191_ _5,350,811_

Kashmir Valley Anantnag District Anantnag
Anantnag
3,984 734,549 1,069,749

Kulgam District Kulgam
Kulgam
1,067 437,885 423,181

Pulwama District Pulwama 1,398 441,275 570,060

Shopian District Shopian 612.87 211,332 265,960

Budgam District Budgam 1,371 629,309 755,331

Srinagar
Srinagar
District Srinagar
Srinagar
2,228 990,548 1,250,173

Ganderbal District Ganderbal 259 211,899 297,003

Bandipora District Bandipora 398 316,436 385,099

Baramulla District Baramulla 4,588 853,344 1,015,503

Kupwara District Kupwara
Kupwara
2,379 650,393 875,564

_Total for division_ _ Srinagar
Srinagar
_ _15,948_ _5,476,970_ _6,907,622_

Ladakh
Ladakh
Kargil District Kargil
Kargil
14,036 119,307 143,388

Leh District Leh
Leh
45,110 117,232 147,104

_Total for division_ _ Leh
Leh
_ _59,146_ _236,539_ _290,492_

TOTAL 101,387 10,143,700 12,548,925

MAJOR CITIES

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (April 2016)_

MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS: 2 – Srinagar
Srinagar
, Jammu
Jammu

MUNICIPAL COUNCILS: 6 – Udhampur , Kathua , Poonch , Anantnag
Anantnag
, Baramulla , Sopore

MUNICIPAL BOARDS: 21 – Samba
Samba
, Ranbirsinghpora , Akhnoor , Reasi , Ramban , Doda , Bhaderwah , Kishtwar , Kargil
Kargil
, Dooru- Verinag , Bijbehara , Pulwama , Tral , Badgam , Kulgam
Kulgam
, Shopian , Ganderbal , Pattan
Pattan
, Sumbal , Kupwara
Kupwara
, Handwara

POPULATION OF TEN MAJOR CITIES:

NAME RANK Population 2011 Census STATE REGION

Srinagar
Srinagar
1 1,273,312 Kashmir
Kashmir

Jammu
Jammu
2 612,163 Jammu
Jammu

Anantnag
Anantnag
3 108,505 Kashmir
Kashmir

Baramulla 4 1,015,503 Kashmir

Udhampur 5

Jammu

Sopore 6

Kashmir

Kathua 7

Jammu

Rajouri 8

Jammu

Poonch 9

Jammu

Bandipora 10

Kashmir

DEMOGRAPHICS

Vaishno Devi temple located in the state is one of the holiest Hindu
Hindu
temples dedicated to Shakti
Shakti
.

POPULATION INCREASE

CENSUS POP.

1951 3,254,000

1961 3,561,000

9.4%

1971 4,617,000

29.7%

1981 5,987,000

29.7%

1991 7,837,000

30.9%

2001 10,143,700

29.4%

2011 12,548,926

23.7%

Source:Census of India
India
The 1991 Census could not be held in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, the 1991 population is interpolated.

Religion in Jammu
Jammu
And Kashmir
Kashmir
(2011) Islam
Islam
(68.31%) Hinduism (28.43%) Sikhism (1.87%) Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.89%) Christianity
Christianity
(0.28%) Jainism
Jainism
(0.01%) Other or none (0.01%) Atheist (0.001%)

The major ethnic groups living in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
include Kashmiris , Gujjars /Bakarwals, Paharis, Dogras and Ladakhis. The Kashmiris live mostly in the main valley of Kashmir
Kashmir
and Chenab valley of Jammu division with a minority living in the Pir Panjal region. The Pahari -speaking people mostly live in and around the Pir Panjal region with some in the northern Kashmir
Kashmir
valley. The nomadic Gujjars and Bakerwals practice transhumance and mostly live in the Pirpanjal region. The Dogras are ethnically, linguistically and culturally related to the neighbouring Punjabi people and mostly live in the Udhampur and Jammu districts of the state. The Ladakhis are people of Mongoloid stock and resemble in their ethnic character to the neighbouring Tibetan people .

Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
is one of India's two administrative divisions (the other being the Union territory of Lakshadweep which is overwhelmingly Muslim) with a Muslim majority population. According to the 2011 census, Islam
Islam
is practised by about 68.3% of the state population, while 28.4% follow Hinduism and small minorities follow Sikhism (1.9%), Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.9%) and Christianity
Christianity
(0.3%). About 96.4% of the population of the Kashmir
Kashmir
valley are Muslim followed by Hindus (2.45%) and Sikhs (0.98%) and others (0.17%) Shias live in the district of Badgam, where they are a majority. The Shia population is estimated to comprise 14% of the state's population.

In Jammu, Hindus constitute 62.55% of the population, Muslims 33.45% and Sikhs, 3.3%; In Ladakh
Ladakh
(comprises Buddhists-dominated Leh
Leh
and Shia Muslim-dominated Kargil), Muslims constitute about 46.4% of the population, the remaining being Buddhists (39.7%) and Hindus (12.1%). The people of Ladakh
Ladakh
are of Indo-Tibetan origin, while the southern area of Jammu
Jammu
includes many communities tracing their ancestry to the nearby Indian states of Haryana
Haryana
and Punjab , as well as the city of Delhi
Delhi
.

Buddhists , Hindus , Sikhs and a few Christian, Jain
Jain
, and Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
communities were once natives and made up a vast majority of the whole Kashmir
Kashmir
province, as well as neighbouring states, and ancient and modern northern half of what is today India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
, but because of economic changes, political tension, military involvement, and foreign extremists resulted in vast majority of the followers of these religions to settle in the growing and advancing neighbouring regions and major cities in India
India
over the years, often during no present borders or records. Hindu
Hindu
pandits were specifically affected in this region due to their status in the local society. A mosque in Srinagar
Srinagar

According to political scientist Alexander Evans, approximately 99% of the total population of 160,000–170,000 of Kashmiri Brahmins , also called Kashmiri Pandits , (_i.e._ approximately 150,000 to 160,000) left the Kashmir Valley in 1990 as militancy engulfed the state. According to an estimate by the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
, about 300,000 Kashmiri Pandits from the entire state of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
have been internally displaced due to the ongoing violence.

The pre-independence Census of 1941 recorded Muslims as constituting 72.41% of the population, and Hindus 25.01%. In the 1961 census, the first one to be conducted after the parition of the State, Muslims constituted 68.31% of the population and Hindus 28.45%. The proportion of Muslims fell to 64.19% by 1981 but recovered afterwards, reaching 68.31% again by 2011. Gujjar
Gujjar
man from Jammu
Jammu
">:125 * 226,000 refugees from Pakistan-administered Kashmir migrated to India
India
and Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
in 1947–48. * An estimated 50,000-150,000 Kashmiri Muslims and 150,000-300,000 Kashmiri Pandits have been internally displaced due to the conflict.

In Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, the principal spoken languages are Kashmiri , Urdu
Urdu
, Dogri , Hindi
Hindi
, Punjabi , Pahari , Balti , Ladakhi , Gojri , Shina and Pashto . However, Urdu
Urdu
written in the Persian script is the official language of the state. Hindustani is widely understood by peoples. Many speakers of these languages use Urdu
Urdu
or English as a second language.

Urdu
Urdu
occupies a central space in media, education, religious and political discourses, and the legislature of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. The language is said to function as a symbol of identity among Muslims of South Asia. Additionally, as the language is regarded as a "neutral" and non-native language of the multilingual region, its acceptance was broadly accepted by Kashmiri Muslims. The use of Urdu
Urdu
as the official language of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
has also been criticised by Rajeshwari V. Pandharipande of the University of Illinois on the basis that the language is spoken as a native language by less than 1% of the population, and has rendered Kashmiri, spoken by 53% of the population, into a functional "minority language," effectively restricting its use to home and family.

The Kashmir Valley is dominated by ethnic Kashmiris, who have largely driven the campaign for secession from India. Non-Kashmiri Muslim ethnic groups (Paharis, Gujjars and Bakarwalas), who dominate areas along the Line of Control, have remained indifferent to the separatist campaign. Jammu
Jammu
province region has a 70:30 Hindu-Muslim ratio. Parts of the region were hit by militants, but violence has ebbed there, along with the Valley, after India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
started a peace process in 2004.

Dogras (67%) are the single largest group in the multi-ethnic region of Jammu
Jammu
living with Punjabis, Kashmiris, Paharis, Bakerwals and Gujjars. Statehood is demanded in Hindu-dominated districts. Ladakh
Ladakh
is the largest region in the state with over 200,000 people. Its two districts are Leh
Leh
(68% Buddhist) and Kargil
Kargil
(91% Muslim population). Union territory status has been the key demand of Leh
Leh
Buddhists for many years.

POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT

Main articles: Politics of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
, Government of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
, Jammu and Kashmir Legislature , and Constitution of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
See also: Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
Legislative Assembly election, 2014 _ A soldier guards the roadside checkpoint outside Srinagar
Srinagar
International Airport. Jan 2009_

Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
is the only state in India
India
which enjoys special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India
India
, according to which no law enacted by the Parliament of India
India
, except for those in the field of defence, communication and foreign policy, will be extendable in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
unless it is ratified by the state legislature of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. Subsequently, jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India
India
over Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
has been extended.

Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
is the only Indian state to have its own official state flag along with national flag and constitution . Indians from other states cannot purchase land or property in the state. Designed by the then ruling National Conference, the flag of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir features a plough on a red background symbolising labour; it replaced the Maharaja's state flag. The three stripes represent the three distinct administrative divisions of the state, namely Jammu, Valley of Kashmir, and Ladakh.

In 1990, an Armed Forces Act , which gives special powers to the Indian security forces, has been enforced in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir. The decision to invoke this act was criticised by the Human Rights Watch . Amnesty International has strongly condemned the implementation of this Act that grants virtual immunity to security forces from prosecution. Minar Pimple, Senior Director of Global Operations at Amnesty International states.

Till now, not a single member of the security forces deployed in the state has been tried for human rights violations in a civilian court. This lack of accountability has in turn facilitated other serious abuses

Like all the states of India, Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
has a multi-party democratic system of governance with a bicameral legislature. At the time of drafting the Constitution of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir, 100 seats were earmarked for direct elections from territorial constituencies. Of these, 25 seats were reserved for the areas of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
State that came under Pakistani occupation; this was reduced to 24 after the 12th amendment of the Constitution of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir:

"The territory of the State shall comprise all the territories which on the fifteenth day of August 1947, were under the sovereignty or suzerainty of the Ruler of the State" and Section 48 therein states that, "Notwithstanding anything contained in section 47, until the area of the State under the occupations of Pakistan
Pakistan
ceases to so occupied and the people residing in that area elect their representatives (a) twenty-five seats in the Legislative Assembly shall remain vacant and shall not be taken into account for reckoning the total member-ship of the Assembly; and the said area shall be excluded in delimiting the territorial Constituencies Under Section 47".

After a delimitation in 1988, the total number of seats increased to 111, of which 87 were within Indian-administered territory. The Jammu & Kashmir
Kashmir
Assembly is the only state in India
India
to have a 6-year term, in contrast to the norm of a 5-year term followed in every other state's Assembly. There was indication from the previous INC Government to bring parity with the other states, but this does not seem to have received the required support to pass into law.

Influential political parties include the Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
National Conference (NC), the Indian National Congress (INC), the Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
People\'s Democratic Party (PDP), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and other smaller regional parties. After dominating Kashmir's politics for years, the National Conference's influence waned in 2002, when INC and PDP formed a political alliance and rose to power. Under the power-sharing agreement, INC leader Ghulam Nabi Azad
Ghulam Nabi Azad
replaced PDP's Mufti Mohammad Sayeed as the Chief Minister of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir in late 2005. However, in 2008, PDP withdrew its support from the government on the issue of temporary diversion of nearly 40 acres (16 ha) of land to the Sri Amarnath Shrine Board. In the 2008 Kashmir Elections that were held from 17 November to 24 December, the National Conference party and the Congress party together won enough seats in the state assembly to form a ruling alliance. In the 2014 election , the voter turnout was recorded at 65% – the highest in the history of the state. The results gave a fractured mandate to either parties — the PDP won 28 seats, BJP 25, NC 15 and INC 12. After 2 months of deliberations and president's rule, the BJP and the PDP announced an agreement for a coalition government, and PDP patron Mufti Mohammad Sayeed was sworn-in as CM for a second term, with Nirmal Singh of the BJP sworn-in as deputy CM. This also marked the first time in 35 years that the BJP was a coalition partner in the state government.

The state has two autonomous councils in Ladakh, these are the LAHDC Leh
Leh
and LAHDC Kargil
Kargil
.

SEPARATIST INSURGENCY AND MILITANCY SINCE 1989

In 1989, a widespread popular and armed insurgency started in Kashmir. After the 1987 state legislative assembly election , some of the results were disputed. This resulted in the formation of militant wings and marked the beginning of the Mujahadeen insurgency, which continues to this day. India
India
contends that the insurgency was largely started by Afghan mujahadeen who entered the Kashmir
Kashmir
valley following the end of the Soviet-Afghan War . Yasin Malik , a leader of one faction of the Jammu
Jammu
Kashmir
Kashmir
Liberation Front , was one of the Kashmiris to organise militancy in Kashmir, along with Ashfaq Majid Wani and Farooq Ahmed Dar (alias Bitta Karate). Since 1995, Malik has renounced the use of violence and calls for strictly peaceful methods to resolve the dispute. Malik developed differences with one of the senior leaders, Farooq Siddiqui (alias Farooq Papa), for shunning demands for an independent Kashmir
Kashmir
and trying to cut a deal with the Indian Prime Minister. This resulted in a split in which Bitta Karate , Salim Nanhaji, and other senior comrades joined Farooq Papa. Pakistan
Pakistan
claims these insurgents are Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
citizens, and are rising up against the Indian army as part of an independence movement. Amnesty International has accused security forces in Indian-controlled Kashmir
Kashmir
of exploiting an Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act that enables them to "hold prisoners without trial". The group argues that the law, which allows security forces to detain individuals for up to two years without presenting charges violates prisoners' human rights. In 2011, the state humans right commission said it had evidence that 2,156 bodies had been buried in 40 graves over the last 20 years. The authorities deny such accusations. The security forces say the unidentified dead are militants who may have originally come from outside India. They also say that many of the missing people have crossed into Pakistan-administered Kashmir to engage in militancy. However, according to the state human rights commission, among the identified bodies 574 were those of "disappeared locals", and according to Amnesty International's annual human rights report (2012) it was sufficient for "belying the security forces' claim that they were militants".

Separatist violence in the region has been observed to decline. However, following the unrest in 2008 , which included more than 500,000 protesters at a rally on 18 August, secessionist movements gained a boost. Further the 2016–17 Kashmir
Kashmir
Unrest culminated in the deaths of more than 90 civilians, with over 15,000 civilians injured.

The 2009 edition of the Freedom in the World (report) by the US-based NGO Freedom House
Freedom House
rated Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
as "Partly Free", while in comparison, the same report rated Pakistan-administered Kashmir as "Not Free."

Six policemen, including a sub-inspector were killed in an ambush by militants in Anantnag, Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
on June 15, 2017 by trespassing militants of the Pakistan
Pakistan
based Lashkar-e-Toiba. 116 illegal trespassing cases along the India-Pak border in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
were reported in 2015 and 2016, including 88 in 2016. A total of 59 Army personnel have lost their lives in counter-terror operations in JLINE-HEIGHT:1.2EM;">GDP GROWTH 14% (2016–17 est.)

GDP BY SECTOR Agriculture 22% Industry 25% Services 53% (2015)

LABOUR FORCE BY OCCUPATION Agriculture 64% Industry 11% Services 25% (2015)

PUBLIC FINANCES

PUBLIC DEBT 49.25% of GDP (2016–17 est.)

REVENUES ₹53,202 crore (US$8.3 billion) (2016–17 est.)

EXPENSES ₹64,669 crore (US$10 billion) (2016–17 est.)

_All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars ._

_ Tourism forms an integral part of the state's economy. Shown here is the Shalimar Gardens . Mughal emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
inscribed Amir Khusrau 's famous paradise on Earth_ verse in the gardens. A map of the Jammu– Baramulla line

Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir's economy is predominantly dependent on agriculture and allied activities. The Kashmir
Kashmir
valley is known for its sericulture and cold-water fisheries. Wood from Kashmir
Kashmir
is used to make high-quality cricket bats, popularly known as _ Kashmir
Kashmir
Willow_. Kashmiri saffron is very famous and brings the state a handsome amount of foreign exchange. Agricultural exports from Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir include apples, barley, cherries, corn, millet, oranges, rice, peaches, pears, saffron, sorghum, vegetables, and wheat, while manufactured exports include handicrafts, rugs, and shawls.

Horticulture plays a vital role in the economic development of the state. With an annual turnover of over ₹3 billion (US$47 million), apart from foreign exchange of over ₹800 million (US$12 million), this sector is the next biggest source of income in the state's economy. The region of Kashmir
Kashmir
is known for its horticulture industry and is the wealthiest region in the state. Horticultural produce from the state includes apples, apricots, cherries, pears, plums, almonds and walnuts.

The Doda district has deposits of high-grade sapphire . Though small, the manufacturing and services sector is growing rapidly, especially in the Jammu
Jammu
division. In recent years, several consumer goods companies have opened manufacturing units in the region. The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India
India
(ASSOCHAM) has identified several industrial sectors which can attract investment in the state, and accordingly, it is working with the union and the state government to set up industrial parks and special economic zones . In the fiscal year 2005–06, exports from the state amounted to ₹11.5 billion (US$180 million). However, industrial development in the state faces several major constraints including extreme mountainous landscape and power shortage. The Jammu
Jammu
& Kashmir
Kashmir
Bank , which is listed as a S"> Skiing is popular in Gulmarg
Gulmarg
, showing cable car in a snow-clad mountain.

Before the insurgency intensified in 1989, tourism formed an important part of the Kashmiri economy. The tourism economy in the Kashmir
Kashmir
valley was worst hit. However, the holy shrines of Jammu
Jammu
and the Buddhist
Buddhist
monasteries of Ladakh
Ladakh
continue to remain popular pilgrimage and tourism destinations. Every year, thousands of Hindu pilgrims visit holy shrines of Vaishno Devi and Amarnath , which has had significant impact on the state's economy. It was estimated in 2007 that the Vaishno Devi yatra contributed ₹4.75 billion (US$74 million) to the local economy annually a few years ago. The contribution should be significantly greater now as the numbers of Indian visitors have increased considerably. Foreign tourists have been slower to return. The British government still advises against all travel to Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
with the exception of the cities of Jammu
Jammu
and Srinagar, travel between these two cities on the Jammu- Srinagar
Srinagar
highway, and the region of Ladakh, while Canada excludes the entire region excepting Leh.

Besides Kashmir, several areas in the Jammu
Jammu
region have a lot of tourist potential as well. Bhau Fort in Jammu
Jammu
city is the major attraction for the tourists visiting that city. Bage-e-Bahu is another tourist destination. The local aquarium, established by the fisheries department, is visited by many. Tourists from across India
India
visit Jammu in a pilgrimage to Mata Vaishno Devi. Mata Vaishno Devi is located in the Trikuta Hills, about 40 to 45 km from Jammu
Jammu
City. Approximately 10 million Pilgrims visit this holy place every year.

Tourism in the Kashmir
Kashmir
valley has rebounded in recent years, and in 2009, the state became one of the top tourist destinations of India. Gulmarg
Gulmarg
, one of the most popular ski resort destinations in India, is also home to the world's highest green golf course . The state's recent decrease in violence has boosted the economy and tourism. It was reported that more than a million tourists visited Kashmir
Kashmir
in 2011.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Kashmir
Kashmir
See also: Kashmiriyat and Kashmiri cinema Buddhism
Buddhism
is an integral part of Ladakh's culture. Shown here is a statue of Buddha in a monastery in Likir.

Ladakh
Ladakh
is famous for its unique Indo - Tibetan culture . Chanting in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Tibetan language forms an integral part of Ladakh's Buddhist
Buddhist
lifestyle. Annual masked dance festivals, weaving and archery are an important part of traditional life in Ladakh. Ladakhi food has much in common with Tibetan food , the most prominent foods being thukpa , noodle soup; and tsampa , known in Ladakhi as _Ngampe_, roasted barley flour. Typical garb includes gonchas of velvet, elaborately embroidered waistcoats and boots, and gonads or hats. People adorned with gold and silver ornaments and turquoise headgears throng the streets during Ladakhi festivals. _ Shikaras _ are a common feature in lakes and rivers across the Kashmir
Kashmir
valley.

The _Dumhal_ is a famous dance in the Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley, performed by men of the Wattal region. The women perform the Rouff, another traditional folk dance. Kashmir
Kashmir
has been noted for its fine arts for centuries, including poetry and handicrafts. _ Shikaras _, traditional small wooden boats, and houseboats are a common feature in lakes and rivers across the Valley.

The Constitution of India
India
does not allow people from regions other than Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
to purchase land in the state. As a consequence, houseboats became popular among those who were unable to purchase land in the Valley and has now become an integral part of the Kashmiri lifestyle.

_Kawa_, traditional green tea with spices and almond, is consumed all through the day in the chilly winter climate of Kashmir. Most of the buildings in the Valley and Ladakh
Ladakh
are made from softwood and are influenced by Indian , Tibetan , and Islamic architecture .

Jammu's Dogra
Dogra
culture and tradition is very similar to that of neighbouring Punjab and Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
. Traditional Punjabi festivals such as Lohri and Vaisakhi are celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm throughout the region, along with Accession Day , an annual holiday which commemorates the accession of Jammu
Jammu
"> Admin Block at Old University Campus, Government College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu
Jammu

In 1970, the state government of Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
established its own education board and university. Education in the state is divided into primary, middle, high secondary, college and university level. Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
follows the 10+2 pattern for education of children. This is handled by Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
State Board of School Education (abbreviated as JKBOSE). Private and public schools are recognised by the board to impart education to students. Board examinations are conducted for students in class VIII, X and XII. In addition, there are _Kendriya Vidyalayas_ (run by the Government of India) and Indian Army schools that impart secondary school education. These schools follow the Central Board of Secondary Education pattern.

Notable higher education or research institutes in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir include the Indian Institute of Technology Jammu
Jammu
, Indian Institute of Management Jammu
Jammu
, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar
Srinagar
, All India
India
Institute of Medical Sciences , Jammu, Sher-i- Kashmir
Kashmir
Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar
Srinagar
, Government College of Engineering and Technology, Jammu
Jammu
, Government Medical College, Srinagar
Srinagar
, All India Institute of Medical Science Awantipora , Acharya shri chandra college of medical sciences, Jammu
Jammu
and Government Medical College, Jammu
Jammu
, University-level education is provided by University of Kashmir
Kashmir
, University of Kashmir, Sher-e- Kashmir
Kashmir
University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Srinagar
Srinagar
, Sher-e- Kashmir
Kashmir
University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu
Jammu
, Islamic University of Science ">

SPORTS

See also: Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
cricket team Royal Springs Golf Course Srinagar
Srinagar

Sports like cricket, football are famous along with sports like golf, skiing, water sports and adventure sports. Srinagar
Srinagar
is home to the Sher-i- Kashmir
Kashmir
Stadium , a stadium where international cricket matches have been played. The first international match was played in 1983 in which West Indies defeated India
India
and the last international match was played in 1986 in which Australia defeated India
India
by six wickets. Since then no international match have taken place in the stadium due to the prevailing security situation.

Maulana Azad Stadium is a stadium in Jammu
Jammu
and is one of the home venues for the Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
cricket team.The stadium has hosted home games for Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
in domestic tournaments since 1966. It has also hosted one One Day International in 1988 between India
India
and New Zealand, which was abandoned due to rain without a ball being bowled. The stadium has played host to one women's test match where India
India
lost to West Indies and one Women's One Day International where India
India
beat New Zealand in 1985.

Srinagar
Srinagar
has an outdoor stadium namely Bakshi Stadium for hosting football matches. It is named after Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad .

The city has a golf course named Royal Springs Golf Course, Srinagar located on the banks of Dal lake
Dal lake
, which is considered as one of the best golf courses of India.

Ladakh
Ladakh
Marathon is held at Leh
Leh
, is the marathon recognised by Association of International Marathons and Distance Races . Being held at height of 11,500 feet, it is known as the highest marathon in the world. In 2015, Ladakh
Ladakh
Marathon was rated among "top ten nicest marathon" in the world.

SEE ALSO

* _ Geography portal * Asia portal * South Asia portal * India
India
portal

* Tourism in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
* Separatist movements of India
India
* Indian Armed Forces and the Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
Floods, 2014 * Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election, 2014 * Outline of India
India
* Index of India-related articles * Bibliography of India
India
* India
India
_ – book * Human rights abuses in Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir
* Ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Hindus * Indian White Paper on Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
Kashmir

NOTES

* ^ The Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
sources refer to Jammu Kashmir
Kashmir
as "Indian-occupied Kashmir" ("IoK") or "Indian-held Kashmir" (IHK), "Indian-administered Kashmir" and "Indian-controlled Kashmir" are used by neutral sources. Conversely, Indian sources call the territory under Pakistan
Pakistan
control "Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir" ("POK") or "Pakistan-Held Kashmir" ("PHK"). * ^ Schofield (2003 , p. 54): In his letter to Lord Mountbatten on 26 October 1947, the Maharaja wrote, "I wanted to take time to decide which Dominion I should acceede... whether it is not in the best interests of both the Dominions and my State to stay independent, of course with cordial relations with both. * ^ Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdullah
Sheikh Abdullah
noted in the UN Security Council in 1948: ""the (plebiscite) offer (was) made by the Prime Minister of India
India
when, I think, he had not the slightest need for making it, for Kashmir
Kashmir
was in distress... The Government of India could have easily accepted the accession and said, "All right, we accept your accession and we shall render this help." There was no necessity for the Prime Minister of India
India
to add the proviso while accepting the accession that " India
India
does not want to take advantage of the difficult situation in Kashmir."(Varshney 1992 , p. 195) * ^ Korbel (1953 , p. 502): "Though India
India
accepted the resolution, Pakistan
Pakistan
attached to its acceptance so many reservations, qualifications and assumptions as to make its answer `tantamount to rejection'.

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Kashmir
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Srinagar
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Sources

* Korbel, Josef (1953), "The Kashmir
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dispute after six years", _ International Organization _, Cambridge University Press, 7 (4): 498–510, doi :10.1017/S0020818300007256 , (Subscription required (help)) * Korbel, Josef (1966) , _Danger in Kashmir_ (second ed.), Princeton University Press * Schofield, Victoria (2003), _ Kashmir
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has been a Problem" (PDF), in Raju G. C. Thomas, _Perspectives on Kashmir: the roots of conflict in South Asia_, Westview Press, pp. 191–234, ISBN 978-0-8133-8343-9

FURTHER READING

* Bose, Sumantra (2003), _Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace_, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01173-2 * Rai, Mridu (2004), _ Hindu
Hindu
Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir_, C. Hurst & Co, ISBN 1850656614

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