JAMES VI AND I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as JAMES VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as JAMES I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciary, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union .
James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots , and a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland , positioning him to eventually accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother Mary was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I , who died without issue. He continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era , until his death in 1625 at the age of 58. After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England (the largest of the three realms) from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, and styled himself " King of Great Britain and Ireland ". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for England and Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonization of the Americas began.
At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than
those of any of his predecessors . He achieved most of his aims in
Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the
Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English
Parliament . Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature
and drama continued, with writers such as
* 1 Childhood
* 1.1 Birth * 1.2 Regencies
* 2 Rule in Scotland
* 2.1 Marriage * 2.2 Witch hunts * 2.3 Highlands and Islands * 2.4 Theory of monarchy * 2.5 Literary patronage
* 3 Accession in England
* 4 Early reign in England
* 4.1 Gunpowder Plot
* 5 King and Parliament
* 5.1 Spanish Match
* 6 King and Church * 7 Favourites * 8 Final year * 9 Legacy
* 10 Titles, styles, honours, and arms
* 10.1 Titles and styles * 10.2 Arms
* 11 Issue
* 12 Ancestry
* 12.1 Family tree
* 13 List of writings * 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 References * 17 Sources * 18 Further reading * 19 External links
Portrait of James as a boy, after Arnold Bronckorst , 1574
James was the only son of
Mary, Queen of Scots , and her second
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley . Both Mary and Darnley were
Henry VII of England through
Margaret Tudor ,
the older sister of
James was born on 19 June 1566 at
James's father, Darnley, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o\'
Field , Edinburgh, perhaps in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James
inherited his father's titles of
Duke of Albany and
Earl of Ross .
Mary was already unpopular, and her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James
Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell , who was widely suspected of murdering
Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her. In June 1567,
James (right) depicted aged 17 beside his mother Mary (left), 1583. In reality, they were separated when he was still a baby.
The care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to
be conserved, nursed, and upbrought" in the security of Stirling
Castle . James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen
months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling , by
Adam Bothwell ,
Bishop of Orkney , on 29 July 1567. The sermon at the coronation was
John Knox . In accordance with the religious beliefs of
most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of
In 1568, Mary escaped from her imprisonment at Loch Leven Castle, leading to several years of sporadic violence. The Earl of Moray defeated Mary's troops at the Battle of Langside , forcing her to flee to England, where she was subsequently kept in confinement by Elizabeth. On 23 January 1570, Moray was assassinated by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh . The next regent was James's paternal grandfather Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox , who was carried fatally wounded into Stirling Castle a year later after a raid by Mary's supporters. His successor, the Earl of Mar, "took a vehement sickness" and died on 28 October 1572 at Stirling. Mar's illness, wrote James Melville , followed a banquet at Dalkeith Palace given by James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton .
Morton was elected to Mar's office and proved in many ways the most effective of James's regents, but he made enemies by his rapacity. He fell from favour when Frenchman Esmé Stewart, Sieur d\'Aubigny , first cousin of James's father Lord Darnley and future Earl of Lennox , arrived in Scotland and quickly established himself as the first of James's powerful favourites. Morton was executed on 2 June 1581, belatedly charged with complicity in Darnley's murder. On 8 August, James made Lennox the only duke in Scotland. The king, then fifteen years old, remained under the influence of Lennox for about one more year.
RULE IN SCOTLAND
James in 1586, age 20
Lennox was a
After James was liberated in June 1583, he assumed increasing control of his kingdom. He pushed through the Black Acts to assert royal authority over the Kirk , and denounced the writings of his former tutor Buchanan. Between 1584 and 1603, he established effective royal government and relative peace among the lords, ably assisted by John Maitland of Thirlestane who led the government until 1592. An eight-man commission known as the Octavians brought some control over the ruinous state of James's finances in 1596, but it drew opposition from vested interests. It was disbanded within a year after a riot in Edinburgh, which was stoked by anti-Catholicism and led the court to withdraw to Linlithgow temporarily.
One last Scottish attempt against the king's person occurred in August 1600, when James was apparently assaulted by Alexander Ruthven , the Earl of Gowrie 's younger brother, at Gowrie House, the seat of the Ruthvens. Ruthven was run through by James's page John Ramsay and the Earl of Gowrie was killed in the ensuing fracas; there were few surviving witnesses. Given James's history with the Ruthvens and the fact that he owed them a great deal of money, his account of the circumstances was not universally believed.
In 1586, James signed the Treaty of Berwick with England. That and the execution of his mother in 1587, which he denounced as a "preposterous and strange procedure", helped clear the way for his succession south of the border. Queen Elizabeth was unmarried and childless, and James was her most likely successor. Securing the English succession became a cornerstone of his policy. During the Spanish Armada crisis of 1588, he assured Elizabeth of his support as "your natural son and compatriot of your country".
Throughout his youth, James was praised for his chastity, since he
showed little interest in women. After the loss of Lennox, he
continued to prefer male company. A suitable marriage, however, was
necessary to reinforce his monarchy, and the choice fell on
Anne of Denmark
Suspected witches kneeling before King James; Daemonologie (1597)
James's visit to Denmark, a country familiar with witch-hunts , sparked an interest in the study of witchcraft , which he considered a branch of theology. He attended the North Berwick witch trials , the first major persecution of witches in Scotland under the Witchcraft Act 1563 . Several people were convicted of using witchcraft to send storms against James's ship, most notably Agnes Sampson .
James became obsessed with the threat posed by witches and wrote
HIGHLANDS AND ISLANDS
The forcible dissolution of the Lordship of the Isles by James IV in
1493 had led to troubled times for the western seaboard. He had
subdued the organised military might of the
In 1540, James V had toured the Hebrides, forcing the clan chiefs to
accompany him. There followed a period of peace, but the clans were
soon at loggerheads with one another again. During James VI's reign,
the citizens of the
It was against this background that James VI authorised the
Gentleman Adventurers of Fife " to civilise the "most barbarous Isle
of Lewis" in 1598. James wrote that the colonists were to act "not by
agreement" with the local inhabitants, but "by extirpation of thame".
Their landing at
Stornoway began well, but the colonists were driven
out by local forces commanded by Murdoch and Neil MacLeod. The
colonists tried again in 1605 with the same result, although a third
attempt in 1607 was more successful. The
Statutes of Iona were
enacted in 1609, which required clan chiefs to: send their heirs to
Lowland Scotland to be educated in English-speaking Protestant
schools; provide support for
Northern Isles , James's cousin Patrick Stewart , Earl of
THEORY OF MONARCHY
_ James argued a theological basis for monarchy in The True Law of Free Monarchies_.
In 1597–98, James wrote _ The True Law of Free Monarchies _ and _ Basilikon Doron _ (_Royal Gift_), in which he argues a theological basis for monarchy. In the _True Law_, he sets out the divine right of kings , explaining that kings are higher beings than other men for Biblical reasons, though "the highest bench is the sliddriest to sit upon". The document proposes an absolutist theory of monarchy, by which a king may impose new laws by royal prerogative but must also pay heed to tradition and to God, who would "stirre up such scourges as pleaseth him, for punishment of wicked kings".
_Basilikon Doron_ was written as a book of instruction for four-year-old Prince Henry and provides a more practical guide to kingship. The work is considered to be well written and perhaps the best example of James's prose. James's advice concerning parliaments, which he understood as merely the king's "head court", foreshadows his difficulties with the English Commons: "Hold no Parliaments," he tells Henry, "but for the necesitie of new Lawes, which would be but seldome". In the _True Law_, James maintains that the king owns his realm as a feudal lord owns his fief, because kings arose "before any estates or ranks of men, before any parliaments were holden, or laws made, and by them was the land distributed, which at first was wholly theirs. And so it follows of necessity that kings were the authors and makers of the laws, and not the laws of the kings."
In the 1580s and 1590s, James promoted the literature of his native country. He published his treatise _Some Rules and Cautions to be Observed and Eschewed in Scottish Prosody _ in 1584 at the age of 18. It was both a poetic manual and a description of the poetic tradition in his mother tongue of Scots , applying Renaissance principles. He also made statutory provision to reform and promote the teaching of music, seeing the two in connection. One act of his reign urges the Scottish burghs to reform and support the teaching of music in _Sang Sculis_.
In furtherance of these aims, he was both patron and head of a loose circle of Scottish Jacobean court poets and musicians known as the Castalian Band , which included William Fowler and Alexander Montgomerie among others, Montgomerie being a favourite of the King. James was himself a poet, and was happy to be seen as a practising member of the group.
By the late 1590s, his championing of native Scottish tradition was reduced to some extent by the increasing likelihood of his succession to the English throne. William Alexander and other courtier poets started to anglicise their written language, and followed the king to London after 1603. James's role as active literary participant and patron made him a defining figure in many respects for English Renaissance poetry and drama, which reached a pinnacle of achievement in his reign, but his patronage of the high style in the Scottish tradition, which included his ancestor James I of Scotland , became largely sidelined.
ACCESSION IN ENGLAND
Union of the Crowns The
Union of the Crowns was
symbolised in James's personal royal heraldic badge after 1603, the
Elizabeth I was the last of Henry VIII's descendants, and James was seen as her most likely heir through his great-grandmother Margaret Tudor , who was Henry VIII's oldest sister. From 1601, in the last years of Elizabeth's life, certain English politicians—notably her chief minister Sir Robert Cecil —maintained a secret correspondence with James to prepare in advance for a smooth succession. With the Queen clearly dying, Cecil sent James a draft proclamation of his accession to the English throne in March 1603. Elizabeth died in the early hours of 24 March, and James was proclaimed king in London later the same day.
On 5 April, James left Edinburgh for London, promising to return every three years (a promise that he did not keep), and progressed slowly southwards. Local lords received him with lavish hospitality along the route and James was amazed by the wealth of his new land and subjects, claiming that he was "swapping a stony couch for a deep feather bed". At Cecil's house, Theobalds in Hertfordshire, James was so in awe that he bought it there and then, arriving in the capital after Elizabeth's funeral. His new subjects flocked to see him, relieved that the succession had triggered neither unrest nor invasion. When he entered London on 7 May, he was mobbed by a crowd of spectators.
His English coronation took place on 25 July, with elaborate allegories provided by dramatic poets such as Thomas Dekker and Ben Jonson . An outbreak of plague restricted festivities, but "the streets seemed paved with men," wrote Dekker. "Stalls instead of rich wares were set out with children, open casements filled up with women."
The kingdom to which James succeeded, however, had its problems. Monopolies and taxation had engendered a widespread sense of grievance, and the costs of war in Ireland had become a heavy burden on the government, which had debts of £400,000.
EARLY REIGN IN ENGLAND
James survived two conspiracies in the first year of his reign, despite the smoothness of the succession and the warmth of his welcome: the Bye Plot and Main Plot , which led to the arrest of Lord Cobham and Sir Walter Raleigh , among others. Those hoping for a change in government from James were disappointed at first when he kept Elizabeth's Privy Councillors in office, as secretly planned with Cecil, but James soon added long-time supporter Henry Howard and his nephew Thomas Howard to the Privy Council, as well as five Scottish nobles.
In the early years of James's reign, the day-to-day running of the government was tightly managed by the shrewd Cecil, later Earl of Salisbury , ably assisted by the experienced Thomas Egerton , whom James made Baron Ellesmere and Lord Chancellor , and by Thomas Sackville , soon Earl of Dorset , who continued as Lord Treasurer . As a consequence, James was free to concentrate on bigger issues, such as a scheme for a closer union between England and Scotland and matters of foreign policy, as well as to enjoy his leisure pursuits, particularly hunting.
James was ambitious to build on the personal union of the Crowns of
Scotland and England to establish a single country under one monarch,
one parliament, and one law, a plan that met opposition in both
realms. "Hath He not made us all in one island," James told the
English Parliament , "compassed with one sea and of itself by nature
indivisible?" In April 1604, however, the Commons refused his request
to be titled "King of Great Britain" on legal grounds. In October
1604, he assumed the title "King of Great Britain" by proclamation
rather than by statute, though Sir
James achieved more success in foreign policy. Never having been at
war with Spain, he devoted his efforts to bringing the long
Anglo–Spanish War to an end, and a peace treaty was signed between
the two countries in August 1604, thanks to skilled diplomacy on the
part of Robert Cecil and Henry Howard, now
Earl of Northampton , which
James celebrated by hosting a great banquet. Freedom of worship for
Catholics in England, however, continued to be a major objective of
Spanish policy, causing constant dilemmas for James, distrusted abroad
for repression of Catholics while at home being encouraged by the
Main article: Gunpowder Plot
A dissident Catholic,
KING AND PARLIAMENT
The co-operation between monarch and Parliament following the Gunpowder Plot was atypical. Instead, it was the previous session of 1604 that shaped the attitudes of both sides for the rest of the reign, though the initial difficulties owed more to mutual incomprehension than conscious enmity. On 7 July 1604, James had angrily prorogued Parliament after failing to win its support either for full union or financial subsidies. "I will not thank where I feel no thanks due", he had remarked in his closing speech. "... I am not of such a stock as to praise fools ... You see how many things you did not well ... I wish you would make use of your liberty with more modesty in time to come".
As James's reign progressed, his government faced growing financial pressures, due partly to creeping inflation but also to the profligacy and financial incompetence of James's court. In February 1610, Salisbury proposed a scheme, known as the Great Contract , whereby Parliament, in return for ten royal concessions, would grant a lump sum of £600,000 to pay off the king's debts plus an annual grant of £200,000. The ensuing prickly negotiations became so protracted that James eventually lost patience and dismissed Parliament on 31 December 1610. "Your greatest error", he told Salisbury, "hath been that ye ever expected to draw honey out of gall". The same pattern was repeated with the so-called " Addled Parliament " of 1614, which James dissolved after a mere nine weeks when the Commons hesitated to grant him the money he required. James then ruled without parliament until 1621, employing officials such as the merchant Lionel Cranfield , who were astute at raising and saving money for the crown, and sold baronetcies and other dignities, many created for the purpose, as an alternative source of income.
Main article: Spanish Match
Another potential source of income was the prospect of a Spanish
dowry from a marriage between
Charles, Prince of Wales , and Infanta
Maria Anna of Spain
The policy was supported by the Howards and other Catholic-leaning
ministers and diplomats—together known as the Spanish Party—but
deeply distrusted in
In early 1623, Prince Charles, now 22, and Buckingham decided to seize the initiative and travel to Spain incognito, to win the infanta directly, but the mission proved an ineffectual mistake. The infanta detested Charles, and the Spanish confronted them with terms that included the repeal of anti-Catholic legislation by Parliament. Though a treaty was signed, the prince and duke returned to England in October without the infanta and immediately renounced the treaty, much to the delight of the British people. Disillusioned by the visit to Spain, Charles and Buckingham now turned James's Spanish policy upon its head and called for a French match and a war against the Habsburg empire. To raise the necessary finance, they prevailed upon James to call another Parliament, which met in February 1624. For once, the outpouring of anti-Catholic sentiment in the Commons was echoed in court, where control of policy was shifting from James to Charles and Buckingham, who pressured the king to declare war and engineered the impeachment of Lord Treasurer Lionel Cranfield , by now made Earl of Middlesex , when he opposed the plan on grounds of cost. The outcome of the Parliament of 1624 was ambiguous: James still refused to declare or fund a war, but Charles believed the Commons had committed themselves to finance a war against Spain, a stance that was to contribute to his problems with Parliament in his own reign.
KING AND CHURCH
Main article: James VI and I and religious issues
After the Gunpowder Plot, James sanctioned harsh measures to control non-conforming English Catholics. In May 1606, Parliament passed the Popish Recusants Act , which could require any citizen to take an Oath of Allegiance denying the Pope's authority over the king. James was conciliatory towards Catholics who took the Oath of Allegiance, and tolerated crypto-Catholicism even at court. Henry Howard , for example, was a crypto-Catholic, received back into the Catholic Church in his final months. On ascending the English throne, James suspected that he might need the support of Catholics in England, so he assured the Earl of Northumberland , a prominent sympathiser of the old religion, that he would not persecute "any that will be quiet and give but an outward obedience to the law".
Millenary Petition of 1603, the
Puritan clergy demanded the
abolition of confirmation, wedding rings, and the term "priest", among
other things, and that the wearing of cap and surplice become
optional. James was strict in enforcing conformity at first, inducing
a sense of persecution amongst many Puritans; but ejections and
suspensions from livings became rarer as the reign continued. As a
result of the
Hampton Court Conference of 1604, a new translation and
compilation of approved books of the Bible was commissioned to resolve
discrepancies among different translations then being used. The
Authorized King James Version
In Scotland, James attempted to bring the Scottish kirk "so neir as can be" to the English church and to reestablish episcopacy , a policy that met with strong opposition from presbyterians . James returned to Scotland in 1617 for the only time after his accession in England, in the hope of implementing Anglican ritual. James's bishops forced his Five Articles of Perth through a General Assembly the following year, but the rulings were widely resisted. James left the church in Scotland divided at his death, a source of future problems for his son.
James's sexuality is a matter of dispute. Throughout his life James had close relationships with male courtiers, which has caused debate among historians about their exact nature. After his accession in England, his peaceful and scholarly attitude contrasted strikingly with the bellicose and flirtatious behaviour of Elizabeth, as indicated by the contemporary epigram _Rex fuit Elizabeth, nunc est regina Jacobus_ (Elizabeth was King, now James is Queen).
Some of James's biographers conclude that Esmé Stewart (later Duke of Lennox), Robert Carr (later Earl of Somerset), and George Villiers (later Duke of Buckingham) were his lovers. Sir John Oglander observed that he "never yet saw any fond husband make so much or so great dalliance over his beautiful spouse as I have seen King James over his favourites, especially the Duke of Buckingham" whom the King would, recalled Sir Edward Peyton , "tumble and kiss as a mistress." Restoration of Apethorpe Palace undertaken in 2004–08 revealed a previously unknown passage linking the bedchambers of James and Villiers.
Some biographers of James argue that the relationships were not sexual. James's _ Basilikon Doron _ lists sodomy among crimes "ye are bound in conscience never to forgive", and James's wife Anne gave birth to seven live children, as well as suffering two stillbirths and at least three other miscarriages. Contemporary Huguenot poet Théophile de Viau observed that "it is well known that the king of England / has union with the Duke of Buckingham". Buckingham himself provides evidence that he slept in the same bed as the King, writing to James many years later that he had pondered "whether you loved me now ... better than at the time which I shall never forget at Farnham, where the bed's head could not be found between the master and his dog". Buckingham's words may be interpreted as non-sexual, in the context of seventeenth-century court life, and remain ambiguous.
When the Earl of Salisbury died in 1612, he was little mourned by those who jostled to fill the power vacuum. Until Salisbury's death, the Elizabethan administrative system over which he had presided continued to function with relative efficiency; from this time forward, however, James's government entered a period of decline and disrepute. Salisbury's passing gave James the notion of governing in person as his own chief Minister of State, with his young Scottish favourite Robert Carr carrying out many of Salisbury's former duties, but James's inability to attend closely to official business exposed the government to factionalism.
The Howard party, consisting of Northampton, Suffolk, Suffolk's
son-in-law Lord Knollys , and Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham ,
along with Sir
Thomas Lake , soon took control of much of the
government and its patronage. Even the powerful Carr fell into the
Howard camp, hardly experienced for the responsibilities thrust upon
him and often dependent on his intimate friend Sir
In summer 1615, however, it emerged that Overbury had been poisoned. He had died on 15 September 1613 in the Tower of London, where he had been placed at the King's request. Among those convicted of the murder were Frances and Robert Carr, the latter having been replaced as the king's favourite in the meantime by Villiers. James pardoned Frances and commuted Carr's sentence of death, eventually pardoning him in 1624. The implication of the King in such a scandal provoked much public and literary conjecture and irreparably tarnished James's court with an image of corruption and depravity. The subsequent downfall of the Howards left Villiers unchallenged as the supreme figure in the government by 1619.
Portrait by Daniel Mytens , 1621
After about the age of fifty, James suffered increasingly from arthritis , gout and kidney stones . He also lost his teeth and drank heavily. The King was often seriously ill during the last year of his life, leaving him an increasingly peripheral figure, rarely able to visit London, while Buckingham consolidated his control of Charles to ensure his own future. One theory is that James may have suffered from porphyria , a disease of which his descendant George III of the United Kingdom exhibited some symptoms. James described his urine to physician Théodore de Mayerne as being the "dark red colour of Alicante wine". The theory is dismissed by some experts, particularly in James's case, because he had kidney stones which can lead to blood in the urine, colouring it red.
In early 1625, James was plagued by severe attacks of arthritis,
gout, and fainting fits, and fell seriously ill in March with tertian
ague and then suffered a stroke. He died at
Theobalds House on 27
March during a violent attack of dysentery , with Buckingham at his
bedside. James's funeral on 7 May was a magnificent but disorderly
affair. Bishop John Williams of Lincoln preached the sermon,
James was buried in Westminster Abbey . The position of the tomb was lost for many years until his lead coffin was found in the Henry VII vault in the 19th century, during an excavation.
On the ceiling of the Banqueting House, Rubens depicted James being carried to heaven by angels.
James was widely mourned. For all his flaws, he had largely retained the affection of his people, who had enjoyed uninterrupted peace and comparatively low taxation during the Jacobean era . "As he lived in peace," remarked the Earl of Kellie , "so did he die in peace, and I pray God our king may follow him". The earl prayed in vain: once in power, Charles and Buckingham sanctioned a series of reckless military expeditions that ended in humiliating failure. James had often neglected the business of government for leisure pastimes, such as the hunt; and his later dependence on favourites at a scandal-ridden court undermined the respected image of monarchy so carefully constructed by Elizabeth .
Under James the
Plantation of Ulster by English and Scots Protestants
began, and the English colonisation of North America started its
course with the foundation of
Jamestown, Virginia , in 1607, and
Cuper\'s Cove, Newfoundland , in 1610. During the next 150 years,
England would fight with Spain, the Netherlands, and France for
control of the continent, while religious division in Ireland between
According to a tradition originating with anti-Stuart historians of the mid-17th-century, James's taste for political absolutism , his financial irresponsibility, and his cultivation of unpopular favourites established the foundations of the English Civil War . James bequeathed Charles a fatal belief in the divine right of kings , combined with a disdain for Parliament, which culminated in the execution of Charles and the abolition of the monarchy. Over the last three hundred years, the king's reputation has suffered from the acid description of him by Sir Anthony Weldon , whom James had sacked and who wrote treatises on James in the 1650s.
Other influential anti-James histories written during the 1650s include: Sir Edward Peyton 's _Divine Catastrophe of the Kingly Family of the House of Stuarts_ (1652); Arthur Wilson 's _History of Great Britain, Being the Life and Reign of King James I_ (1658); and Francis Osborne 's _Historical Memoirs of the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King James_ (1658). David Harris Willson 's 1956 biography continued much of this hostility. In the words of historian Jenny Wormald , Willson's book was an "astonishing spectacle of a work whose every page proclaimed its author's increasing hatred for his subject". Since Willson, however, the stability of James's government in Scotland and in the early part of his English reign, as well as his relatively enlightened views on religion and war, have earned him a re-evaluation from many historians, who have rescued his reputation from this tradition of criticism.
Representative of the new historical perspective is the 2003 biography by Pauline Croft . Reviewer John Cramsie summarises her findings: Croft's overall assessment of James is appropriately mixed. She recognises his good intentions in matters like Anglo-Scottish union, his openness to different points of view, and his agenda of a peaceful foreign policy within his kingdoms' financial means. His actions moderated frictions between his diverse peoples. Yet he also created new ones, particularly by supporting colonisation that polarised the crown's interest groups in Ireland, obtaining insufficient political benefit with his open-handed patronage, an unfortunate lack of attention to the image of monarchy (particularly after the image-obsessed regime of Elizabeth), pursuing a pro-Spanish foreign policy that fired religious prejudice and opened the door for Arminians within the English church, and enforcing unpalatable religious changes on the Scottish kirk. Many of these criticisms are framed within a longer view of James' reigns, including the legacy – now understood to be more troubled – which he left Charles I.
TITLES, STYLES, HONOURS, AND ARMS
Royal styles of JAMES VI, KING OF SCOTS
REFERENCE STYLE His Grace
SPOKEN STYLE Your Grace
Royal styles of JAMES I, KING OF ENGLAND
SPOKEN STYLE Your Majesty
TITLES AND STYLES
In Scotland, James was "James the sixth, King of Scotland", until 1604. He was proclaimed "James the first, King of England, France, and Ireland, defender of the faith " in London on 24 March 1603. On 20 October 1604, James issued a proclamation at Westminster changing his style to "King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." The style was not used on English statutes, but was used on proclamations, coinage, letters, treaties, and in Scotland. James styled himself "King of France", in line with other monarchs of England between 1340 and 1800, although he did not actually rule France.
As King of Scots, James bore the ancient royal arms of Scotland : Or
, a lion rampant
Gules armed and langued Azure within a double
tressure flory counter-flory Gules. The arms were supported by two
The Union of the Crowns of England and Scotland under James was symbolised heraldically by combining their arms, supporters and badges . Contention as to how the arms should be marshalled , and to which kingdom should take precedence, was solved by having different arms for each country.
The arms used in England were: Quarterly, I and IV, quarterly 1st and
4th Azure three fleurs de lys Or (for France), 2nd and 3rd
lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England ); II Or a lion rampant
within a tressure flory-counter-flory
Gules (for Scotland); III Azure
a harp Or stringed
The arms used in Scotland were: Quarterly, I and IV Scotland, II
England and France, III Ireland, with Scotland taking precedence over
England. The supporters were: dexter a unicorn of Scotland imperially
crowned, supporting a tilting lance flying a banner Azure a saltire
As royal badges James used: the Tudor rose, the thistle (for
Scotland; first used by
James III of Scotland
Coat of arms used from 1567 to 1603 Coat of arms used from 1603 to 1625 outside Scotland Coat of arms used from 1603 to 1625 in Scotland
Anne of Denmark
* Henry, Prince of Wales (19 February 1594 – 6 November 1612).
Died, probably of typhoid fever , aged 18.
* Elizabeth, Queen of
ANCESTORS OF JAMES VI AND I
16. Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox
8. John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox
17. Elizabeth Hamilton
9. Elizabeth Stewart
19. Eleanor Sinclair
21. Elizabeth Drummond
11. Margaret Tudor (=13)
1. JAMES VI OF SCOTLAND AND I OF ENGLAND
25. Margaret of Denmark
26. Henry VII of England (= 22)
13. Margaret Tudor (=11)
Elizabeth of York
FAMILY OF JAMES VI AND I
King of England
Elizabeth of York
Henry VIII, King of England James IV, King of Scots Margaret
Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox
Elizabeth I, Queen of England
James V, King of Scots Margaret Douglas
Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray Mary, Queen of Scots Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley
Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox
James VI and I
LIST OF WRITINGS
* _The Essayes of a Prentise in the Divine Art of Poesie _, (also called _Some Reulis and Cautelis_), 1584
* _His Majesties Poeticall Exercises at Vacant Houres_, 1591
* _Lepanto_, poem
* _ Newes from Scotland _, 1591
* _ The True Law of Free Monarchies _, 1598 * _ Basilikon Doron _, 1599 * _ A Counterblaste to Tobacco _, 1604 * _An Apologie for the Oath of Allegiance_, 1608 * _A Premonition to All Most Mightie Monarches_, 1609
* ^ As the Earl of Bedford was a Protestant, his place in the ceremony was taken by Jean, Countess of Argyll . * ^ Elizabeth I wrote to Mary: "My ears have been so astounded, my mind so disturbed and my heart so appalled at hearing the horrible report of the abominable murder of your late husband and my slaughtered cousin, that I can scarcely as yet summon the spirit to write about it ... I will not conceal from you that people for the most part are saying that you will look through your fingers at this deed instead of avenging it and that you don't care to take action against those who have done you this pleasure." Historian John Guy nonetheless concludes: "Not a single piece of uncontaminated evidence has ever been found to show that Mary had foreknowledge of Darnley's murder". In historian David Harris Willson's view, however: "That Bothwell was the murderer no one can doubt; and that Mary was his accomplice seems equally certain." * ^ James's captors forced from him a proclamation, dated 30 August, declaring that he was not being held prisoner "forced or constrained, for fear or terror, or against his will", and that no one should come to his aid as a result of "seditious or contrary reports".
* ^ James briefly broke off diplomatic relations with England over
Mary's execution, but he wrote privately that Scotland "could never
have been without factions if she had beene left alive".
* ^ James heard on 7 October of the decision to postpone the
crossing for winter.
* ^ By the normal rules of succession James had the best claim to
the English throne, as the great-great-grandson of Henry VII .
* ^ Milling 2004 , p. 155.
* ^ Rhodes, Richards works on witchcraft and tobacco; meditations
and commentaries on the Scriptures; a manual on kingship; works of
political theory; and, of course, speeches to parliament ... He was
the patron of Shakespeare, Jonson, Donne, and the translators of the
"Authorized version" of the Bible, surely the greatest concentration
of literary talent ever to enjoy royal sponsorship in England."
* ^ Smith 2003 , p. 238: "The label 'the wisest fool in
Christendom', often attributed to
Henry IV of France but possibly
coined by Anthony Weldon, catches James's paradoxical qualities very
Anthony Weldon (1651), _The Court and Character of King
James I_, quoted by Stroud 1999 , p. 27: "A very wise man was wont to
say that he believed him the wisest fool in Christendom, meaning him
wise in small things, but a fool in weighty affairs."
* ^ Croft 2003 , p. 6: "Historians have returned to reconsidering
James as a serious and intelligent ruler"; Lockyer 1998 , pp. 4–6;
Smith 2003 , p. 238: "In contrast to earlier historians, recent
research on his reign has tended to emphasize the wisdom and downplay
* ^ Davies 1959 , pp. 47–57
* ^ Guy 2004 , pp. 236–237, 241–242, 270; Willson 1963 , p. 13.
* ^ Guy 2004 , pp. 248–250; Willson 1963 , p. 16.
* ^ Willson 1963 , p. 17.
* ^ Donaldson 1974 , p. 99.
* ^ Thomson 1827 , pp. 171–172.
* ^ Guy 2004 , pp. 312–313.
* ^ Willson 1963 , p. 18.
* ^ Guy 2004 , pp. 364–365; Willson 1963 , p. 19.
* ^ Letter of Mary to Mar, 29 March 1567, quoted by Stewart 2003 ,
p. 27: "Suffer nor admit no noblemen of our realm or any others, of
what condition soever they be of, to enter or come within our said
Castle or to the presence of our said dearest son, with any more
persons but two or three at the most."
* ^ Stewart 2003 , p. 33; Willson 1963 , p. 18.
* ^ Croft 2003 , p. 11.
* ^ Willson 1963 , p. 19.
* ^ Croft 2003 , pp. 12–13.
* ^ Croft 2003 , pp. 13, 18.
* ^ Spottiswoode, John (1851), _History of the Church in Scotland_,
Edinburgh: Oliver Willson 1963 , pp. 28–29.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Croft 2003 , p. 15.
* ^ Lockyer 1998 , pp. 11–12; Stewart 2003 , pp. 51–63.
David Calderwood quoted by Stewart 2003 , p. 63: "So ended this
nobleman, one of the chief instruments of the reformation; a defender
of the same, and of the King in his minority, for the which he is now
unthankfully dealt with."
* ^ Stewart 2003 , p. 63.
* ^ Lockyer 1998 , pp. 13–15; Willson 1963 , p. 35.
* ^ Stewart 2003 , p. 66.
* ^ Law 1904 , pp. 295, 297.
* ^ Croft 2003 , pp. 17–18; Willson 1963 , pp. 39, 50.
* ^ Croft 2003 , p. 20.
* ^ Croft 2003 , pp. 29, 41–42; Willson 1963 , pp. 121–124.
* ^ Lockyer 1998 , pp. 24–25; Stewart 2003 , pp. 150–157.
* ^ Croft 2003 , p. 45; George Nicolson quoted by Stewart 2003 , p.
154: "It is begun to be noted that the reports coming from the King
should differ"; Williams 1970 , p. 61: "The two principal characters
were dead, the evidence of eyewitnesses was destroyed and only King
James's version remained"; Willson 1963 , pp. 126–130.
* ^ Croft 2003 , p. 22.
* ^ Lockyer 1998 , pp. 29–31; Willson 1963 , p. 52.
* ^ Croft 2003 , p. 23.
* ^ Croft 2003 , pp. 23–24.
* ^ Willson 1963 , p. 85.
* ^ Stewart 2003 , pp. 107–110.
* ^ Willson 1963 , p. 85–95.
* ^ Croft 2003 , p. 26.
* ^ Willson 1963 , p. 103.
* ^ Keay Willson 1963 , pp. 103–105.
* ^ Keay Lockyer 1998 , p. 21; Willson 1963 , pp. 105, 308–309.
* ^ Akrigg 1984 , p. 220; Willson 1963 , p. 309.
* ^ Hunter 2000 , pp. 143, 166.
* ^ Hunter 2000 , p. 174.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Thompson 1968 , pp. 40–41.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Hunter 2000 , p. 175.
* ^ Rotary Club of
Stornoway 1995 , pp. 12–13.
* ^ Hunter 2000 , p. 176.
* ^ MacKinnon 1991 , p. 46.
* ^ Croft 2003 , p. 139; Lockyer 1998 , p. 179
* ^ _A_ _B_ Willson 1963 , p. 321.
* ^ James quoted by Willson 1963 , p. 131: "Kings are called gods
by the prophetical
* Akrigg, G. P. V., ed. (1984), _Letters of King James VI & I_, Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California, ISBN 0-520-04707-9 * Barroll, J. Leeds (2001), _Anna of Denmark, Queen of England: A Cultural Biography_, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, ISBN 0-8122-3574-6 * Bucholz, Robert; Key, Newton (2004), _Early Modern England, 1485–1714: A Narrative History_, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-21393-7 * Cogswell, Thomas (2005) , _The Blessed Revolution: English Politics and the Coming of War 1621–24_, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-02313-0 * Croft, Pauline (2003), _King James_, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-61395-3 . * Davies, Godfrey (1959) , _The Early Stuarts_, Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-821704-8 * Donaldson, Gordon (1974), _Mary, Queen of Scots_, London: English Universities Press, ISBN 0-340-12383-4 * Guy, John (2004), _My Heart is My Own: The Life of Mary Queen of Scots_, London and New York: Fourth Estate, ISBN 1-84115-752-X * Hunter, James (2000), _Last of the Free: A History of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland_, Edinburgh: Mainstream, ISBN 1-84018-376-4 * Jack, R. D. S. (1988), "Poetry under King James VI", in Craig, Cairns, _The History of Scottish Literature_, 1, Aberdeen University Press * Keay, J.; Keay, J. (1994), _ Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland _, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-255082-2 * Krugler, John D. (2004), _English and Catholic: The Lords Baltimore in the Seventeenth Century_, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-7963-9 * Law, Thomas Graves (1904), "John Craig", in Brown, P. Hume, _Collected Essays and Reviews of Thomas Graves Law_, Edinburgh: T. & A. Constable, Edinburgh University Press * Lindley, David (1993), _The Trials of Frances Howard: Fact and Fiction at the Court of King James_, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-05206-8 * Lockyer, Roger (1981), _Buckingham: The Life and Political Career of George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham, 1592–1628_, Longman, ISBN 0582502969 * Lockyer, Roger (1998), _James VI and I_, Longman, ISBN 0-58