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World War II
World War II

* Battle of Makin
Battle of Makin
* Battle of Okinawa
Battle of Okinawa

JAMES "JIMMY" ROOSEVELT (December 23, 1907 – August 13, 1991) was an American businessman, activist and Democratic Party politician. The oldest son of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and Eleanor Roosevelt , he received the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
for extraordinary heroism while serving as a Marine Corps officer during World War II
World War II
. He served as an official Secretary to the President and in the United States
United States
House of Representatives .

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Politics and the White House
White House
* 3 Hollywood

* 4 Military career

* 4.1 World War II
World War II

* 5 Military awards

* 5.1 Navy Cross
Navy Cross
citation * 5.2 Silver Star citation * 5.3 Battle stars

* 6 Post-war career * 7 Family and death * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

EARLY LIFE

Roosevelt was born in New York City
New York City
at 125 East 36th Street. He attended the Potomac School and the National Cathedral School in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, and the Groton School in Massachusetts. At Groton, he rowed and played football, and was a prefect in his senior year. After graduation in 1926, he attended Harvard College
Harvard College
, where he rowed with the freshman and junior varsity crews. At Harvard he followed family traditions, joining the Signet Society and Hasty Pudding Club , of which both his father and his maternal granduncle and paternal fifth cousin once removed, President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
, had been members, as well as the Fly Club , which his father had joined, and Institute of the 1770. He graduated from Harvard in 1930 and was elected permanent treasurer of his class.

After graduation, Roosevelt enrolled in the Boston
Boston
University School of Law . He also took a sales job with Boston
Boston
insurance agent Victor De Gerard. Roosevelt was so successful, that within one year, he abandoned his law studies. In 1932 he started his own insurance agency, Roosevelt and Sargent, in partnership with John A. Sargent. As president of Roosevelt he made about two hundred campaign speeches that year. Though FDR lost the Massachusetts Democratic primary (to Smith), he easily carried Massachusetts in the November election . James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
was viewed as his father's political deputy in Massachusetts, allocating patronage in alliance with Boston
Boston
mayor James Michael Curley . He was also a delegate from Massachusetts to the Constitutional Convention for the repeal of Prohibition
Prohibition
in 1933.

Roosevelt was a close protege of Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. . In 1934, the two journeyed to England to obtain the market in post-prohibition liquor imports. Many of Roosevelt's controversial business ventures were aided by Kennedy, including his maritime insurance interests, and the National Grain Yeast Corp. affair (1933-5). Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, Jr. threatened to resign unless FDR forced James to leave the latter company, suspected of being a front for bootlegging. James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
was instrumental in securing Kennedy's appointment as ambassador to the United Kingdom.

In April 1936, Presidential Secretary Louis Howe
Louis Howe
died. James Roosevelt unofficially assumed Howe's duties. Soon after the 1936 re-election of FDR, James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
was given a direct commission as a lieutenant colonel in the Marine Corps, which caused public controversy for its obvious political implications. He accompanied his father to the Inter-American Conference at Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
in December as a military aide. On January 6, 1937, he was officially appointed "administrative assistant to the President"; on July 1, 1937, he was appointed Secretary to the President. He became White House coordinator for eighteen federal agencies in October 1937.

James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
was considered among his father's most important counselors. Time magazine suggested he might be considered "Assistant President of the United States".

In July 1938, there were allegations that James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
had used his political position to steer lucrative business to his insurance firm. He had to publish his income tax returns and denied these allegations in an NBC
NBC
broadcast and an interview in Collier\'s magazine. This became known as the Jimmy's Got It affair after Alva Johnston 's reportage in the Saturday Evening Post . Roosevelt resigned from his White House
White House
position in November 1938.

HOLLYWOOD

After leaving the White House, Roosevelt moved to Hollywood, California
California
, where he first accepted a job as a $750/week administrative assistant for motion picture producer Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
. He was on Goldwyn's payroll until November 1940. In 1939 he set up "Globe Productions", a company to produce short films for penny arcades , but the company was liquidated in 1944 while James was on active duty with the Marine Corps . Roosevelt also produced the film Pot o\' Gold and distributed the British film Pastor Hall .

During his Hollywood period, Roosevelt became involved with Joseph Schenck , the movie mogul who funnelled mob money to the Democratic Party. Schenck also lent money for Roosevelt's movie. When Schenck was jailed for income tax evasion, Roosevelt interceded with his father to pardon him, but again Henry Morgenthau, Jr. vetoed the plan. Roosevelt later wrote that "Stories appeared that I was mixed up with Mafia mobsters."

MILITARY CAREER

Roosevelt as a Marine Corps lieutenant colonel in World War II
World War II

World War II
World War II
broke out in Europe in September 1939; the following month Roosevelt resigned the lieutenant colonel's commission that he had been given in 1936, and was instead commissioned as a captain in the Marine Corps Reserve. He went on active duty in November 1940.

In April 1941, President Roosevelt sent James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
on a secret, world-circling diplomatic mission to assure numerous governments that the United States
United States
would soon be in the war. The leaders contacted included Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
in China, King Farouk in Egypt, and King George of Greece . During this trip, Roosevelt came under German air attack in both Crete
Crete
and Iraq
Iraq
. In the African/Middle Eastern portion of the mission, he traveled with Britain's Lord Mountbatten
Lord Mountbatten
as far as Bathurst in the Gambia
Gambia
. They reported on trans-African air ferry conditions, an important concern of FDR and Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
at the time. In August, Roosevelt joined the staff of William J. Donovan , Coordinator of Information, with the job of working out the exchange of information with other agencies.

WORLD WAR II

After Japan
Japan
's Attack on Pearl Harbor
Attack on Pearl Harbor
on December 7, 1941, Roosevelt requested assignment to combat duty and was transferred to the Marine Raiders in January 1942, a new Marine Corps commando force, and became second-in-command of the 2nd Raider Battalion under Evans Carlson (Carlson's Raiders) whom Roosevelt knew when Carlson commanded the Marine Detachment at the Warm Springs, Georgia residence of Franklin Roosevelt. Roosevelt's influence helped win presidential backing for the Raiders, who were opposed by Marine Corps traditionalists.

Despite occasionally debilitating health problems, Roosevelt served with the 2nd Raiders at Midway as a major in early June 1942 and in the Makin Island raid on August 17–18, 1942, where he and several others were awarded the Navy Cross
Navy Cross
. In October, he was given command of the new 4th Raiders, but during training for an upcoming combat operation he became ill enough to be hospitalized in February 1943. Beginning in August 1943, he served in various staff positions during the rest of the war. He was attached to and landed with the U.S. Army\'s 165th Regimental Combat Team, 27th infantry Division during the invasion of Makin on November 20–23, and was awarded the Silver Star by the Army. He was promoted to colonel on April 13, 1944. He was released from active duty in August 1945 and was placed on the inactive list in October 1945. That same month he became a Compatriot of the Empire State Society of the Sons of the American Revolution .

Roosevelt continued in the Marine Corps Reserve, and retired on October 1, 1959 with the advanced rank of brigadier general . Roosevelt suffered from flat feet , and while other Marines were required to wear boots, he was allowed to wear sneakers.

MILITARY AWARDS

Roosevelt's military decorations and awards include:

Navy Cross
Navy Cross
Silver Star Medal

American Defense Service Medal w/ service star American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal w/ four service stars

World War II
World War II
Victory Medal Marine Corps Reserve Ribbon
Marine Corps Reserve Ribbon
w/ service star Philippine Liberation Medal w/ service star

NAVY CROSS CITATION

"The Navy Cross
Navy Cross
is presented to James Roosevelt, Major, U.S. Marine Corps (Reserve), for extraordinary heroism and distinguished service as second in command of the Second Marine Raider Battalion against enemy Japanese armed forces on Makin island. Risking his own life over and above the ordinary call of duty, Major Roosevelt continually exposed himself to intense machine-gun and sniper fire to ensure effective control of operations from the command post. As a result of his successful maintenance of communications with his supporting vessels, two enemy surface ships, whose presence was reported, were destroyed by gun fire. Later during evacuation, he displayed exemplary courage in personally rescuing three men from drowning in the heavy surf. His gallant conduct and his inspiring devotion to duty were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States
United States
Naval Service." For the President, Chester W. Nimitz

SILVER STAR CITATION

"The President of the United States
United States
of America, authorized by Act of Congress July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Silver Star (Army Award) to Lieutenant Colonel James R. Roosevelt (MCSN: 0-5477), United States
United States
Marine Corps, for gallantry in action at Makin Atoll, Gilbert Islands, 20 to 23 November 1943. Attached as an observer to the units of the 27th Infantry Division which effected the landing on Makin Atoll, Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt voluntarily sought out the scenes of the heaviest fighting. Throughout the three-day period, he continually accompanied the leading elements of the assault, exposing himself to constant danger. His calmness under fire and presence among the foremost elements of the attacking force was a source of inspiration to all ranks." General Orders: Headquarters, U.S. Army Forces, Central Pacific Area, General Orders No. 55 (1944)(26)

BATTLE STARS

LtCol Roosevelt was entitled to campaign participation credit (i.e., the "battle stars " worn on the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal) for the following actions:

* Battle of Midway, June 3-6, 1942 (Navy P-7) * Capture and Defense of Guadalcanal , August 10, 1942 - February 8, 1943 (Navy P-9) * Makin Raid , August 17-18, 1942 (Navy P-10) * Eastern Mandates November 1943 - January 1944 (Army, for Makin)

POST-WAR CAREER

After the war , Roosevelt returned to live in California. He rejoined Roosevelt and Sargent as an executive vice president, and established the company's office in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
. In 1946 he became chairman of the board of Roosevelt and Haines, successor to Roosevelt and Sargent. He later became president of Roosevelt and Company, Inc.

On July 21, 1946, Roosevelt became chairman of the California
California
State Democratic Central Committee. He also began making daily radio broadcasts of political commentary. Like his brother Elliott, James Roosevelt was prominent in the movement to draft Dwight Eisenhower
Dwight Eisenhower
as the Democratic candidate for President in 1948. When President Truman was renominated instead, Roosevelt stepped down as state chairman on August 8. He remained a Democratic National Committeeman until 1952.

In 1950, Roosevelt was the Democratic candidate for Governor of California
California
, but lost to Republican incumbent Earl Warren
Earl Warren
by almost 30% of the votes.

In 1954, Roosevelt was elected U.S. Representative from California's 26th congressional district, a "safe" Democratic district. He was re-elected to five additional terms and served from 1955 to 1965, resigning during his sixth term. Roosevelt was one of the first politicians to denounce the tactics of Senator Joseph McCarthy
Joseph McCarthy
. He was also the only Representative to vote against appropriating funds for the House Un-American Activities Committee
House Un-American Activities Committee
.

In April 1965, Roosevelt ran for Mayor of Los Angeles, challenging incumbent Sam Yorty , but lost in the primary.

He resigned from Congress in October 1965, 10 months into his sixth term, when President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
appointed him a delegate to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Roosevelt resigned from UNESCO
UNESCO
in December 1966, and retired to become an executive of the Investors Overseas Service (IOS) in Geneva, Switzerland.

Roosevelt joined IOS despite the overseas firm's concurrent investigation by the SEC for numerous irregularities. In Geneva in May 1969, during the unraveling of IOS, Roosevelt's third wife, Irene Owens, stabbed him "eight times" with his "own Marine combat knife" while he was preparing divorce proceedings. When fugitive financier Robert Vesco obtained control of IOS from Bernie Cornfeld and absconded with approximately $200 million, Roosevelt initially stayed on under Vesco. Roosevelt later wrote that "As soon as I saw the situation for what it was, in 1971, I resigned my position." However, this episode resulted in federal charges being laid against Roosevelt and several others, and in a Swiss arrest warrant. Roosevelt returned to California, settling in Newport Beach, and charges were dropped. He became associated with the Nixon Administration in several capacities and remained friendly with Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
until his death.

Despite having been a liberal Democrat all of his life, Roosevelt joined Democrats for Nixon and publicly supported President Nixon's 1972 re-election, and also supported Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
in 1980 and 1984.

His writings include Affectionately, FDR (with Sidney Shalett, 1959) and My Parents, a Differing View (with Bill Libby, 1976). The latter was written in part as a response to his brother Elliott Roosevelt 's book An Untold Story, which told of FDR's marital issues and was fiercely repudiated by the other siblings. He authored the novel A Family Matter (with Sam Toperoff, 1979), and edited The Liberal Papers, published in 1962. Later Controversy

In the 1980s, a non-profit organization established by Roosevelt, the National Committee to Preserve Social Security and Medicare , and its associated political action committee , were investigated by the House Ways and Means Committee for questionable money raising practices, and by the Post Office for mail fraud. By direct mail, Roosevelt's group solicited contributions from elderly persons by claiming that Social Security and Medicare programs were in financial jeopardy. Roosevelt also urged contributors to order their Social Security statements of earnings from his group (these are free from the government.)

FAMILY AND DEATH

His first marriage was to philanthropist Betsey Maria Cushing (1908–1998), the middle daughter of surgeon Harvey Williams Cushing and Katharine Stone Crowell. Betsey's sisters were socialites Barbara "Babe" Cushing (1915–1978) and Mary Benedict "Minnie" Cushing (1906–1978). James and Betsey had two daughters, Sara (born 1932) and Kate (1936), before divorcing in 1940.

James married his nurse Romelle Theresa Schneider (1915) the next year. They had three children, James Jr. (born 1945), Michael (born 1946), and Anna (born 1948).

In 1956, he married Gladys Irene Owens (c.1917–1987), his receptionist, and they had a son together named Hall (called "Del") in 1959.

He married his fourth wife, Mary Winskill, teacher to his youngest son "Del," in 1969. They had one daughter, Rebecca, in 1971. Death

Roosevelt died in Newport Beach, California
California
in 1991 of complications arising from a stroke and Parkinson\'s disease . He was 83 and was the last surviving child of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt.

SEE ALSO

* Biography portal * World War II
World War II
portal * United States
United States
Marine Corps portal

* Elliott Roosevelt * Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. * Anna Eleanor Roosevelt * John Aspinwall Roosevelt II

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ A B Maier, Thomas (October 21, 2014) "The Secret Boozy Deals of a Kennedy, a Churchill, and a Roosevelt" Time * ^ A B C D E F G " James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
Papers" (PDF). Franklin D. Roosevelt Library . Retrieved 2009-05-09. * ^ A B C "Modern Mercury". TIME. February 28, 1938. Retrieved August 10, 2009. * ^ Roosevelt, J. My Parents, p. 231 * ^ Hansen, pp. 399-401 * ^ Hansen, p. 90 * ^ Roosevelt, J.: My Parents, p. 255 * ^ Roosevelt, J., My Parents, pp. 258-265 * ^ A B "Brigadier General James Roosevelt, USMCR (Deceased)". Who's Who in Marine Corps History. History Division, United States Marine Corps. Retrieved November 13, 2015. * ^ "BGen James Roosevelt". * ^ A B "WW2 Gyrene Photo Album page 33". * ^ Altobello, Brian Into the Shadows Furious: The Brutal Battle for New Georgia. Novato, California: Presidio Press, 2000. ISBN 0-89141-717-6 . p.76 * ^ A B C Our Campaigns - Candidate - James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
Accessed June 13, 2013 * ^ Roosevelt, J.: My Parents, pp. 319-320 * ^ "House Fire Victim Found to Be Gladys Roosevelt, 70". Los Angeles Times . June 11, 1987. * ^ Roosevelt, J.: My Parents, p. 356 * ^ Hansen, pp. 626-628 * ^ "Reading Eagle - Google News Archive Search". * ^ "Lodi News-Sentinel - Google News Archive Search". * ^ "The Telegraph-Herald - Google News Archive Search". * ^ Hansen, pp. 661-662 * ^ Rosenblatt, Robert A. "Committee Headed by James Roosevelt Under Investigation". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times (March 10, 1987) * ^ "House Fire Victim Found to Be Gladys Roosevelt, 70". Los Angeles Times. June 11, 1987. * ^ Roosevelt, J.: My Parents, passim. * ^ "BG James Roosevelt, II (1907 - 1991) - Find A Grave Memorial".

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Brigadier General James Roosevelt, USMCR, Who's Who in Marine Corps History, History Division, United States
United States
Marine Corps * New York Times obituary

* United States
United States
Congress. " James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
(id: R000426)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress . Retrieved on 2008-07-08 * Brigadier General James Roosevelt, USMCR – Marine Corps Legacy Museum * Hansen, Chris. Enfant Terrible: The Times and Schemes of General Elliott Roosevelt. Tucson: Able Baker Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0615-66892-5 * Roosevelt, James. Affectionately, F.D.R. Hearst/Avon Division, New York, 1959. (w. Sidney Shalett) OCLC
OCLC
774419 * Roosevelt, James. My Parents: A Differing View. Playboy Press, Chicago, 1976. (w. Bill Libby) ISBN 0872234762

EXTERNAL

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