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Sir Michael James Lighthill, FRS[1] (23 January 1924 – 17 July 1998) was a British applied mathematician, known for his pioneering work in the field of aeroacoustics.[2][3][4][5][6]

Contents

1 Biography 2 Publications 3 See also 4 References

Biography[edit] Lighthill was educated at Winchester College, and graduated with a BA from Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College, Cambridge
in 1943.[7] He specialised in fluid dynamics, and worked at the National Physical Laboratory at Trinity. Between 1946 and 1959 he was Beyer Professor of Applied Mathematics
Mathematics
at the University of Manchester. Lighthill then moved from Manchester to become director of the Royal Aircraft Establishment
Royal Aircraft Establishment
at Farnborough. There he worked on the development of television and communications satellites, and on the development of manned spacecraft. This latter work was used in the development of the Concorde
Concorde
supersonic airliner. In 1955, together with G. B. Whitham, Lighthill set out the first comprehensive theory of kinematic waves[8][9] (an application of the method of characteristics), with a multitude of applications, prime among them fluid flow and traffic flow. Lighthill's early work included two dimensional aerofoil theory, and supersonic flow around solids of revolution. In addition to the dynamics of gas at high speeds he studied shock and blast waves and introduced the squirmer model. He is credited with founding the subject of aeroacoustics, a subject vital to the reduction of noise in jet engines. Lighthill's eighth power law states that the acoustic power radiated by a jet engine is proportional to the eighth power of the jet speed.[10] He also founded non-linear acoustics, and showed that the same non-linear differential equations could model both flood waves in rivers and traffic flow in highways. In 1964 he became the Royal Society's resident professor at Imperial College London, before returning to Trinity College, Cambridge, five years later as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, a chair he held until 1979, when he was succeeded by Stephen Hawking. Lighthill then became Provost of University College London
University College London
(UCL) – a post he held until 1989. Lighthill founded the Institute of Mathematics
Mathematics
and its Applications in 1964, alongside Professor Sir Bryan Thwaites. In 1968, he was awarded an Honorary Degree (Doctor of Science) by the University of Bath.[11] In 1972 he was invited to deliver the MacMillan Memorial Lecture to the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland. He chose the subject 'Aquatic Animal Locomotion'. In the early 1970s, partly in reaction to significant internal discord within that field, the Science Research Council (SRC), as it was then known, asked Lighthill to compile a review of academic research in Artificial Intelligence. Lighthill's report, which was published in 1973 and became known as the "Lighthill report," was highly critical of basic research in foundational areas such as robotics and language processing, and "formed the basis for the decision by the British government to end support for AI research in all but two universities",[12] starting what is sometimes referred to as the "AI winter". Lighthill was awarded the Ludwig-Prandtl-Ring from the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Society for Aeronautics and Astronautics) for "outstanding contribution in the field of aerospace engineering" in 1983. His hobby was open-water swimming. He died in the water in 1998 when the mitral valve in his heart ruptured while he was swimming round the island of Sark, a feat which he had accomplished many times before.[13] Publications[edit]

Lighthill, M. J. (1952). "On sound generated aerodynamically. I. General theory". Proceedings of the Royal Society
Royal Society
A. 211 (1107): 564–587. Bibcode:1952RSPSA.211..564L. doi:10.1098/rspa.1952.0060.  Lighthill, M. J. (1954). "On sound generated aerodynamically. II. Turbulence as a source of sound". Proceedings of the Royal Society
Royal Society
A. 222 (1148): 1–32. Bibcode:1954RSPSA.222....1L. doi:10.1098/rspa.1954.0049.  Lighthill, M. J. (1958). Introduction to Fourier Analysis. Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-09128-4.  Lighthill, M. J. (1958). Introduction to Fourier analysis and generalised functions. New York: Cambridge University
Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-05556-3. [14] Lighthill, M. J. (1960). Higher approximations in aerodynamics theory. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07976-5.  Lighthill, M. J. (1986). An informal introduction to theoretical fluid mechanics. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-853630-5.  Lighthill, M. J. (1987). Mathematical Biofluiddynamics. CBMS-NSF Regional Conference Series in Applied Mathematics. Society for Industrial Mathematics. ISBN 0-89871-014-6.  Lighthill, M. J. (2001). Waves in fluids. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01045-4.  Lighthill, M. J. (1997). Hussaini, M. Yousuff, ed. Collected papers of Sir James Lighthill. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509222-8. 

See also[edit]

Lighthill method in differential equations[15] James Lighthill
James Lighthill
House

References[edit]

^ Pedley, Tim J. (2001). "Sir (Michael) James Lighthill. 23 January 1924 – 17 July 1998: Elected F.R.S. 1953". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 47: 333–356. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2001.0019.  ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "James Lighthill", MacTutor History of Mathematics
Mathematics
archive, University of St Andrews . ^ James Lighthill
James Lighthill
at the Mathematics
Mathematics
Genealogy Project ^ "The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography". 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/68885.  ^ "Engines of Ingenuity No. 2250: Sir Michael James Lighthill
James Lighthill
by John H. Lienhard". Retrieved 28 July 2011.  ^ Pedley, T. J. (2001). " James Lighthill
James Lighthill
and his contributions to fluid mechanics". Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 33: 1–41. Bibcode:2001AnRFM..33....1P. doi:10.1146/annurev.fluid.33.1.1.  ^ "Michael James Lighthill". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 25 August 2015.  ^ Lighthill, M. J.; Whitham, G. B. (1955). "On Kinematic Waves. I. Flood Movement in Long Rivers". Proceedings of the Royal Society
Royal Society
A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 229 (1178): 281. Bibcode:1955RSPSA.229..281L. doi:10.1098/rspa.1955.0088.  ^ Lighthill, M. J.; Whitham, G. B. (1955). "On Kinematic Waves. II. A Theory of Traffic Flow on Long Crowded Roads". Proceedings of the Royal Society
Royal Society
A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 229 (1178): 317. Bibcode:1955RSPSA.229..317L. doi:10.1098/rspa.1955.0089.  ^ Crighton, David (March 1999). "Obituary: James Lighthill". Physics Today. 52 (3): 104–106. Bibcode:1999PhT....52c.104C. doi:10.1063/1.882537. Archived from the original on 2013-10-10.  ^ http://www.bath.ac.uk/ceremonies/hongrads/older.html ^ Russell, Stuart J.; Norvig, Peter (2003), Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (2nd ed.), Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-790395-2  ^ Crighton, D., 1999, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 386, pp. 1–3 ^ Lees, Milton (1959). "Review: Introduction to Fourier analysis and generalised functions, by M. J. Lighthill". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 65 (4): 248–249. doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1959-10325-6.  ^ Smith, Peter K.; Jordan, Dominic William (2007). Nonlinear ordinary differential equations: an introduction for scientists and engineers. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-920825-5. 

Academic offices

Preceded by Sydney Goldstein Beyer Chair of Applied Mathematics
Mathematics
at University of Manchester 1950–1959 Succeeded by Fritz Ursell

Preceded by Paul Dirac Lucasian Professor of Mathematics
Mathematics
at Cambridge University 1969–1978 Succeeded by Stephen Hawking

Preceded by Noel Annan Provost of University College London 1979–1989 Succeeded by Derek Roberts

v t e

Lucasian Professors of Mathematics

Isaac Barrow
Isaac Barrow
(1664) Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
(1669) William Whiston
William Whiston
(1702) Nicholas Saunderson
Nicholas Saunderson
(1711) John Colson (1739) Edward Waring
Edward Waring
(1760) Isaac Milner (1798) Robert Woodhouse
Robert Woodhouse
(1820) Thomas Turton
Thomas Turton
(1822) George Biddell Airy
George Biddell Airy
(1826) Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage
(1828) Joshua King
Joshua King
(1839) George Stokes (1849) Joseph Larmor (1903) Paul Dirac
Paul Dirac
(1932) James Lighthill
James Lighthill
(1969) Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
(1979) Michael Green (2009) Michael Cates (2015)

v t e

Copley Medallists (1951–2000)

David Keilin
David Keilin
(1951) Paul Dirac
Paul Dirac
(1952) Albert Kluyver
Albert Kluyver
(1953) E. T. Whittaker
E. T. Whittaker
(1954) Ronald Fisher
Ronald Fisher
(1955) Patrick Blackett (1956) Howard Florey
Howard Florey
(1957) John Edensor Littlewood (1958) Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Frank Macfarlane Burnet
(1959) Harold Jeffreys
Harold Jeffreys
(1960) Hans Adolf Krebs
Hans Adolf Krebs
(1961) Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
(1962) Paul Fildes
Paul Fildes
(1963) Sydney Chapman (1964) Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
(1965) Lawrence Bragg
Lawrence Bragg
(1966) Bernard Katz (1967) Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
(1968) Peter Medawar
Peter Medawar
(1969) Alexander R. Todd
Alexander R. Todd
(1970) Norman Pirie (1971) Nevill Francis Mott (1972) Andrew Huxley
Andrew Huxley
(1973) W. V. D. Hodge
W. V. D. Hodge
(1974) Francis Crick
Francis Crick
(1975) Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin
(1976) Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger
(1977) Robert Burns Woodward
Robert Burns Woodward
(1978) Max Perutz
Max Perutz
(1979) Derek Barton (1980) Peter D. Mitchell
Peter D. Mitchell
(1981) John Cornforth
John Cornforth
(1982) Rodney Robert Porter
Rodney Robert Porter
(1983) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
(1984) Aaron Klug
Aaron Klug
(1985) Rudolf Peierls
Rudolf Peierls
(1986) Robin Hill (1987) Michael Atiyah
Michael Atiyah
(1988) César Milstein
César Milstein
(1989) Abdus Salam
Abdus Salam
(1990) Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
(1991) George Porter
George Porter
(1992) James D. Watson (1993) Frederick Charles Frank
Frederick Charles Frank
(1994) Frank Fenner (1995) Alan Cottrell
Alan Cottrell
(1996) Hugh Huxley (1997) James Lighthill
James Lighthill
(1998) John Maynard Smith
John Maynard Smith
(1999) Alan Battersby (2000)

v t e

John von Neumann Lecturers

Lars Ahlfors
Lars Ahlfors
(1960) Mark Kac
Mark Kac
(1961) Jean Leray
Jean Leray
(1962) Stanislaw Ulam
Stanislaw Ulam
(1963) Solomon Lefschetz
Solomon Lefschetz
(1964) Freeman Dyson
Freeman Dyson
(1965) Eugene Wigner
Eugene Wigner
(1966) Chia-Chiao Lin (1967) Peter Lax
Peter Lax
(1968) George F. Carrier
George F. Carrier
(1969) James H. Wilkinson (1970) Paul Samuelson
Paul Samuelson
(1971) Jule Charney (1974) James Lighthill
James Lighthill
(1975) René Thom
René Thom
(1976) Kenneth Arrow (1977) Peter Henrici (1978) Kurt O. Friedrichs (1979) Keith Stewartson (1980) Garrett Birkhoff (1981) David Slepian
David Slepian
(1982) Joseph B. Keller (1983) Jürgen Moser
Jürgen Moser
(1984) John W. Tukey (1985) Jacques-Louis Lions
Jacques-Louis Lions
(1986) Richard M. Karp
Richard M. Karp
(1987) Germund Dahlquist (1988) Stephen Smale
Stephen Smale
(1989) Andrew Majda
Andrew Majda
(1990) R. Tyrrell Rockafellar
R. Tyrrell Rockafellar
(1992) Martin D. Kruskal (1994) Carl de Boor (1996) William Kahan
William Kahan
(1997) Olga Ladyzhenskaya
Olga Ladyzhenskaya
(1998) Charles S. Peskin (1999) Persi Diaconis
Persi Diaconis
(2000) David Donoho (2001) Eric Lander
Eric Lander
(2002) Heinz-Otto Kreiss (2003) Alan C. Newell (2004) Jerrold E. Marsden
Jerrold E. Marsden
(2005) George C. Papanicolaou
George C. Papanicolaou
(2006) Nancy Kopell (2007) David Gottlieb (2008) Franco Brezzi
Franco Brezzi
(2009) Bernd Sturmfels
Bernd Sturmfels
(2010) Ingrid Daubechies
Ingrid Daubechies
(2011) John M. Ball
John M. Ball
(2012) Stanley J. Osher
Stanley J. Osher
(2013) Leslie Greengard (2014) Jennifer Tour Chayes
Jennifer Tour Chayes
(2015) Donald Knuth
Donald Knuth
(2016) Bernard J. Matkowsky (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 8430889 LCCN: n79077261 ISNI: 0000 0001 2119 8501 GND: 115666664 SUDOC: 031595537 BNF: cb12277983x (data

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