JAMES HAMILTON, 1ST DUKE OF HAMILTON KG PC (19 June 1606 – 9 March 1649) was a Scottish nobleman and influential political and military leader during the Thirty Years\' War and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms .
* 1 Young Arran
* 1.1 Heir to the Throne of
* 2 Marquis of Hamilton
* 3 Hamilton\'s army in Germany
* 4 Hamilton and
James was born in 1606 at
HEIR TO THE THRONE OF SCOTLAND
The young Earl of Arran's close ancestor was the Princess Mary,
daughter to James II of
James VI's first visit to
The Duke was interested in art from a young age and collected
Venetian paintings through his agent Viscount Basil Feilding . An
inventory of his collection was made sometime after Charles I's
The Marquis meanwhile had been intriguing with George, Duke of
Buckingham . Like all ambitious upstarts at court, Buckingham was keen
to consolidate his new-found fortunes by allying himself and his
family with established and wealthy families. Buckingham proposed to
wed Arran to his niece Mary, daughter to William, Viscount Feilding ,
MARQUIS OF HAMILTON
Portrait by Daniël Mijtens of James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton in 1623 (age 17)
In 1625 the 2nd Marquis died at
In 1628, Hamilton, was made a
Gentleman of the Bedchamber , Knight of
the Garter , a privy councillor in both England and Scotland, and in
the same year was made
Master of the Horse
HAMILTON\'S ARMY IN GERMANY
In 1631 Hamilton took over an army to assist Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years\' War in Germany. He raised these based on warrants to levy 6,000 men in England and a further 6,000 in Scotland. There has been much historical debate as to how many men landed initially, how many served in total and how effective these were. What is now known is that the initial contingent of 8,000 landed in Germany and other regiments, such as those of Sir Frederick Hamilton and Alexander Lord Forbes which were raised on warrants designed for the Marquis, actually arrived in Germany but served in the army group of Swedish commander Åke Tott .
Having no military training, Hamilton was assigned Major General
Despite being under-resourced, Hamilton's forces did greater service
than they are usually given credit for. Under-clothed, and lightly
armed, they lost many men to disease early on, but those who survived
did very well. They guarded the river
your propositioun of the retiring of my trups in respeckt of the could is so preiuditial to me, both in regard of his Majesties strik commands (which was to dou my best for the attackting of Madeburg) and my oune reputatioun as I had rader lous my lyf as faill in the performans of the woon, or in the leaist degri hazard the lousing of the other, and beliue me, so long as there is wone man before this toun (unless the King Majestie countermanding) I ame fully resolued not to budge from itt, being both myself, offisars and remnant soiours most willing and I hoope as abill to indoure whatsoeuer extremati of could or whatt eals may befall, for the aduansment of his Majesties saruis
Thereafter the two armies split. Never being allowed to unite all the regiments he had raised into one single force, many of his regiments continued to fight in other theatres of the Thirty Years' War. Moreover, having been caught up in a serious dispute with the Swedish king, the marquis and many of his officers were discharged from service on 22 October 1632. He returned to Britain taking with him Sir James Hamilton of Priestfield, Colonel James Ramsay 'the fair' and Colonel John Hamilton along with a cohort of Scots. Numerous others of the Hamilton army remained in Swedish service, not least generals Alexander Hamilton and Alexander Leslie, but also numerous of the lesser officers and the surviving common soldiers.
HAMILTON AND SCOTLAND
On his return to Britain, Hamilton became Charles I 's chief adviser
in Scottish affairs. In May 1638, after the outbreak of the revolt
against the new Prayer-Book, he was appointed commissioner for
War was now decided upon, and Hamilton was chosen to command an
expedition to the Forth to menace the rear of the Covenanters.
However, he now faced his former military mentor
Hamilton now supported the parliamentary party, desired an alliance with his nation, and persuaded Charles in February 1641 to admit some of their leaders into the council. On the death of Strafford (12 May 1641) Hamilton was confronted by a new antagonist in James Graham, 5th Earl of Montrose , who detested both his character and policy and repudiated his supremacy in Scotland.
On 10 August 1641 Hamilton accompanied Charles on his last visit to Scotland. His aim now was to effect an alliance between the king and Archibald Campbell, 8th Earl of Argyll , the former accepting Presbyterianism and receiving the help of the Scots against the English parliament, and when this failed he abandoned Charles and adhered to Argyll. In consequence he received a challenge from Lord Ker , of which he gave the king information, and obtained from Ker an apology. Montrose wrote to Charles declaring he could prove Hamilton to be a traitor. The king himself spoke of him as being "very active in his own preservation".
Shortly afterwards the plot—known as "The Incident " — to seize
Argyll, Hamilton and the latter's brother, William Hamilton, Earl of
Lanark , was discovered, and on 12 October 1641 they fled from
Edinburgh. Hamilton returned not long afterwards, and notwithstanding
all that had occurred still retained Charles's favour and confidence.
He returned with him to
DUKE OF HAMILTON
Arms of James,
Duke of Hamilton
On 12 April 1643, Hamilton was further ennobled. At Oxford King Charles conferred upon the Marquis, the titles of Duke of Hamilton, Marquis of Clydesdale, Earl of Cambridge, the Baronies of Aven and Innerdale, in addition he also regranted the Earldom of Arran.
Earlier, in February 1643 proposals of mediation between Charles and
the parliament came from Scotland, Hamilton instigated the "cross
petition" which demanded from Charles the surrender of the annuities
of tithes in order to embarrass
John Campbell, 1st Earl of Loudoun ,
the chief promoter of the project, to whom they had already been
granted. This failing, he promoted a scheme for overwhelming the
influence and votes of Argyll and his party by sending to
Finally, on refusing to take the Covenant, Hamilton and Lanark were
obliged to leave Scotland. They arrived at Oxford on 16 December 1643.
Hamilton's conduct had at last incurred Charles's resentment and he
was imprisoned in a Baker called Daniells house with only two servants
and not allowed to leave the house. He was sent, in January 1644, a
In 1646 Charles conferred on the Duke the heritable office of Keeper of Holyroodhouse .
Subsequently he showed great activity in the futile negotiations
between the Scots and Charles at Newcastle . In 1648, in consequence
of the seizure of Charles by the army in 1647, Hamilton obtained a
temporary influence and authority in the Scottish parliament over
Argyll, and led a large force into England in support of the king on 8
July 1648. He showed complete incapacity in military command; was kept
in check for some time by John Lambert ; and though outnumbering the
enemy by 24,000 to about 9000 men, allowed his troops to disperse over
the country and to be defeated in detail by
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Hamilton, during his unfortunate career, had often been suspected of betraying the king's cause, and, as an heir to the Scottish throne, of intentionally laying into the hands of the Covenanters with a view of procuring the crown for himself.
The charge was brought against him as early as 1631 when he was
levying men in
ISSUE AND SUCCESSION
Lady Margaret (or 'Mary') Feilding, Duchess of Hamilton (Henry
Pierce Bone after
Anthony van Dyck
By his wife Mary Feilding, Hamilton had six children, of whom four died in childhood.
* Henrietta Mary (1631–1632)
* Anne (1632–1716), later suo jure Duchess of Hamilton
* Susannah (1633–1694), married John Kennedy, 7th Earl of Cassilis
Earl of Arran
Following the death of his three sons, the dukedom passed by special
remainder to his brother
William Hamilton, Earl of Lanark . On the
latter's death at Worcester in 1651 the Scottish titles reverted to
the 1st duke's eldest daughter, Anne. She married William Douglas,
Earl of Selkirk , who was created
Duke of Hamilton
* ^ Scots' Peerage Vol IV pp. 375–6 * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M Yorke 1911 , p. 886. * ^ A B 'To Much Bewiched with Thoes Intysing Things': The Letters of James, Third Marquis of Hamilton and Basil, Viscount Feilding, concerning Collecting in Venice 1635-1639, by Paul Shakeshaft, The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 128, No. 995 (Feb., 1986), pp. 78+114-134 * ^ Burnet, p.135 * ^ Burnet, p.136 * ^ Burnet, p 136 * ^ Anon., Anon. (1633). Le Soldat Suedois. Pierre Albert. * ^ Grosjean, An Unofficial Alliance, pp.88-93; Murdoch and Grosjean, p.54 * ^ Murdoch and Grosjean, p.54. * ^ Historical Manuscripts Commission, 11th Report, Part IV, p. 75. Marquis Hamilton to Johan Banér, n.d. 1631. * ^ Murdoch and Grosjean, pp.61-62. * ^ Edward Furgol, A Regimental History of the Covenanting Armies, 1639-1651 (John Donald, Edinburgh, 1990), p.26 * ^ Balfour Paul 1907 , p. 377. * ^ Bain, p. 140 * ^ Yorke 1911 , pp. 886–887. * ^ Gardiner 1890 , p. 179. * ^ A B Gardiner 1890 , p. 183.
* Balfour Paul, Sir James (1907), The Scots Peerage IX Vols, IV,
Edinburgh, p. 377
* Historical Manuscripts Commission, 11th Report, Part IV, p. 75.
Marquis Hamilton to Johan Banér, n.d. 1631.
* Edward Furgol, A Regimental History of the Covenanting Armies,
1639-1651 (John Donald, Edinburgh, 1990).
* Alexia Grosjean, An Unofficial Alliance:
* This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Yorke, Philip Chesney (1911). "Hamilton, James Hamilton, 1st Duke of". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica . 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 886–887. Endnotes
* Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1890). "Hamilton, James (1606-1649)". In
Stephen, Leslie ; Lee, Sidney .
Dictionary of National Biography
Wikimedia Commons has media related to JAMES HAMILTON, 1ST DUKE OF HAMILTON .
* Rubenstein, H.L. (1975), Captain Luckless-James, First Duke of Hamilton, 1606–1649, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press
The Earl of Holland MASTER OF THE HORSE
1628–1644 Succeeded by
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
PEERAGE OF SCOTLAND
NEW CREATION DUKE OF HAMILTON 1643–1649 Succeeded by William Hamilton
Preceded by James Hamilton MARQUIS OF HAMILTON 1625–1643
PEERAGE OF ENGLAND
Preceded by James Hamilton EARL OF CAMBRIDGE 4th creation 1625–1649 Succeeded by William Hamilton
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 60023742 * LCCN : n85029597 * ISNI : 0000 0000 6630 0955 * GND : 124701930 * IATH