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JAMES FRANCIS BYRNES (US : /ˈbɜːrnz/ ; May 2, 1882 – April 9, 1972) was an American judge and politician from the state of South Carolina . A member of the Democratic Party , Byrnes served in Congress , the executive branch, and on the United States Supreme Court . He was also the 104th Governor of South Carolina
Governor of South Carolina
, making him one of the very few politicians to serve in all three branches of the American federal government while also being active in state government.

Born and raised in Charleston, South Carolina
South Carolina
, Byrnes pursued a legal career with the help of his cousin, Governor Miles Benjamin McSweeney . Byrnes won election to the United States House of Representatives , serving from 1911 to 1925. He became a close ally of President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
and a protégé of Senator Benjamin Tillman . He sought election to the United States Senate
United States Senate
in 1924, but narrowly lost a run-off election to Coleman Livingston Blease
Coleman Livingston Blease
, who had the backing of the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
. After the loss, Byrnes moved his law practice to Spartanburg, South Carolina
South Carolina
and prepared for a political comeback. He narrowly defeated Blease in the 1930 Democratic primary and joined the Senate in 1931.

Historian George E. Mowry called Byrnes "the most influential Southern member of Congress between John Calhoun and Lyndon Johnson ." In the Senate, Byrnes supported the policies of his long-time friend, President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
. Byrnes championed the New Deal
New Deal
and sought federal investment in South Carolina
South Carolina
water projects. He also supported Roosevelt's foreign policy, calling for a hard line against Japan
Japan
and Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
. On the other hand, Byrnes opposed anti-lynching legislation and some of the labor laws proposed by Roosevelt, such as the Fair Labor Standards Act
Fair Labor Standards Act
. Roosevelt appointed Byrnes to the Supreme Court in 1941, but asked him to join the executive branch after the start of World War II
World War II
. During the war, Byrnes led the Office of Economic Stabilization and the Office of War Mobilization . He was a candidate to replace Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
as Roosevelt's running mate in the 1944 election, but Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
was instead nominated by the 1944 Democratic National Convention .

After Roosevelt's death, Byrnes served as a close adviser to Truman, becoming United States Secretary of State
United States Secretary of State
in July 1945. In this capacity, Byrnes attended the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
and the Paris Peace Conference . However, relations between Byrnes and Truman soured, and Byrnes resigned from the Cabinet in January 1947. He returned to elective politics in 1950, winning election as the Governor of South Carolina. As governor, he opposed the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education and sought to establish "separate but equal" as a realistic alternative to the desegregation of schools . He endorsed most Republican presidential nominees after 1948 and supported Strom Thurmond 's switch to the Republican Party in 1964.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life and career * 2 United States Senate
United States Senate
and Supreme Court * 3 World War II
World War II
and beginning of the Cold War * 4 Governor of South Carolina
Governor of South Carolina
* 5 Later political career * 6 Legacy * 7 Electoral history * 8 See also * 9 Footnotes

* 10 References

* 10.1 Primary sources

* 11 Further reading * 12 External links

EARLY LIFE AND CAREER

James Francis "Jimmy" Byrnes was born at 538 King St. in Charleston, South Carolina
South Carolina
and reared in that city. Byrnes's father, James Francis Byrnes, died shortly after Byrnes was born. His mother, Elizabeth McSweeney Byrnes, was an Irish-American
Irish-American
dressmaker. In the 1880s, a widowed aunt and her three children came to live with them; one of the children was Frank J. Hogan , who went on to become president of the American Bar Association
American Bar Association
. At the age of fourteen, Byrnes left St. Patrick's Catholic School to work in a law office, and became a court stenographer . Notably, he transcribed the murder trial of then-Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina, James H. Tillman , nephew of Benjamin Tillman , for the killing of Narciso Gener Gonzales , the editor of The State (newspaper)
The State (newspaper)
. In 1906, he married the former Maude Perkins Busch of Aiken , South Carolina. Though they had no children, he was the godparent of James Christopher Connor. Byrnes then converted from the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
to Episcopalianism .

In 1900, when Byrnes's cousin Governor Miles B. McSweeney appointed him as a clerk for Judge Robert Aldrich of Aiken, he needed to be 21. Byrnes, his mother, and Governor McSweeney just changed his date of birth to that of his older sister Leonora. He later apprenticed to a lawyer – a not uncommon practice then – read for the law , and was admitted to the bar in 1903. In 1908, he was appointed solicitor for the second circuit of South Carolina, serving until 1910. Byrnes was a protégé of Benjamin Tillman (who was known as "Pitchfork Ben") and often had a moderating influence on the fiery segregationist Senator.

In 1910, he narrowly won the state\'s Second Congressional District in the Democratic primary , then tantamount to election . Byrnes proved a brilliant legislator, working behind the scenes to form coalitions and avoiding the high-profile oratory that characterized much of Southern politics. He was a champion of the "good roads" movement that attracted motorists, and politicians, to large-scale road building programs in the 1920s. He became a close ally of President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
, and Wilson often entrusted important political tasks to the capable young representative rather than to more experienced lawmakers.

UNITED STATES SENATE AND SUPREME COURT

In 1924, Byrnes declined renomination to the House, and instead sought nomination for the Senate seat held by incumbent Nathaniel B. Dial , though both were former allies of the now-deceased "Pitchfork Ben" Tillman. Anti-Tillmanite and extreme racist demagogue Coleman Blease , who had challenged Dial in 1918, also ran again. Blease led the primary with 42 percent; Byrnes was second with 34 percent. Dial finished third with 22 percent.

Byrnes was opposed by the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
, which preferred Blease. Byrnes had been raised as a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
, and the Klan spread rumors that he was still a secret Catholic. Byrnes countered by citing his support by Episcopalian clergy. Then, three days before the run-off vote, twenty Catholics who said they had been altar boys with Byrnes published a professed endorsement of him. The leader of this group was a Blease ally, and the "endorsement" was circulated in anti-Catholic areas. Blease won the run-off 51% to 49%.

After his House term ended in 1925, Byrnes was out of office. He moved his law practice to Spartanburg , in the industrializing Piedmont region. Between his law practice and investment advice from friends such as Bernard Baruch
Bernard Baruch
, Byrnes became a wealthy man, but he never excluded himself from a return to politics. He cultivated the Piedmont textile workers, who were key Blease supporters. In 1930, he challenged Blease again. Blease again led the primary, with 46 percent to 38 percent for Byrnes, but this time Byrnes won the run-off 51 to 49 percent.

During his time in the U.S. Senate, Byrnes was regarded as the most influential South Carolinian since John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
. He had long been friends with Franklin D. Roosevelt, whom he supported for the Democratic nomination in 1932, and made himself the President's spokesman on the Senate floor, where he guided much of the early New Deal legislation to passage. He won an easy reelection in 1936, promising:

I admit I am a New Dealer, and if takes money from the few who have controlled the country and gives it back to the average man, I am going to Washington to help the President work for the people of South Carolina and the country.

Since the colonial era, South Carolina's politicians had dreamed of an inland waterway system that would not only aid commerce, but also control flooding. By the 1930s, Byrnes took up the cause for a massive dam-building project, Santee Cooper , that would not only accomplish those tasks but also electrify the entire state with hydroelectric power. With South Carolina
South Carolina
financially strapped by the Great Depression , Senator Byrnes managed to get the federal government to authorize a loan for the entire project, which was completed and put into operation in February 1942. The loan was later paid back to the federal government with full interest and at no cost to South Carolina taxpayers. Santee Cooper has continued to be a model for public-owned electrical utilities worldwide.

In 1937, Byrnes supported Roosevelt on the highly controversial court packing plan , but voted against the minimum wage law of 1938 as potentially making the textile mills in his state uncompetitive. He opposed Roosevelt's efforts to purge conservative Democrats in the 1938 primary elections. On foreign policy, Byrnes was a champion of Roosevelt's positions of helping Great Britain and France
France
against Nazi Germany in 1939–1941, and of maintaining a hard diplomatic line against Japan
Japan
.

Byrnes played a key role in blocking anti-lynching legislation, notably the Castigan-Wagner bill of 1935 and the Gavagan bill of 1937. Byrnes even claimed that lynching was necessary "in order to hold in check the Negro in the south", saying "rape is responsible, directly and indirectly, for most of the lynching in America".

Byrnes despised his fellow South Carolina
South Carolina
Senator "Cotton Ed" Smith , who strongly opposed the New Deal. He privately sought to help his friend Burnet R. Maybank , then the mayor of Charleston, defeat Smith in the 1938 Senate primary. During the primary, however, Olin Johnston , who was limited to one term as governor, decided to run for the Senate. Because Johnston was also a pro-Roosevelt New Dealer, he would have divided the New Deal
New Deal
vote with Maybank and ensured a victory for Smith. Johnston was also supportive of the New Deal's labor legislation, while Byrnes' support was limited, and following a series of labor strikes in the fall of 1937, Byrnes withdrew consideration for potentially endorsing Johnston. Taking advice from Byrnes, Maybank decided to instead run for governor, and Byrnes made the reluctant decision to support Smith. Byrnes envisioned that Smith would retire in 1944 and that Maybank would successfully run for Smith's Senate seat and build a strong political machine in the state with him.

In part as a reward for his crucial support on many issues, Roosevelt appointed Byrnes an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in July 1941. He was the last Justice appointed to the Supreme Court who had been admitted to practice by reading law . Byrnes resigned from the Court after only fifteen months to head the Office of Economic Stabilization. Byrnes' Supreme Court tenure is the second shortest of any Justice.

WORLD WAR II AND BEGINNING OF THE COLD WAR

Play media 1946 newsreel Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
: Sitting (from left) Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
, Ernest Bevin
Ernest Bevin
, Vyacheslav Molotov
Vyacheslav Molotov
, Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
, William Daniel Leahy , James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
and Harry S. Truman . Sitting (from left): Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
, Harry S. Truman , Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
; behind: William Daniel Leahy , Ernest Bevin
Ernest Bevin
, James F. Byrnes and Vyacheslav Molotov
Vyacheslav Molotov
. The Foreign Ministers: Vyacheslav Molotov
Vyacheslav Molotov
, James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
and Anthony Eden
Anthony Eden
, July 1945.

Byrnes left the Supreme Court to head Roosevelt's Office of Economic Stabilization , which dealt with the vitally important issues of prices and taxes. How powerful the new office would become depended entirely on Byrnes's political skills, and Washington insiders soon reported he was fully in charge. In May 1943, he became head of the Office of War Mobilization , a new agency that supervised the Office of Economic Stabilization. Under the leadership of Byrnes, the program managed newly constructed factories across the country that utilized raw materials, civilian and military production, and transportation for U.S. military personnel and was credited with providing the employment needed to officially bring an end to the Great Depression. Thanks to his political experience, his probing intellect, his close friendship with Roosevelt, and in no small part to his own personal charm, Byrnes was soon exerting influence over many facets of the war effort which were not technically under his departmental jurisdiction. Many in Congress and the press began referring to Byrnes as the "Assistant President."

Many expected that Byrnes would be the Democratic nominee for vice president with Roosevelt in 1944, replacing Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
, who party officials strongly felt was too eccentric to replace an ailing president who likely was going to die before his next term ended. Roosevelt refused to endorse anybody other than Wallace. He had a personal preference for U.S. Supreme Court justice William O. Douglas. Byrnes was on Roosevelt's list but hardly his first choice. In a July meeting at the White House, the party bosses pressed hard for Truman and Roosevelt issued a statement saying he would support either Truman or Douglas. Byrnes was regarded as too conservative for organized labor , the big city bosses opposed him as an ex-Catholic who would offend Catholics, and blacks were wary of his opposition to racial integration . In short, Byrnes never had a serious chance at being nominated for vice-president, and the nomination went instead to U.S. Senator Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
of Missouri
Missouri
. Roosevelt brought Byrnes to the Yalta Conference in early 1945, where he seemed to favor Soviet plans. Written in shorthand, his notes comprise one of the most complete records of the "Big Three" Yalta meetings.

Upon his succession to the presidency after Roosevelt's death on April 12, 1945, Truman relied heavily on Byrnes' counsel, Byrnes having been a mentor to Truman from Truman's earliest days in the U.S. Senate. Indeed, Jimmy Byrnes was one of the first people whom Truman saw on the first day of his presidency. It was Byrnes who shared information with the new president on the atomic bomb project (Truman had known nothing about the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
beforehand). When Truman met Roosevelt's coffin in Washington, he asked Byrnes and former Vice President Wallace, the two other men who might well have succeeded Roosevelt, to join him at the train station. Truman originally intended that both men would play leading roles in his administration, signaling continuity with Roosevelt's policies. While Truman quickly fell out with Wallace, he retained a good working relationship with Byrnes and increasingly turned to him for support.

Truman appointed Byrnes as Secretary of State on July 3, 1945. As Secretary of State, he was first in line to the Presidency as there was no Vice-President during Truman's first term. He played a major role at the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
, the Paris Peace Conference , and other major postwar conferences. According to historian Robert H. Ferrell, Byrnes knew little more about foreign relations than Truman. He made decisions after consulting a few advisors, such as Donald S. Russell and Benjamin V. Cohen . Byrnes and his small group paid little attention to the State Department and similarly ignored the President.

In 1945, Byrnes was elected an honorary member of the South Carolina Society of the Cincinnati
Society of the Cincinnati
.

Because Byrnes had been part of the US delegation at Yalta, Truman assumed that he had accurate knowledge of what had transpired. It would be many months before Truman discovered that this was not the case. Nevertheless, Byrnes advised that the Soviets were breaking the Yalta Agreement and that Truman needed to be resolute and uncompromising with them. Although Byrnes' hard line against the Soviets paralleled the feelings of the President, personal relations between the two men grew strained, particularly when Truman felt that Byrnes was attempting to set foreign policy by himself, and only informing the President afterward. An early instance of this friction was the Moscow Conference in December 1945. Truman considered the “successes” of the conference to be “unreal” and was highly critical of Byrnes’s failure to protect Iran
Iran
, which was not mentioned in the final communiqué. “I had been left in the dark about the Moscow conference,” Truman told Byrnes bluntly. In a subsequent letter to Byrnes, Truman took a harder line in reference to Iran, saying in part, "Without these supplies furnished by the United States, Russia would have been ignominiously defeated. Yet now Russia stirs up rebellion and keeps troops on the soil of her friend and ally— Iran... Unless Russia is faced with an iron fist and strong language another war is in the making. Only one language do they understand—“how many divisions do you have?” I do not think we should play compromise any longer ...I am tired of babying the Soviets". This led to the Iran
Iran
crisis of 1946 , and Byrnes took an increasingly hardline position in opposition to Stalin, culminating in a speech in Stuttgart
Stuttgart
on September 6, 1946. The "Restatement of Policy on Germany ", also known as the "Speech of Hope", set the tone of future U.S. policy as it repudiated the Morgenthau Plan
Morgenthau Plan
, an economic program that would permanently deindustrialize Germany. Byrnes was named TIME Man of the Year . Truman and others believed that Byrnes had grown resentful that he had not been Roosevelt's running mate and successor, and in his resentment he was disrespecting Truman. Whether this was true or not, Byrnes felt compelled to resign from the Cabinet in 1947 with some feelings of bitterness.

GOVERNOR OF SOUTH CAROLINA

At an age when most of his contemporaries retired from politics, Byrnes was not yet ready to give up public service. At age sixty-eight, he was elected governor of South Carolina, serving from 1951 to 1955, in which capacity he vigorously criticized the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education
. Supporting segregation in education, the Democratic governor stated in his inaugural address:

Whatever is necessary to continue the separation of the races in the schools of South Carolina
South Carolina
is going to be done by the white people of the state. That is my ticket as a private citizen. It will be my ticket as governor. —  James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes

Ironically, Byrnes was initially seen as a relative moderate on race issues. Recognizing that the South could not continue with its entrenched segregationist policies much longer but fearful of Congress imposing sweeping change upon the South, he opted for a course of change from within. To that end, he sought to fulfill at last the "separate but equal" policy which the South had put forward in Supreme Court civil rights cases, particularly in regard to public education. Byrnes poured state money into improving Negro schools, buying new textbooks and new buses, and hiring additional teachers. He also sought to curb the power of the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
by passing a law that prohibited adults from wearing a mask in public on any day other than Halloween
Halloween
; he knew that many Klansmen feared exposure, and would not appear in public in their robes unless their faces were hidden as well. Byrnes hoped to make South Carolina
South Carolina
an example for other Southern states to follow in modifying their " Jim Crow
Jim Crow
" policies. Nonetheless, the NAACP sued South Carolina
South Carolina
to force the state to desegregate its schools. Byrnes requested Kansas
Kansas
, a Midwestern state which also segregated its schools, to provide an Amicus curiae
Amicus curiae
brief in supporting the right of a state to segregate its schools. This gave the NAACP's lawyer, Thurgood Marshall
Thurgood Marshall
, the idea to shift the suit from South Carolina
South Carolina
over to Kansas, which led directly to Brown v. Board of Education .

The South Carolina
South Carolina
state constitution limited governors to one four-year term, and Byrnes retired from active political life following the 1954 election.

LATER POLITICAL CAREER

In his later years, Byrnes foresaw that the American South could play a more important role in national politics. To hasten that development, he sought to end the region's nearly automatic support of the Democratic Party, which Byrnes believed had grown too liberal and took the " Solid South
Solid South
" for granted at election time, yet otherwise ignored the region and its needs.

Byrnes endorsed Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
in 1952, segregationist candidate Harry Byrd in 1956, Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon
in 1960 and 1968 and Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
in 1964. He gave his private blessing to U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
of South Carolina
South Carolina
to bolt the Democratic Party in 1964 and declare himself a Republican, but Byrnes himself remained a Democrat at the time.

In 1965, Byrnes spoke out against the "punishment" and "humiliation" of South Carolina
South Carolina
U.S. Representative Albert W. Watson , who had been stripped of his congressional seniority by the House Democratic Caucus after endorsing Goldwater for president. Byrnes openly endorsed Watson's retention in Congress as a Republican in a special election held in 1965 against Democrat Preston Callison . Watson secured $20,000 and the services of a GOP field representative in what he termed "quite a contrast" to his treatment from Democratic House colleagues.

Following Byrnes' death on April 9, 1972, at the age of 89, he was interred in the churchyard at Trinity Episcopal Church in Columbia, South Carolina
South Carolina
.

LEGACY

Byrnes is memorialized at several South Carolina
South Carolina
universities and schools.

* The James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
Building housing the Byrnes International Center at the University of South Carolina
South Carolina
. * The James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
Professorship of International Studies at USC, its first endowed professorship. * Byrnes Auditorium at Winthrop University
Winthrop University
. * Byrnes Hall, a dormitory at Clemson University
Clemson University
(where Byrnes was a Life Trustee) * James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
Room, R.M. Cooper Library, Clemson University * James F. Byrnes High School in Duncan, South Carolina
South Carolina
. * The Byrnes Schools (formerly the James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
Academy) in Quinby, South Carolina
South Carolina
.

In 1948, Byrnes and his wife established the James F. Byrnes Foundation Scholarships and since then more than 1,000 young South Carolinians have been assisted in obtaining a college education. His papers are in Clemson University\'s Special
Special
Collections Library.

ELECTORAL HISTORY

Main article: Electoral history of James F. Byrnes

SEE ALSO

* Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States
Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States
* List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States by court composition * List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States by education * List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States by time in office * List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States * List of United States Chief Justices by time in office
List of United States Chief Justices by time in office
* United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
cases during the Stone Court * Oliver Stone\'s Untold History of the United States , Episodes 2 and 3

FOOTNOTES

* ^ "Timeline of the Court - James F. Byrnes". Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved July 10, 2012. * ^ David Robertson, Sly and Able: A Political Biography of James F. Byrnes (1994) p. 126 * ^ "Do You Know Your Charleston?". Charleston News & Courier. p. 8. Retrieved September 16, 2012. * ^ http://www.carolana.com/SC/Governors/jfbyrnes.html * ^ Ransom, William L. (1944). "Frank J. Hogan, 1877-1944". ABA Journal. 30 (7): 393–395. JSTOR
JSTOR
25714990 . * ^ James L. Underwood. "Deadly Censorship". The University of South Carolina
South Carolina
Press. p. Note 4. Retrieved February 11, 2016. * ^ "SC Governors - James Francis Byrnes, 1951 - 1955". SCIWAY. Retrieved July 10, 2012. * ^ A B C "BYRNES, James Francis". Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress. Office of the Clerk. Retrieved January 9, 2012. * ^ A B "Report of the Secretary of State to the General Assembly of South Carolina. Part II." Reports of State Officers Boards and Committees to the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina. Volume I. Columbia, SC: 1925, p. 59. * ^ Pope, Thomas H. The History of Newberry County, South Carolina: 1860–1990 p. 110 * ^ "Supplemental Report of the Secretary of State to the General Assembly of South Carolina." Reports of State Officers Boards and Committees to the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina. Volume I. Columbia, SC: 1931, p. 3. * ^ " Book
Book
Reviews and Notes - Sly and Able: A Political Biography of James F. Byrnes". South Carolina
South Carolina
Historical Magazine. South Carolina Historical Society. April 1995. Retrieved July 10, 2012. * ^ Walter Francis White#Anti-Lynching Legislation * ^ Sean Dennis Cashman (1 January 1989). America in the Twenties and Thirties: The Olympian Age of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. NYU Press. pp. 271–. ISBN 978-0-8147-7208-9 . * ^ A B "ELECTIONS: Curtains for Cotton Ed". Time. August 7, 1944. * ^ A B Storrs, Landon R. Y. (2000). Civilizing Capitalism: The National Consumers\' League, Women\'s Activism, and Labor Standards in the New Deal
New Deal
Era. Univ of North Carolina Press. Retrieved July 10, 2012. * ^ Simon, Bryant. A fabric of defeat: the politics of South Carolina millhands, 1910–1948, p. 208-210 * ^ A B Simon, Bryant. A fabric of defeat: the politics of South Carolina millhands, 1910–1948, p. 212 * ^ https://www.supremecourt.gov/about/faq_justices.aspx * ^ Wallace, David Duncan. South Carolina: A Short History (University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, 1951) p. 677. * ^ " Economic History Services". Eh.net. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012. * ^ "Research & Articles on Economy, World War II
World War II
by". BookRags.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012. * ^ "Economy in World War II: Home Front". Shmoop.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012. * ^ Ibid. * ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 189-90, 247, 330, Random House, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4 . * ^ Ibid. * ^ LeRoy Ashby (September 2, 2012). "American Dreamer: The life and times of Henry A. Wallace". Jah.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012. * ^ Ibid. * ^ Messer, Robert L. 'The End of an Alliance: James F. Byrnes, Roosevelt, Truman, and the Origins of the Cold War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982), 13. Cited in reliance on citation in Robert J. Lifton and Greg Mitchell, Hiroshima in America, Fifty Years of Denial (G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1995), 136 (footnote, Byrnes "as a kindly 'older brother' to Truman" in the Senate). * ^ Gar Alperovitz, "The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb" (New York: Vintage Books, 1996) * ^ David McCullough
David McCullough
, Truman (Simon & Schuster:New York, 1992)p. 352. * ^ Ibid * ^ Ibid. * ^ Ibid. p. 388. * ^ Ibid. "A revealing moment during Byrnes' swearing-in ceremony as secretary of state offers insight into the relationship : The diary of Byrnes' friend and assistant Walter Brown records that 'when the oath was completed, the President said, "Jimmy, kiss the Bible." He did and then handed it over to the President and told him to kiss it, too. The President did so as the crowd laughed..." ( Gar Alperovitz
Gar Alperovitz
, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995, p. 197). * ^ Ferrell, Robert H. Harry S. Truman: a Life (1995), ISBN 0-8262-1050-3 , pp. 236–237. * ^ Robert H. Ferrell, ed. "Off the Record: The Private Papers of Harry S. Truman" (Columbia: University of Missouri
Missouri
Press, 1980), 17. * ^ Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
, Memoirs, Vol. 1: Years of Decision (1955), p.547,550, cited in George Lenczowski , American Presidents and the Middle East, p.10 * ^ Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
, Memoirs, Vol. 1: Years of Decision (1955), p.551–552, cited in Lenczowski, American Presidents, p.11 * ^ Bruce Bartlett (8 January 2008). Wrong on Race: The Democratic Party\'s Buried Past. St. Martin's Press. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-0-230-61138-2 . * ^ Lamis, Alexander (1988). The Two-Party South. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 15–16. * ^ Billy Hathorn, "The Changing Politics of Race: Congressman Albert William Watson and the South Carolina
South Carolina
Republican Party, 1965-1970", South Carolina
South Carolina
Historical Magazine Vol. 89 (October 1988), p. 230 * ^ Congressional Quarterly
Congressional Quarterly
Weekly Report, Vol. 23 (June 18, 1965), p. 1185; Bernard Cosman and Robert J. Huckshorn, eds., Republican Politics: The 1964 Campaign and Its Aftermath for the Party (New York: Praeger, 1968), pp. 147–148

REFERENCES

* Messer, Robert L. The End of an Alliance: James F. Byrnes, Roosevelt, Truman, and the Origins of the Cold War (1982). * Robertson, David. Sly and Able: A Political Biography of James F. Byrnes (1994) * Annotated bibliography for James Byrnes from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues * James Francis Byrnes at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges , a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center
Federal Judicial Center
.

PRIMARY SOURCES

* Byrnes, James. Speaking Frankly (1947) * Byrnes, James. All in One Lifetime (1958).

FURTHER READING

* Abraham, Henry J., Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court. 3d. ed. (New York: Oxford University Press , 1992). ISBN 0-19-506557-3 . * Cushman, Clare, The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies,1789–1995 (2nd ed.) (Supreme Court Historical Society), ( Congressional Quarterly
Congressional Quarterly
Books, 2001) ISBN 1-56802-126-7 ; ISBN 978-1-56802-126-3 . * Frank, John P., The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions (Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel, editors) ( Chelsea House Publishers: 1995) ISBN 0-7910-1377-4 , ISBN 978-0-7910-1377-9 . * Martin, Fenton S. and Goehlert, Robert U., The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography, ( Congressional Quarterly
Congressional Quarterly
Books, 1990). ISBN 0-87187-554-3 . * Urofsky, Melvin I., The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary (New York: Garland Publishing 1994). 590 pp. ISBN 0-8153-1176-1 ; ISBN 978-0-8153-1176-8 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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