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James Francis Byrnes (US: /ˈbɜːrnz/; May 2, 1882 – April 9, 1972) was an American judge and politician from the state of South Carolina. A member of the Democratic Party, Byrnes served in Congress, the executive branch, and on the United States Supreme Court. He was also the 104th Governor of South Carolina, making him one of the very few politicians to serve in all three branches of the American federal government while also being active in state government. Born and raised in Charleston, South Carolina, Byrnes pursued a legal career with the help of his cousin, Governor Miles Benjamin McSweeney. Byrnes won election to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1911 to 1925. He became a close ally of President Woodrow Wilson and a protégé of Senator Benjamin Tillman. He sought election to the United States Senate
United States Senate
in 1924, but narrowly lost a run-off election to Coleman Livingston Blease, who had the backing of the Ku Klux Klan. After the loss, Byrnes moved his law practice to Spartanburg, South Carolina
South Carolina
and prepared for a political comeback. He narrowly defeated Blease in the 1930 Democratic primary and joined the Senate in 1931. Historian George E. Mowry called Byrnes "the most influential Southern member of Congress between John Calhoun and Lyndon Johnson."[2] In the Senate, Byrnes supported the policies of his long-time friend, President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Byrnes championed the New Deal
New Deal
and sought federal investment in South Carolina
South Carolina
water projects. He also supported Roosevelt's foreign policy, calling for a hard line against Japan
Japan
and Nazi Germany. On the other hand, Byrnes opposed anti-lynching legislation and some of the labor laws proposed by Roosevelt, such as the Fair Labor Standards Act. Roosevelt appointed Byrnes to the Supreme Court in 1941, but asked him to join the executive branch after the start of World War II. During the war, Byrnes led the Office of Economic Stabilization and the Office of War Mobilization. He was a candidate to replace Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
as Roosevelt's running mate in the 1944 election, but Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
was instead nominated by the 1944 Democratic National Convention. After Roosevelt's death, Byrnes served as a close adviser to Truman, becoming United States Secretary of State
United States Secretary of State
in July 1945. In this capacity, Byrnes attended the Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
and the Paris Peace Conference. However, relations between Byrnes and Truman soured, and Byrnes resigned from the Cabinet in January 1947. He returned to elective politics in 1950, winning election as the Governor of South Carolina. As governor, he opposed the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education and sought to establish "separate but equal" as a realistic alternative to the desegregation of schools. He endorsed most Republican presidential nominees after 1948 and supported Strom Thurmond's switch to the Republican Party in 1964.

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 United States Senate
United States Senate
and Supreme Court 3 World War II
World War II
and beginning of the Cold War 4 Governor of South Carolina 5 Later political career 6 Legacy 7 Electoral history 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References

10.1 Primary sources

11 Further reading 12 External links

Early life and career[edit] James Francis "Jimmy" Byrnes was born at 538 King St. in Charleston, South Carolina[3] and reared in that city. Byrnes's father, James Francis Byrnes,[4] died shortly after Byrnes was born. His mother, Elizabeth McSweeney Byrnes, was an Irish-American
Irish-American
dressmaker. In the 1880s, a widowed aunt and her three children came to live with them; one of the children was Frank J. Hogan, who went on to become president of the American Bar Association.[5] At the age of fourteen, Byrnes left St. Patrick's Catholic School to work in a law office, and became a court stenographer. Notably, he transcribed the murder trial of then-Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina, James H. Tillman, nephew of Benjamin Tillman, for the killing of Narciso Gener Gonzales, the editor of The State (newspaper).[6] In 1906, he married the former Maude Perkins Busch of Aiken, South Carolina. Though they had no children, he was the godparent of James Christopher Connor. Byrnes then converted from the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
to Episcopalianism. In 1900, when Byrnes's cousin Governor Miles B. McSweeney
Miles B. McSweeney
appointed him as a clerk for Judge Robert Aldrich of Aiken, he needed to be 21. Byrnes, his mother, and Governor McSweeney just changed his date of birth to that of his older sister Leonora.[7] He later apprenticed to a lawyer – a not uncommon practice then – read for the law, and was admitted to the bar in 1903. In 1908, he was appointed solicitor for the second circuit of South Carolina, serving until 1910.[8] Byrnes was a protégé of Benjamin Tillman
Benjamin Tillman
(who was known as "Pitchfork Ben") and often had a moderating influence on the fiery segregationist Senator. In 1910, he narrowly won the state's Second Congressional District in the Democratic primary, then tantamount to election. Byrnes proved a brilliant legislator, working behind the scenes to form coalitions and avoiding the high-profile oratory that characterized much of Southern politics. He was a champion of the "good roads" movement that attracted motorists, and politicians, to large-scale road building programs in the 1920s. He became a close ally of President Woodrow Wilson, and Wilson often entrusted important political tasks to the capable young representative rather than to more experienced lawmakers. United States Senate
United States Senate
and Supreme Court[edit] In 1924, Byrnes declined renomination to the House, and instead sought nomination for the Senate seat held by incumbent Nathaniel B. Dial, though both were former allies of the now-deceased "Pitchfork Ben" Tillman. Anti-Tillmanite and extreme racist demagogue Coleman Blease, who had challenged Dial in 1918, also ran again. Blease led the primary with 42 percent; Byrnes was second with 34 percent. Dial finished third with 22 percent.[9] Byrnes was opposed by the Ku Klux Klan, which preferred Blease. Byrnes had been raised as a Roman Catholic, and the Klan spread rumors that he was still a secret Catholic. Byrnes countered by citing his support by Episcopalian clergy. Then, three days before the run-off vote, twenty Catholics who said they had been altar boys with Byrnes published a professed endorsement of him. The leader of this group was a Blease ally, and the "endorsement" was circulated in anti-Catholic areas.[10] Blease won the run-off 51% to 49%.[9] After his House term ended in 1925, Byrnes was out of office. He moved his law practice to Spartanburg, in the industrializing Piedmont region. Between his law practice and investment advice from friends such as Bernard Baruch, Byrnes became a wealthy man, but he never excluded himself from a return to politics. He cultivated the Piedmont textile workers, who were key Blease supporters. In 1930, he challenged Blease again. Blease again led the primary, with 46 percent to 38 percent for Byrnes, but this time Byrnes won the run-off 51 to 49 percent.[11] During his time in the U.S. Senate, Byrnes was regarded as the most influential South Carolinian since John C. Calhoun.[12] He had long been friends with Franklin D. Roosevelt, whom he supported for the Democratic nomination in 1932, and made himself the President's spokesman on the Senate floor, where he guided much of the early New Deal legislation to passage. He won an easy reelection in 1936, promising:

I admit I am a New Dealer, and if [the New Deal] takes money from the few who have controlled the country and gives it back to the average man, I am going to Washington to help the President work for the people of South Carolina
South Carolina
and the country.

Since the colonial era, South Carolina's politicians had dreamed of an inland waterway system that would not only aid commerce, but also control flooding. By the 1930s, Byrnes took up the cause for a massive dam-building project, Santee Cooper, that would not only accomplish those tasks but also electrify the entire state with hydroelectric power. With South Carolina
South Carolina
financially strapped by the Great Depression, Senator Byrnes managed to get the federal government to authorize a loan for the entire project, which was completed and put into operation in February 1942. The loan was later paid back to the federal government with full interest and at no cost to South Carolina taxpayers. Santee Cooper
Santee Cooper
has continued to be a model for public-owned electrical utilities worldwide. In 1937, Byrnes supported Roosevelt on the highly controversial court packing plan, but voted against the minimum wage law of 1938 as potentially making the textile mills in his state uncompetitive. He opposed Roosevelt's efforts to purge conservative Democrats in the 1938 primary elections. On foreign policy, Byrnes was a champion of Roosevelt's positions of helping Great Britain and France
France
against Nazi Germany in 1939–1941, and of maintaining a hard diplomatic line against Japan. Byrnes played a key role in blocking anti-lynching legislation, notably the Castigan-Wagner bill of 1935 and the Gavagan bill of 1937.[13] Byrnes even claimed that lynching was necessary "in order to hold in check the Negro in the south", saying "rape is responsible, directly and indirectly, for most of the lynching in America".[14] Byrnes despised his fellow South Carolina
South Carolina
Senator "Cotton Ed" Smith, who strongly opposed the New Deal.[15] He privately sought to help his friend Burnet R. Maybank, then the mayor of Charleston, defeat Smith in the 1938 Senate primary. During the primary, however, Olin Johnston, who was limited to one term as governor, decided to run for the Senate. Because Johnston was also a pro-Roosevelt New Dealer,[15] he would have divided the New Deal
New Deal
vote with Maybank and ensured a victory for Smith. Johnston was also supportive of the New Deal's labor legislation,[16] while Byrnes' support was limited,[16] and following a series of labor strikes in the fall of 1937, Byrnes withdrew consideration for potentially endorsing Johnston.[17] Taking advice from Byrnes, Maybank decided to instead run for governor, and Byrnes made the reluctant decision to support Smith.[18] Byrnes envisioned that Smith would retire in 1944 and that Maybank would successfully run for Smith's Senate seat and build a strong political machine in the state with him.[18] In part as a reward for his crucial support on many issues, Roosevelt appointed Byrnes an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in July 1941. He was the last Justice appointed to the Supreme Court who had been admitted to practice by reading law. Byrnes resigned from the Court after only fifteen months to head the Office of Economic Stabilization. Byrnes' Supreme Court tenure is the second shortest of any Justice.[19][8] World War II
World War II
and beginning of the Cold War[edit]

Play media

1946 newsreel

Potsdam Conference: Sitting (from left) Clement Attlee, Ernest Bevin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Joseph Stalin, William Daniel Leahy, James F. Byrnes and Harry S. Truman.

Sitting (from left): Clement Attlee, Harry S. Truman, Joseph Stalin; behind: William Daniel Leahy, Ernest Bevin, James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
and Vyacheslav Molotov.

The Foreign Ministers: Vyacheslav Molotov, James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
and Anthony Eden, July 1945.

Byrnes left the Supreme Court to head Roosevelt's Office of Economic Stabilization, which dealt with the vitally important issues of prices and taxes.[8] How powerful the new office would become depended entirely on Byrnes's political skills, and Washington insiders soon reported he was fully in charge. In May 1943, he became head of the Office of War Mobilization, a new agency that supervised the Office of Economic Stabilization.[20] Under the leadership of Byrnes, the program managed newly constructed factories across the country that utilized raw materials, civilian and military production, and transportation for U.S. military personnel and was credited with providing the employment needed to officially bring an end to the Great Depression.[21][22][23] Thanks to his political experience, his probing intellect, his close friendship with Roosevelt, and in no small part to his own personal charm, Byrnes was soon exerting influence over many facets of the war effort which were not technically under his departmental jurisdiction. Many in Congress and the press began referring to Byrnes as the "Assistant President."[24][25] Many expected that Byrnes would be the Democratic nominee for vice president with Roosevelt in 1944,[26] replacing Henry A. Wallace, who party officials strongly felt was too eccentric to replace an ailing president who likely was going to die before his next term ended.[27] Roosevelt refused to endorse anybody other than Wallace. He had a personal preference for U.S. Supreme Court justice William O. Douglas. Byrnes was on Roosevelt's list but hardly his first choice. In a July meeting at the White House, the party bosses pressed hard for Truman and Roosevelt issued a statement saying he would support either Truman or Douglas. Byrnes was regarded as too conservative for organized labor, the big city bosses opposed him as an ex-Catholic who would offend Catholics, and blacks were wary of his opposition to racial integration.[28] In short, Byrnes never had a serious chance at being nominated for vice-president, and the nomination went instead to U.S. Senator Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
of Missouri. Roosevelt brought Byrnes to the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
in early 1945, where he seemed to favor Soviet plans. Written in shorthand, his notes comprise one of the most complete records of the "Big Three" Yalta meetings. Upon his succession to the presidency after Roosevelt's death on April 12, 1945, Truman relied heavily on Byrnes' counsel, Byrnes having been a mentor to Truman from Truman's earliest days in the U.S. Senate.[29][30] Indeed, Jimmy Byrnes was one of the first people whom Truman saw on the first day of his presidency.[31] It was Byrnes who shared information with the new president on the atomic bomb project (Truman had known nothing about the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
beforehand).[32] When Truman met Roosevelt's coffin in Washington, he asked Byrnes and former Vice President Wallace, the two other men who might well have succeeded Roosevelt, to join him at the train station.[33] Truman originally intended that both men would play leading roles in his administration, signaling continuity with Roosevelt's policies. While Truman quickly fell out with Wallace, he retained a good working relationship with Byrnes and increasingly turned to him for support.[34] Truman appointed Byrnes as Secretary of State on July 3, 1945.[35] As Secretary of State, he was first in line to the Presidency as there was no Vice-President during Truman's first term. He played a major role at the Potsdam Conference, the Paris Peace Conference, and other major postwar conferences. According to historian Robert H. Ferrell, Byrnes knew little more about foreign relations than Truman. He made decisions after consulting a few advisors, such as Donald S. Russell and Benjamin V. Cohen. Byrnes and his small group paid little attention to the State Department and similarly ignored the President.[36] In 1945, Byrnes was elected an honorary member of the South Carolina Society of the Cincinnati. Because Byrnes had been part of the US delegation at Yalta, Truman assumed that he had accurate knowledge of what had transpired. It would be many months before Truman discovered that this was not the case. Nevertheless, Byrnes advised that the Soviets were breaking the Yalta Agreement and that Truman needed to be resolute and uncompromising with them.[37] Although Byrnes' hard line against the Soviets paralleled the feelings of the President, personal relations between the two men grew strained, particularly when Truman felt that Byrnes was attempting to set foreign policy by himself, and only informing the President afterward. An early instance of this friction was the Moscow Conference in December 1945. Truman considered the “successes” of the conference to be “unreal” and was highly critical of Byrnes’s failure to protect Iran, which was not mentioned in the final communiqué. “I had been left in the dark about the Moscow conference,” Truman told Byrnes bluntly.[38] In a subsequent letter to Byrnes, Truman took a harder line in reference to Iran, saying in part, "Without these supplies furnished by the United States, Russia would have been ignominiously defeated. Yet now Russia stirs up rebellion and keeps troops on the soil of her friend and ally— Iran... Unless Russia is faced with an iron fist and strong language another war is in the making. Only one language do they understand—“how many divisions do you have?” I do not think we should play compromise any longer ...I am tired of babying the Soviets".[39] This led to the Iran
Iran
crisis of 1946, and Byrnes took an increasingly hardline position in opposition to Stalin, culminating in a speech in Stuttgart
Stuttgart
on September 6, 1946. The "Restatement of Policy on Germany", also known as the "Speech of Hope", set the tone of future U.S. policy as it repudiated the Morgenthau Plan, an economic program that would permanently deindustrialize Germany. Byrnes was named TIME Man of the Year. Truman and others believed that Byrnes had grown resentful that he had not been Roosevelt's running mate and successor, and in his resentment he was disrespecting Truman. Whether this was true or not, Byrnes felt compelled to resign from the Cabinet in 1947 with some feelings of bitterness. Governor of South Carolina[edit] At an age when most of his contemporaries retired from politics, Byrnes was not yet ready to give up public service. At age sixty-eight, he was elected governor of South Carolina, serving from 1951 to 1955, in which capacity he vigorously criticized the Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education. Supporting segregation in education, the Democratic governor stated in his inaugural address:

Whatever is necessary to continue the separation of the races in the schools of South Carolina
South Carolina
is going to be done by the white people of the state. That is my ticket as a private citizen. It will be my ticket as governor. — James F. Byrnes[40]

Ironically, Byrnes was initially seen as a relative moderate on race issues. Recognizing that the South could not continue with its entrenched segregationist policies much longer but fearful of Congress imposing sweeping change upon the South, he opted for a course of change from within. To that end, he sought to fulfill at last the "separate but equal" policy which the South had put forward in Supreme Court civil rights cases, particularly in regard to public education. Byrnes poured state money into improving Negro schools, buying new textbooks and new buses, and hiring additional teachers. He also sought to curb the power of the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
by passing a law that prohibited adults from wearing a mask in public on any day other than Halloween; he knew that many Klansmen feared exposure, and would not appear in public in their robes unless their faces were hidden as well. Byrnes hoped to make South Carolina
South Carolina
an example for other Southern states to follow in modifying their "Jim Crow" policies. Nonetheless, the NAACP
NAACP
sued South Carolina
South Carolina
to force the state to desegregate its schools. Byrnes requested Kansas, a Midwestern state which also segregated its schools, to provide an Amicus curiae
Amicus curiae
brief in supporting the right of a state to segregate its schools. This gave the NAACP's lawyer, Thurgood Marshall, the idea to shift the suit from South Carolina
South Carolina
over to Kansas, which led directly to Brown v. Board of Education. The South Carolina
South Carolina
state constitution limited governors to one four-year term, and Byrnes retired from active political life following the 1954 election. Later political career[edit] In his later years, Byrnes foresaw that the American South could play a more important role in national politics. To hasten that development, he sought to end the region's nearly automatic support of the Democratic Party, which Byrnes believed had grown too liberal and took the "Solid South" for granted at election time, yet otherwise ignored the region and its needs. Byrnes endorsed Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
in 1952, segregationist candidate Harry Byrd in 1956, Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon
in 1960 and 1968 and Barry Goldwater in 1964.[41] He gave his private blessing to U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
of South Carolina
South Carolina
to bolt the Democratic Party in 1964 and declare himself a Republican, but Byrnes himself remained a Democrat at the time. In 1965, Byrnes spoke out against the "punishment" and "humiliation" of South Carolina
South Carolina
U.S. Representative Albert W. Watson, who had been stripped of his congressional seniority by the House Democratic Caucus after endorsing Goldwater for president. Byrnes openly endorsed Watson's retention in Congress as a Republican in a special election held in 1965 against Democrat Preston Callison. Watson secured $20,000 and the services of a GOP field representative in what he termed "quite a contrast" to his treatment from Democratic House colleagues.[42][43] Following Byrnes' death on April 9, 1972, at the age of 89, he was interred in the churchyard at Trinity Episcopal Church in Columbia, South Carolina. Legacy[edit] Byrnes is memorialized at several South Carolina
South Carolina
universities and schools.

The James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
Building housing the Byrnes International Center at the University of South Carolina. The James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
Professorship of International Studies at USC, its first endowed professorship. Byrnes Auditorium at Winthrop University. Byrnes Hall, a dormitory at Clemson University
Clemson University
(where Byrnes was a Life Trustee) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
Room, R.M. Cooper Library, Clemson University James F. Byrnes High School
James F. Byrnes High School
in Duncan, South Carolina. The Byrnes Schools (formerly the James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
Academy) in Quinby, South Carolina.

In 1948, Byrnes and his wife established the James F. Byrnes Foundation Scholarships and since then more than 1,000 young South Carolinians have been assisted in obtaining a college education. His papers are in Clemson University's Special
Special
Collections Library. Electoral history[edit] Main article: Electoral history of James F. Byrnes See also[edit]

Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
by court composition List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
by education List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
by time in office List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States List of United States Chief Justices by time in office United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
cases during the Stone Court Oliver Stone's Untold History of the United States, Episodes 2 and 3

Footnotes[edit]

^ "Timeline of the Court - James F. Byrnes". Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ David Robertson, Sly and Able: A Political Biography of James F. Byrnes (1994) p. 126 ^ "Do You Know Your Charleston?". Charleston News & Courier. p. 8. Retrieved September 16, 2012.  ^ http://www.carolana.com/SC/Governors/jfbyrnes.html ^ Ransom, William L. (1944). "Frank J. Hogan, 1877-1944". ABA Journal. 30 (7): 393–395. JSTOR 25714990.  ^ James L. Underwood. "Deadly Censorship". The University of South Carolina Press. p. Note 4. Retrieved February 11, 2016.  ^ "SC Governors - James Francis Byrnes, 1951 - 1955". SCIWAY. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ a b c "BYRNES, James Francis". Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress. Office of the Clerk. Retrieved January 9, 2012.  ^ a b "Report of the Secretary of State to the General Assembly of South Carolina. Part II." Reports of State Officers Boards and Committees to the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina. Volume I. Columbia, SC: 1925, p. 59. ^ Pope, Thomas H. The History of Newberry County, South Carolina: 1860–1990 p. 110 ^ "Supplemental Report of the Secretary of State to the General Assembly of South Carolina." Reports of State Officers Boards and Committees to the General Assembly of the State of South Carolina. Volume I. Columbia, SC: 1931, p. 3. ^ " Book
Book
Reviews and Notes - Sly and Able: A Political Biography of James F. Byrnes". South Carolina
South Carolina
Historical Magazine. South Carolina Historical Society. April 1995. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ Walter Francis White#Anti-Lynching Legislation ^ Sean Dennis Cashman (1 January 1989). America in the Twenties and Thirties: The Olympian Age of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. NYU Press. pp. 271–. ISBN 978-0-8147-7208-9.  ^ a b "ELECTIONS: Curtains for Cotton Ed". Time. August 7, 1944.  ^ a b Storrs, Landon R. Y. (2000). Civilizing Capitalism: The National Consumers' League, Women's Activism, and Labor Standards in the New Deal Era. Univ of North Carolina Press. Retrieved July 10, 2012.  ^ Simon, Bryant. A fabric of defeat: the politics of South Carolina millhands, 1910–1948, p. 208-210 ^ a b Simon, Bryant. A fabric of defeat: the politics of South Carolina millhands, 1910–1948, p. 212 ^ https://www.supremecourt.gov/about/faq_justices.aspx ^ Wallace, David Duncan. South Carolina: A Short History (University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, 1951) p. 677. ^ " Economic History Services". Eh.net. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012.  ^ "Research & Articles on Economy, World War II
World War II
by". BookRags.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012.  ^ "Economy in World War II: Home Front". Shmoop.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012.  ^ Ibid. ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 189-90, 247, 330, Random House, New York, NY. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4. ^ Ibid. ^ LeRoy Ashby (September 2, 2012). "American Dreamer: The life and times of Henry A. Wallace". Jah.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved September 6, 2012.  ^ Ibid. ^ Messer, Robert L. 'The End of an Alliance: James F. Byrnes, Roosevelt, Truman, and the Origins of the Cold War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982), 13. Cited in reliance on citation in Robert J. Lifton and Greg Mitchell, Hiroshima in America, Fifty Years of Denial (G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1995), 136 (footnote, Byrnes "as a kindly 'older brother' to Truman" in the Senate). ^ Gar Alperovitz, "The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb" (New York: Vintage Books, 1996) ^ David McCullough, Truman (Simon & Schuster:New York, 1992)p. 352. ^ Ibid ^ Ibid. ^ Ibid. p. 388. ^ Ibid. "A revealing moment during Byrnes' swearing-in ceremony as secretary of state offers insight into the relationship [between President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
and Byrnes]: The diary of Byrnes' friend and assistant Walter Brown records that 'when the oath was completed, the President said, "Jimmy, kiss the Bible." He did and then handed it over to the President and told him to kiss it, too. The President did so as the crowd laughed..." (Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb and the Architecture of an American Myth (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995, p. 197). ^ Ferrell, Robert H. Harry S. Truman: a Life (1995), ISBN 0-8262-1050-3, pp. 236–237. ^ Robert H. Ferrell, ed. "Off the Record: The Private Papers of Harry S. Truman" (Columbia: University of Missouri
Missouri
Press, 1980), 17. ^ Harry S. Truman, Memoirs, Vol. 1: Years of Decision (1955), p.547,550, cited in George Lenczowski, American Presidents and the Middle East, p.10 ^ Harry S. Truman, Memoirs, Vol. 1: Years of Decision (1955), p.551–552, cited in Lenczowski, American Presidents, p.11 ^ Bruce Bartlett (8 January 2008). Wrong on Race: The Democratic Party's Buried Past. St. Martin's Press. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-0-230-61138-2.  ^ Lamis, Alexander (1988). The Two-Party South. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 15–16.  ^ Billy Hathorn, "The Changing Politics of Race: Congressman Albert William Watson and the South Carolina
South Carolina
Republican Party, 1965-1970", South Carolina
South Carolina
Historical Magazine Vol. 89 (October 1988), p. 230 ^ Congressional Quarterly
Congressional Quarterly
Weekly Report, Vol. 23 (June 18, 1965), p. 1185; Bernard Cosman and Robert J. Huckshorn, eds., Republican Politics: The 1964 Campaign and Its Aftermath for the Party (New York: Praeger, 1968), pp. 147–148

References[edit]

Messer, Robert L. The End of an Alliance: James F. Byrnes, Roosevelt, Truman, and the Origins of the Cold War (1982). Robertson, David. Sly and Able: A Political Biography of James F. Byrnes (1994) Annotated bibliography for James Byrnes from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues James Francis Byrnes at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.

Primary sources[edit]

Byrnes, James. Speaking Frankly (1947) Byrnes, James. All in One Lifetime (1958).

Further reading[edit]

Abraham, Henry J., Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court. 3d. ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). ISBN 0-19-506557-3. Cushman, Clare, The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies,1789–1995 (2nd ed.) (Supreme Court Historical Society), ( Congressional Quarterly
Congressional Quarterly
Books, 2001) ISBN 1-56802-126-7; ISBN 978-1-56802-126-3. Frank, John P., The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions (Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel, editors) ( Chelsea House
Chelsea House
Publishers: 1995) ISBN 0-7910-1377-4, ISBN 978-0-7910-1377-9. Martin, Fenton S. and Goehlert, Robert U., The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography, ( Congressional Quarterly
Congressional Quarterly
Books, 1990). ISBN 0-87187-554-3. Urofsky, Melvin I., The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary (New York: Garland Publishing 1994). 590 pp. ISBN 0-8153-1176-1; ISBN 978-0-8153-1176-8.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to James Francis Byrnes.

Excerpts from Speaking Frankly on the subjects of: (Yalta Conference), (Potsdam Conference) ("Flash Player" is required) James Francis Byrnes and U.S. Policy towards Germany 1945–1947 Deutsch-Amerikanische Zentrum / James-F.-Byrnes-Institut e.V Text of the famous " Stuttgart
Stuttgart
speech", September 6, 1946 The speech marked the change in U.S. occupation policy in Germany towards reconstruction. Time Magazine, September 16, 1946. "Journey to Stuttgart" SCIway Biography of James Francis Byrnes NGA Biography of James Francis Byrnes James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
at Find a Grave A film clip Byrnes Sets U.S. Policy for Germany, 1946/09/10 (1946) is available at the Internet Archive A film clip Byrnes Wants All To Share Peacemaking, 1946/10/17 (1946) is available at the Internet Archive A film clip Byrnes Denies Atom Threat, 1946/10/10 (1946) is available at the Internet Archive Annotated bibliography from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
Papers at Clemson University
Clemson University
Special
Special
Collections Library A collection of various works by James F. Byrnes

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by James Patterson Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from South Carolina's 2nd congressional district 1911–1925 Succeeded by Butler Hare

Party political offices

Preceded by Coleman Blease Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from South Carolina (Class 2) 1930, 1936 Succeeded by Burnet Maybank

Preceded by Strom Thurmond Democratic nominee for Governor of South Carolina 1950 Succeeded by George Timmerman

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Coleman Blease U.S. Senator (Class 2) from South Carolina 1931–1941 Served alongside: Ed Smith Succeeded by Alva Lumpkin

Preceded by John Townsend Chair of the Senate Contingent Expenses Audit Committee 1933–1941 Succeeded by Scott Lucas

Legal offices

Preceded by James McReynolds Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 1941–1942 Succeeded by Wiley Rutledge

Political offices

New office Director of the Office of Economic Stabilization 1942–1943 Succeeded by Fred Vinson

Director of the Office of War Mobilization 1943–1945 Succeeded by John Snyder

Preceded by Edward Stettinius United States Secretary of State 1945–1947 Succeeded by George Marshall

Preceded by Strom Thurmond Governor of South Carolina 1951–1955 Succeeded by George Timmerman

v t e

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1927–1950

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(1927) Walter Chrysler
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(1928) Owen D. Young
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(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
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(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
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(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
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(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

United States Senators from South Carolina

Class 2

P. Butler Hunter Pinckney Sumter Taylor W. Smith R. Hayne Calhoun Huger Calhoun Elmore Barnwell Rhett De Saussure Evans A. Hayne Chesnut Robertson M. Butler Tillman Benet Pollock Dial Blease Byrnes Lumpkin Peace Maybank Daniel Thurmond Wofford Thurmond Graham

Class 3

Izard Read Colhoun P. Butler Gaillard Harper W. Smith Miller Preston McDuffie A. Butler Hammond Sawyer Patterson Hampton Irby Earle McLaurin Latimer Gary E. Smith Hall Johnston Russell Hollings DeMint Scott

v t e

United States Secretaries of State

Secretary of Foreign Affairs 1781–89

R. Livingston Jay

Secretary of State 1789–present

Jefferson Randolph Pickering J. Marshall Madison Smith Monroe Adams Clay Van Buren E. Livingston McLane Forsyth Webster Upshur Calhoun Buchanan Clayton Webster Everett Marcy Cass Black Seward Washburne Fish Evarts Blaine Frelinghuysen Bayard Blaine Foster Gresham Olney Sherman Day Hay Root Bacon Knox Bryan Lansing Colby Hughes Kellogg Stimson Hull Stettinius Byrnes G. Marshall Acheson Dulles Herter Rusk Rogers Kissinger Vance Muskie Haig Shultz Baker Eagleburger Christopher Albright Powell Rice (tenure) Clinton (tenure) Kerry (tenure) Tillerson

v t e

Cabinet of President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945–53)

Vice President

None (1945–49) Alben W. Barkley
Alben W. Barkley
(1949–53)

Secretary of State

Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1945–47) George C. Marshall (1947–49) Dean G. Acheson (1949–53)

Secretary of the Treasury

Henry Morgenthau Jr.
Henry Morgenthau Jr.
(1945) Fred M. Vinson
Fred M. Vinson
(1945–46) John W. Snyder (1946–53)

Secretary of War

Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1945) Robert P. Patterson
Robert P. Patterson
(1945–47) Kenneth C. Royall (1947)

Secretary of Defense

James V. Forrestal (1947–49) Louis A. Johnson
Louis A. Johnson
(1949–50) George C. Marshall (1950–51) Robert A. Lovett
Robert A. Lovett
(1951–53)

Attorney General

Francis B. Biddle (1945) Tom C. Clark
Tom C. Clark
(1945–49) J. Howard McGrath
J. Howard McGrath
(1949–52) James P. McGranery (1952–53)

Postmaster General

Frank C. Walker (1945) Robert E. Hannegan
Robert E. Hannegan
(1945–47) Jesse Monroe Donaldson (1947–53)

Secretary of the Navy

James V. Forrestal (1945–47)

Secretary of the Interior

Harold L. Ickes
Harold L. Ickes
(1945–46) Julius A. Krug (1946–49) Oscar Littleton Chapman (1949–53)

Secretary of Agriculture

Claude Raymond Wickard (1945) Clinton P. Anderson (1945–48) Charles F. Brannan
Charles F. Brannan
(1948–53)

Secretary of Commerce

Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1945–46) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946–48) Charles Sawyer (1948–53)

Secretary of Labor

Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
(1945) Lewis B. Schwellenbach
Lewis B. Schwellenbach
(1945–48) Maurice J. Tobin
Maurice J. Tobin
(1948–53)

v t e

Governors of South Carolina

J. Rutledge Lowndes J. Rutledge Mathews Guerard Moultrie T. Pinckney C. Pinckney Moultrie Vanderhorst C. Pinckney E. Rutledge Drayton J. Richardson P. Hamilton C. Pinckney Drayton Middleton Alston D. Williams A. Pickens Geddes Bennett Wilson Manning I Taylor Miller J. Hamilton Hayne McDuffie Butler Noble Henagan Richardson II Hammond Aiken Johnson Seabrook Means J. Manning Adams Allston Gist F. Pickens Bonham Magrath Perry Orr Scott Moses Chamberlain Hampton Simpson Jeter Hagood Thompson Sheppard Richardson III Tillman Evans Ellerbe McSweeney Heyward Ansel Blease Smith Manning III Cooper Harvey McLeod Richards Blackwood Johnston Maybank Harley Jefferies Johnston R. Williams Thurmond Byrnes Timmerman Hollings Russell McNair West Edwards Riley Campbell Beasley Hodges Sanford Haley McMaster

v t e

Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

Chief Justice

Jay J. Rutledge Ellsworth J. Marshall Taney S. P. Chase Waite Fuller E. White Taft Hughes Stone Vinson Warren Burger Rehnquist J. Roberts

Seat 1

J. Rutledge T. Johnson Paterson Livingston Thompson Nelson Hunt Blatchford E. White Van Devanter Black Powell Kennedy

Seat 2

Cushing Story Woodbury Curtis Clifford Gray Holmes Cardozo Frankfurter Goldberg Fortas Blackmun Breyer

Seat 3

Wilson Washington Baldwin Grier Strong Woods L. Lamar H. Jackson Peckham Lurton McReynolds Byrnes W. Rutledge Minton Brennan Souter Sotomayor

Seat 4

Blair S. Chase Duvall Barbour Daniel Miller Brown Moody J. Lamar Brandeis Douglas Stevens Kagan

Seat 5

Iredell Moore W. Johnson Wayne

Seat 6

Todd Trimble McLean Swayne Matthews Brewer Hughes Clarke Sutherland Reed Whittaker White Ginsburg

Seat 7

Catron

Seat 8

McKinley Campbell Davis Harlan Pitney Sanford O. Roberts Burton Stewart O'Connor Alito

Seat 9

Field McKenna Stone R. Jackson Harlan II Rehnquist Scalia Gorsuch

Seat 10

Bradley Shiras Day Butler Murphy Clark T. Marshall Thomas

Note: Seats 5 and 7 are defunct

  Supreme Court of the United States

The Hughes Court

Chief Justice: Charles Evans Hughes
Charles Evans Hughes
(1930–1941)

Feb–Jul 1941:

H. F. Stone O. J. Roberts H. Black S. F. Reed F. Frankfurter Wm. O. Douglas F. Murphy J. F. Byrnes

The Stone Court

Chief Justice: Harlan Fiske Stone
Harlan Fiske Stone
(1941–1946)

1941–1942:

O. J. Roberts H. Black S. F. Reed F. Frankfurter Wm. O. Douglas F. Murphy J. F. Byrnes R. H. Jackson

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 18016169 LCCN: n80167019 ISNI: 0000 0001 2277 0848 GND: 118675117 SUDOC: 031983448 BNF: cb123098846 (data) BIBSYS: 90051074 NLA: 35024473 NDL: 00540224 US Congress: B001

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