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James Edward Murray (May 3, 1876 – March 23, 1961) was a United States Senator from Montana, and a liberal leader of the Democratic Party. He served in the United States Senate
United States Senate
from 1934 until 1961.

Contents

1 Background 2 Political career 3 Chairmanships 4 Health 5 References 6 Further reading

Background[edit] Born on a farm near St. Thomas, Ontario, Canada, Murray graduated from St. Jerome's College
St. Jerome's College
in Berlin, Ontario
Ontario
in 1897. That same year his father died and he went to live with a wealthy uncle in Butte, Montana, who owned valuable copper mines. His uncle sent him to New York to study law. He graduated from the law department of New York University in 1900, the same year he became an American citizen. He was admitted to the bar in 1901, and commenced practice in Butte, where he also engaged in banking and the management of his uncle's properties. He practiced law in Butte and in 1906 was elected to one term as Silver Bonty attorney. Murray feuded with local officials and judges, and returned to private practice. Active in the Democratic Party, Murray worked closely with labor unions to build his political base. In 1921, he and his mother inherited over $10 million from his late uncle. He dabbled in Irish politics, and reentered Montana
Montana
politics when the Great Depression soured the Montana
Montana
economy in the 1930s.[1][2] Until 1987 his family owned The Murray Hotel
The Murray Hotel
in Livingston, Montana's downtown historic district.[3] Political career[edit] Murray was county attorney of Silver Bow County, Montana
Montana
from 1906 to 1908, and became chairman of the State advisory board of the Public Works Administration from 1933 to 1934. When Senator Thomas Walsh died in 1933, Democratic Governor John E. Erickson resigned and had himself appointed to the seat, despite his weak political base. Murray defeated Erickson in the 1934 primary, and was elected senator on the platform of "one hundred per-cent support" of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Murray was a staunch liberal and aggressive supporter of the New Deal Coalition. He broke with Montana's senior senator, Burton K. Wheeler, when Murray backed Roosevelt's attempt to pack the Supreme Court in 1937; unlike Wheeler, Murray gave up his isolationism in foreign affairs, and backed Roosevelt's aggressive foreign policy against Germany and Japan in 1939-1941. In April 1943 a confidential analysis by British scholar Isaiah Berlin of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
Senate Foreign Relations Committee
for the British Foreign Office succinctly characterized Murray as:

a millionaire lawyer who tries to out-do [Burton K. ] Wheeler as a champion of small business and labour against big business monopoly (e.g., the Anaconda Company
Anaconda Company
which dominates his copper-producing State). An advocate of the second front and of stronger ties with Britain. A free trader except on copper issues. A Roman Catholic.[4]

In February 1944 Murray joined with Democratic Senator George of Georgia to introduce an industrial demobilization bill to congress. The bill supported plans for terminating war contracts and the disposal of surplus Government property. The bill was passed on May 4.[5] After the war, conservatives controlled Congress, so Murray had little success with his proposals to expand Social Security, provide free medical care for the aged, expand federal aid to education, or create a Missouri Valley Authority with the federal control over Montana's water resources patterned after the Tennessee Valley Authority. Instead, Congress adopted the Pick-Sloan Plan with flood control by the Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and private development. As Chairman of the Interior and Insular Affairs Committee in the 1950s, Murray was more successful in promoting federal development of hydroelectric power through large dams throughout the West. He used his chairmanship of the Senate's Interior Committee to secure Western water projects that led to congressional approval and funding for large dams in Montana
Montana
at Canyon Ferry on the Missouri River, Yellowtail on the Bighorn River, Hungry Horse on the Flathead River, and Libby on the Kootenai River.[6] Chairmanships[edit] Murray served as chairman of the Committee on Education and Labor, co-chairman of the Joint Committee on Labor-Management Relations, chairman of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, and also served on the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Health[edit] In his later years, Murray was reported to have suffered from senility and his son, running his office for him in the 1950s, told him how to vote.[7] Murray died in Butte[8] less than three months after leaving office and was interred in Holy Cross Cemetery.[9] References[edit]

^ Tribune Staff. "125 Montana
Montana
Newsmakers: Sen. James E. Murray". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 29, 2011.  ^ 1959-, Farley, Bill,. James A. Murray : Butte's radical Irish millionaire. Missoula, Montana. ISBN 9780878426829. OCLC 1019743586.  ^ Cohen, Stan (2004). "The Murray Hotel". Montana's Grandest-Historic Hotels and Resorts of the Treasure State. Missoula, Montana: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company. pp. 77–80. ISBN 1-57510-111-4.  ^ Hachey, Thomas E. (Winter 1973–1974). "American Profiles on Capitol Hill: A Confidential Study for the British Foreign Office
Foreign Office
in 1943" (PDF). Wisconsin Magazine of History. 57 (2): 141–153. JSTOR 4634869. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 21, 2013.  ^ Rothe, Anna (1945). Current Biography 1945. The H. W. Wilson Company. pp. 414–415.  ^ Guide to the James E. Murray Papers at the University of Oregon ^ http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/explainer/2011/01/fit_to_serve.html ^ Ex-Senator James Murray dies at 84 ^ Political Graveyard

Further reading[edit]

American National Biography Online Feb. 2000. Robert T. Bruns. "Murray, James Edward"; John Morrison and Catherine Wright Morrison, Mavericks: The Lives and Battles of Montana's Political Legends (2003), pp 197–228 on Murray Donald E. Spritzer, Senator James E. Murray and the Limits of Post-War Liberalism (1985)

United States Congress. " James E. Murray (id: M001108)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. 

Rocky Mountain Radicals: Copper King James A. Murray, Senator James E. Murray, and Seventy-Eight Years of Montana
Montana
Politics, 1883-1961, Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Vol. 66, No. 1, Spring 2016.

U.S. Senate

Preceded by John Edward Erickson U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Montana 1934 – 1961 Served alongside: Burton K. Wheeler, Zales Ecton, Mike Mansfield Succeeded by Lee Metcalf

Political offices

Preceded by Elbert D. Thomas Chairman of the Senate Labor and Public Welfare Committee 1951 – 1953 Succeeded by Howard Alexander Smith

Preceded by Guy Cordon Chairman of the Senate Interior and Insular Affairs Committee 1955 – 1961 Succeeded by Clinton Presba Anderson

v t e

United States Senators from Montana

Class 1

Sanders Mantle Clark Gibson Carter Myers Wheeler Ecton Mansfield Melcher Burns Tester

Class 2

Power Carter Clark Dixon T. Walsh Erickson Murray Metcalf Hatfield Baucus J. Walsh Daines

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources

Public Lands (1816–1921)

Morrow Williams Thomas Barton King Kane Poindexter Ewing Walker Smith Woodbridge Breese Felch Borland Dodge Stuart Johnson Harlan Pomeroy Sprague Oglesby McDonald Plumb Dolph Berry Dubois Hansbrough Nelson Smoot Chamberlain Myers Smoot

Public Lands and Surveys (1921–1947)

Smoot Lenroot Ladd Stanfield Nye Kendrick Wagner Adams Hatch

Interior and Insular Affairs (1947–1977)

Butler O'Mahoney Butler Cordon Murray Anderson Jackson

Energy and Natural Resources (1977–)

Jackson McClure Johnston F. Murkowski Bingaman F. Murkowski Bingaman Domenici Bingaman Wyden Landrieu L. Murkowski

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions

Education/Education and Labor (1869–1947)

Harlan Drake Sawyer Flanagan Ferry Patterson Burnside Bailey Blair Carey Kyle Shoup Kyle McComas Penrose Dolliver Borah H. Smith Kenyon Borah Phipps Couzens Metcalf Walsh Black Thomas Murray

Labor and Public Welfare (1947–1977)

Taft Thomas Murray A. Smith Hill Yarborough Williams

Labor and Human Resources (1977–1999)

Williams Hatch Kennedy Kassebaum Jeffords

Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions (1999–)

Jeffords Kennedy Jeffords Kennedy Gregg Enzi Kennedy Harkin Alexander

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 53505735 LCCN: n2002022236 GND: 1043782869 US Congress: M001

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