James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular
biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the
co-discoverers of the structure of
DNA in 1953 with
Francis Crick and
Rosalind Franklin. Watson, Crick, and
Maurice Wilkins were awarded the
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries
concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its
significance for information transfer in living material".
Watson earned degrees at the University of
Chicago (BS, 1947) and
Indiana University (PhD, 1950). Following a post-doctoral year at the
University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen with
Herman Kalckar and Ole Maaloe, later
Watson worked at the University of Cambridge's
Cavendish Laboratory in
England, where he first met his future collaborator and friend Francis
From 1956 to 1976, Watson was on the faculty of the Harvard University
Biology Department, promoting research in molecular biology. From 1968
he served as director of
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL), greatly
expanding its level of funding and research. At CSHL, he shifted his
research emphasis to the study of cancer, along with making it a world
leading research center in molecular biology. In 1994, he started as
president and served for 10 years. He was then appointed chancellor,
serving until he resigned in 2007 after making controversial comments
claiming a link between intelligence and race. Between
1988 and 1992, Watson was associated with the National Institutes of
Health, helping to establish the Human Genome Project.
Watson has written many science books, including the textbook
Molecular Biology of the
Gene (1965) and his bestselling book The
Double Helix (1968).
1 Early life and education
2 Career and research
2.1 Luria, Delbrück, and the Phage Group
2.2 Identifying the double helix
2.3 Harvard University
2.4 Publishing The Double Helix
2.5 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
2.6 Human Genome Project
2.7 Role of oxidants in disease
2.8 Notable former students
2.9 Selected books published
2.10 Other affiliations
3 Political activism
4.1 Use of King's College results
4.2 Controversial comments
4.3 Avoid Boring People, UK book tour and resignation
4.4 Sale of Nobel Prize Medal
5 Personal life
5.1 Marriage and family
6 Awards and honors
6.1 Honorary degrees received
6.2 Professional and honorary affiliations
7 See also
9 Further reading
10 External links
Early life and education
James D. Watson
James D. Watson was born in Chicago, Illinois, on April 6, 1928, as
the only son of Jean (Mitchell) and James D. Watson, a businessman
descended mostly from colonial English immigrants to America.
His mother's father, Lauchlin Mitchell, a tailor, was from Glasgow,
Scotland, and her mother, Lizzie Gleason, was the child of Irish
parents from County Tipperary. Raised Catholic, he later described
himself as "an escapee from the
Catholic religion." Watson said,
"The luckiest thing that ever happened to me was that my father didn't
believe in God."
Watson grew up on the south side of
Chicago and attended public
schools, including Horace Mann Grammar School and South Shore High
School. He was fascinated with bird watching, a hobby shared
with his father, so he considered majoring in ornithology.
Watson appeared on Quiz Kids, a popular radio show that challenged
bright youngsters to answer questions. Thanks to the liberal
policy of University president Robert Hutchins, he enrolled at the
University of Chicago, where he was awarded a tuition scholarship, at
the age of 15.
After reading Erwin Schrödinger's book
What Is Life?
What Is Life? in 1946, Watson
changed his professional ambitions from the study of ornithology to
genetics. Watson earned his BS degree in
Zoology from the
Chicago in 1947. In his autobiography, Avoid Boring
People, Watson described the University of
Chicago as an "idyllic
academic institution where he was instilled with the capacity for
critical thought and an ethical compulsion not to suffer fools who
impeded his search for truth", in contrast to his description of later
experiences. In 1947 Watson left the University of
Chicago to become a
graduate student at Indiana University, attracted by the presence at
Bloomington of the 1946 Nobel Prize winner Hermann Joseph Muller, who
in crucial papers published in 1922, 1929, and in the 1930s had laid
out all the basic properties of the heredity molecule that
Schrödinger presented in his 1944 book. He received his PhD
Indiana University in 1950;
Salvador Luria was his
Career and research
Luria, Delbrück, and the Phage Group
Originally, Watson was drawn into molecular biology by the work of
Salvador Luria. Luria eventually shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in
Physiology or Medicine for his work on the Luria–Delbrück
experiment, which concerned the nature of genetic mutations. He was
part of a distributed group of researchers who were making use of the
viruses that infect bacteria, called bacteriophages. He and Max
Delbrück were among the leaders of this new "Phage Group," an
important movement of geneticists from experimental systems such as
Drosophila towards microbial genetics. Early in 1948, Watson began his
PhD research in Luria's laboratory at Indiana University. That
spring, he met Delbrück first in Luria's apartment and again that
summer during Watson's first trip to the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Phage Group was the intellectual medium where Watson became a
working scientist. Importantly, the members of the
Phage Group sensed
that they were on the path to discovering the physical nature of the
gene. In 1949, Watson took a course with Felix Haurowitz that included
the conventional view of that time: that genes were proteins and able
to replicate themselves. The other major molecular component of
chromosomes, DNA, was widely considered to be a "stupid
tetranucleotide," serving only a structural role to support the
proteins. However, even at this early time, Watson, under the
influence of the Phage Group, was aware of the
Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, which suggested that
DNA was the
genetic molecule. Watson's research project involved using X-rays to
inactivate bacterial viruses.
Watson then went to
Copenhagen University in September 1950 for a year
of postdoctoral research, first heading to the laboratory of
biochemist Herman Kalckar. Kalckar was interested in the enzymatic
synthesis of nucleic acids, and he wanted to use phages as an
experimental system. Watson, however, wanted to explore the structure
of DNA, and his interests did not coincide with Kalckar's. After
working part of the year with Kalckar, Watson spent the remainder of
his time in Copenhagen conducting experiments with microbial
physiologist Ole Maaloe, then a member of the Phage Group.
The experiments, which Watson had learned of during the previous
summer's Cold Spring Harbor phage conference, included the use of
radioactive phosphate as a tracer to determine which molecular
components of phage particles actually infect the target bacteria
during viral infection. The intention was to determine whether
DNA was the genetic material, but upon consultation with
Max Delbrück, they determined that their results were
inconclusive and could not specifically identify the newly labeled
molecules as DNA. Watson never developed a constructive
interaction with Kalckar, but he did accompany Kalckar to a meeting in
Italy, where Watson saw
Maurice Wilkins talk about his X-ray
diffraction data for DNA. Watson was now certain that
DNA had a
definite molecular structure that could be elucidated.
In 1951, the chemist
Linus Pauling in
California published his model
of the amino acid alpha helix, a result that grew out of Pauling's
X-ray crystallography and molecular model building. After
obtaining some results from his phage and other experimental
research conducted at Indiana University, Statens Serum Institut
(Denmark), CSHL, and the
California Institute of Technology, Watson
now had the desire to learn to perform
X-ray diffraction experiments
so he could work to determine the structure of DNA. That summer, Luria
met John Kendrew, and he arranged for a new postdoctoral research
project for Watson in England. In 1951 Watson visited the Stazione
Zoologica 'Anton Dohrn' in Naples.
Identifying the double helix
DNA model built by Crick and Watson in 1953, on display in the Science
In mid-March 1953, using, in part, experimental data collected mainly
Rosalind Franklin and also by Maurice Wilkins, Watson and Crick
deduced the double helix structure of DNA. Sir Lawrence
Bragg, the director of the
Cavendish Laboratory (where Watson and
Crick worked), made the original announcement of the discovery at a
Solvay conference on proteins in Belgium on April 8, 1953; it went
unreported by the press. Watson and Crick submitted a paper entitled
Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose
Nucleic Acid to the scientific journal Nature, which was published on
April 25, 1953. This has been described by some other biologists
and Nobel laureates as the most important scientific discovery of the
20th century. Bragg gave a talk at the Guy's Hospital
Medical School in London on Thursday, May 14, 1953, which resulted in
a May 15, 1953, article by Ritchie Calder in the London newspaper News
Chronicle, entitled "Why You Are You. Nearer Secret of Life."
Sydney Brenner, Jack Dunitz, Dorothy Hodgkin, Leslie Orgel, and Beryl
M. Oughton were some of the first people in April 1953 to see the
model of the structure of DNA, constructed by Crick and Watson; at the
time, they were working at Oxford University's Chemistry Department.
All were impressed by the new
DNA model, especially Brenner, who
subsequently worked with Crick at Cambridge in the Cavendish
Laboratory and the new Laboratory of Molecular Biology. According to
the late Beryl Oughton, later Rimmer, they all travelled together in
two cars once
Dorothy Hodgkin announced to them that they were off to
Cambridge to see the model of the structure of DNA.
The Cambridge University student newspaper Varsity also ran its own
short article on the discovery on Saturday, May 30, 1953. Watson
subsequently presented a paper on the double-helical structure of DNA
at the 18th Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Viruses in early June
1953, six weeks after the publication of the Watson and Crick paper in
Nature. Many at the meeting had not yet heard of the discovery. The
1953 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium was the first opportunity for many
to see the model of the
DNA double helix.
Watson's accomplishment is displayed on the monument at the American
Museum of Natural History in New York City. Because the monument
memorializes only American laureates,
Francis Crick and Maurice
Wilkins (who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in
Physiology or Medicine)
Watson, Crick, and Wilkins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology
or Medicine in 1962 for their research on the structure of nucleic
Rosalind Franklin had died in 1958 and was
therefore ineligible for nomination.
The publication of the double helix structure of
DNA can be regarded
as a turning point in science: human understanding of life was
fundamentally changed and the modern era of biology began.
In 1956, Watson accepted a position in the Biology department at
Harvard University. His work at Harvard focused on RNA and its role in
the transfer of genetic information. At Harvard University, Watson
achieved a series of academic promotions from assistant professor to
associate professor to full professor of biology. Watson claimed,
however, that he was refused a $1,000 raise in salary after winning
the Nobel Prize.
He championed a switch in focus for the school from classical biology
to molecular biology, stating that disciplines such as ecology,
developmental biology, taxonomy, physiology, etc. had stagnated and
could progress only once the underlying disciplines of molecular
biology and biochemistry had elucidated their underpinnings, going so
far as to discourage their study by students.
Watson continued to be a member of the Harvard faculty until 1976,
even though he took over the directorship of Cold Spring Harbor
Laboratory in 1968.
Views on Watson's scientific contributions while at Harvard are
somewhat mixed. His most notable achievements in his two decades at
Harvard may be what he wrote about science, rather than anything he
discovered during that time. Watson's first textbook, The
Molecular Biology of the Gene, set a new standard for textbooks,
particularly through the use of concept heads—brief declarative
subheadings. His next textbook was Molecular Biology of the Cell,
in which he coordinated the work of a group of scientist-writers. His
third textbook was Recombinant DNA, which described the ways in which
genetic engineering has brought much new information about how
organisms function. The textbooks are still in print.
Publishing The Double Helix
In 1968, Watson wrote The Double Helix, listed by the Board of the
Modern Library as number seven in their list of 100 Best Nonfiction
books. The book details the sometimes painful story of not only
the discovery of the structure of DNA, but also the personalities,
conflicts and controversy surrounding their work. Watson's original
title was to have been "Honest Jim", in that the book recounts the
discovery of the double helix from Watson's point of view and included
many of his private emotional impressions at the time. Some
controversy surrounded the publication of the book. Watson's book was
originally to be published by the
Harvard University Press, but
Francis Crick and
Maurice Wilkins objected, among others. Watson's
home university dropped the project and the book was commercially
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
James Watson: Why society isn't ready for genomic-based medicine,
2012, Chemical Heritage Foundation
In 1968, Watson became the Director of the Cold Spring Harbor
Laboratory (CSHL). Between 1970 and 1972, the Watsons' two sons were
born, and by 1974, the young family made Cold Spring Harbor their
permanent residence. Watson served as the laboratory's director and
president for about 35 years, and later he assumed the role of
chancellor and then Chancellor Emeritus.
In his roles as director, president, and chancellor, Watson led CSHL
to articulate its present-day mission, "dedication to exploring
molecular biology and genetics in order to advance the understanding
and ability to diagnose and treat cancers, neurological diseases, and
other causes of human suffering." CSHL substantially expanded both
its research and its science educational programs under Watson’s
direction. He is credited with "transforming a small facility into one
of the world’s great education and research institutions. Initiating
a program to study the cause of human cancer, scientists under his
direction have made major contributions to understanding the genetic
basis of cancer." In a retrospective summary of Watson's
accomplishments there, Bruce Stillman, the laboratory's president,
said, "Jim Watson created a research environment that is unparalleled
in the world of science."
In October 2007, Watson was suspended following criticism of his views
on genetic factors relating to intelligence, and a week later,
on the 25th, he retired at the age of 79 from CSHL from what the lab
called "nearly 40 years of distinguished service". In a
statement, Watson attributed his retirement to his age, and
circumstances that he could never have anticipated or desired.
Human Genome Project
Watson in 1992
In 1990, Watson was appointed as the Head of the Human Genome Project
at the National Institutes of Health, a position he held until April
10, 1992. Watson left the Genome Project after conflicts with the
new NIH Director, Bernadine Healy. Watson was opposed to Healy's
attempts to acquire patents on gene sequences, and any ownership of
the "laws of nature." Two years before stepping down from the Genome
Project, he had stated his own opinion on this long and ongoing
controversy which he saw as an illogical barrier to research; he said,
"The nations of the world must see that the human genome belongs to
the world's people, as opposed to its nations." He left within weeks
of the 1992 announcement that the NIH would be applying for patents on
brain-specific cDNAs. (The issue of the patentability of genes has
since been resolved in the US by the US Supreme Court; see Association
for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office)
In 1994, Watson became President of CSHL. Francis Collins took over
the role as Director of the Human Genome Project.
James Watson became the second person to publish his
fully sequenced genome online, after it was presented to him on
May 31, 2007, by
454 Life Sciences Corporation in collaboration
with scientists at the Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College
of Medicine. Watson was quoted as saying, "I am putting my genome
sequence on line to encourage the development of an era of
personalized medicine, in which information contained in our genomes
can be used to identify and prevent disease and to create
individualized medical therapies".
Role of oxidants in disease
In 2014 Watson published a paper in
The Lancet suggesting that
biological oxidants may have a different role than is thought in
diseases including diabetes, dementia, heart disease and cancer. For
example, type 2 diabetes is usually thought to be caused by oxidation
in the body that causes inflammation and kills off pancreatic cells.
Watson thinks the root of that inflammation is different: "a lack of
biological oxidants, not an excess", and discusses this in detail. One
critical response was that the idea was neither new nor worthy of
merit, and that
The Lancet published Watson's paper only because of
his name. However, other scientists have expressed their support
for his hypothesis and have proposed that it can also be expanded to
why a lack of oxidants can result in cancer and its progression.
Notable former students
Several of Watson's former doctoral students subsequently became
notable in their own right including, Mario Capecchi, Bob Horvitz,
Charles Kurland, Peter D. Moore and Joan Steitz. Besides numerous
PhD students, Watson also supervised postdoctoral students and other
interns including Ewan Birney, Ronald W. Davis, Phillip Allen Sharp
(postdoc), John Tooze, (postdoc) and Richard J. Roberts
Selected books published
Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
By James Watson
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
James D. Watson, The Annotated and Illustrated Double Helix, edited by
Alexander Gann and Jan Witkowski (2012) Simon & Schuster,
Watson, J. D. (1968). The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the
Discovery of the Structure of DNA. New York: Atheneum.
Watson, J. D. (1968). Gunther S. Stent, ed. The Double Helix: A
Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. W. W.
Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-95075-1. (Norton Critical
Watson, J. D.; Baker, T. A.; Bell, S. P.; Gann, A.; Levine, M.;
Losick, R. (2003). Molecular Biology of the
Gene (5th ed.). New York:
Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-4635-X.
Watson, J. D. (2002). Genes, Girls, and Gamow: After the Double Helix.
New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-41283-2.
Watson, J. D.; Berry, A. (2003). DNA: The Secret of Life. New York:
Random House. ISBN 0-375-41546-7.
Watson, J.D. (2007). Avoid Boring People and Other Lessons from a Life
in Science. New York: Random House. p. 366.
Watson is a former member of the Board of Directors of United
Biomedical, Inc., founded by Chang Yi Wang. He held the position for
six years and retired from the board in 1999.
In January 2007, Watson accepted the invitation of Leonor Beleza,
president of the Champalimaud Foundation, to become the head of the
foundation's scientific council, an advisory organ.
Watson has also been an institute adviser for the Allen Institute for
During his tenure as a professor at Harvard, Watson participated in
several political protests:
Vietnam War: While a professor at Harvard University, Watson, along
with "12 Faculty members of the department of
Molecular Biology" including one other Nobel prize winner, spearheaded
a resolution for "the immediate withdrawal of U.S. forces from
Nuclear proliferation and environmentalism: In 1975, on the "thirtieth
anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima," Watson along with "over 2000
scientists and engineers" spoke out against nuclear proliferation to
President Ford in part because of the "lack of a proven method for the
ultimate disposal of radioactive waste" and because "The writers of
the declaration see the proliferation of nuclear plants as a major
threat to American liberties and international safety because they say
safeguard procedures are inadequate to prevent terrorist theft of
commercial reactor-produced plutonium."
In 2007, Watson said, "I turned against the left wing because they
don't like genetics, because genetics implies that sometimes in life
we fail because we have bad genes. They want all failure in life to be
due to the evil system."
Use of King's College results
An enduring controversy has been generated by Watson and Crick's
unauthorized use of
X-ray diffraction data collected by Rosalind
Franklin and Raymond Gosling. The controversy arose from Watson and
Crick using some of Franklin's unpublished data—without her
consent—in their construction of the double helix model of
DNA. Franklin's experimental results provided estimates of the
water content of
DNA crystals and these results were consistent with
the two sugar-phosphate backbones being on the outside of the
molecule. Franklin personally told Crick and Watson that the backbones
had to be on the outside, which was a crucial piece of information;
Linus Pauling and Watson and Crick had generated
erroneous models with the chains inside and the bases pointing
outwards. Her identification of the space group for
revealed to Crick that the two
DNA strands were antiparallel.
X-ray diffraction images collected by Gosling and Franklin
provided the best evidence for the helical nature of DNA. Franklin's
experimental work thus proved crucial in Watson and Crick's discovery.
Watson and Crick had three sources for Franklin's unpublished data:
her 1951 seminar, attended by Watson,
discussions with Wilkins, who worked in the same laboratory with
a research progress report that was intended to promote coordination
of Medical Research Council-supported laboratories. Watson, Crick,
Wilkins and Franklin all worked in MRC laboratories.
Prior to publication of the double helix structure, Watson and Crick
had little interaction with Franklin. Crick and Watson felt that they
had benefited from collaborating with Wilkins. They offered him a
co-authorship on the article that first described the double helix
structure of DNA. Wilkins turned down the offer, a fact that may have
led to the terse character of the acknowledgment of experimental work
done at King's College in the eventual published paper. Rather than
make any of the
DNA researchers at King's College co-authors on the
Watson and Crick double helix article, the solution that was arrived
at was to publish two additional papers from King's College along with
the helix paper.
According to one critic, Watson's portrayal of Franklin in The Double
Helix (written after Franklin's death when libel laws did not apply
anymore) was negative and gave the appearance that she was Wilkins'
assistant and was unable to interpret her own
DNA data. The latter
accusation was indefensible since Franklin herself told Crick and
Watson that the helix backbones had to be on the outside.
In his book The Double Helix, Watson described being intimidated by
Franklin and that they were unable to establish constructive
scientific interactions during the time period when Franklin was doing
DNA research. In the book's epilogue, written after Franklin's death,
Watson acknowledges his early impressions of Franklin were often
wrong, that she faced enormous barriers as a woman in the field of
science even though her work was superb, and that it took them years
to overcome their bickering before he could appreciate Franklin's
generosity and integrity.
A review of the handwritten correspondence from Franklin to Watson,
located in the archives at CSHL, reveals that the two scientists later
had exchanges of constructive scientific correspondence. In fact,
Franklin consulted with Watson on her tobacco mosaic virus RNA
research. Franklin's letters begin on friendly terms with "Dear Jim",
and conclude with equally benevolent and respectful sentiments such as
"Best Wishes, Yours, Rosalind". Each of the scientists published their
own unique contributions to the discovery of the structure of
separate articles, and all of the contributors published their
findings in the same volume of Nature. These classic molecular biology
papers are identified as: Watson J.D. and Crick F.H.C. "A Structure
for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" Nature 171, 737–738 (1953);
Wilkins M.H.F., Stokes A.R. & Wilson, H.R. "Molecular Structure of
Deoxypentose Nucleic Acids" Nature 171, 738–740 (1953); Franklin
R. and Gosling R.G. "Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate"
Nature 171, 740–741 (1953).
The wording on the
DNA sculpture (which was donated by Watson) outside
Clare College's Memorial Court, Cambridge, England is:
On the base:
"These strands unravel during cell reproduction. Genes are encoded in
the sequence of bases."
"The double helix model was supported by the work of Rosalind Franklin
and Maurice Wilkins."
On the helices:
"The structure of
DNA was discovered in 1953 by
Francis Crick and
James Watson while Watson lived here at Clare."
"The molecule of
DNA has two helical strands that are linked by base
pairs Adenine - Thymine or Guanine - Cytosine."
James Watson (February 2003)
Watson has often expressed provocative concepts and disparaging
opinions of others within the realm of genetic research.
He has been quoted in The Sunday Telegraph, 1997, as stating: "If you
could find the gene which determines sexuality and a woman decides she
doesn't want a homosexual child, well, let her." The biologist
Richard Dawkins wrote a letter to The Independent claiming that
Watson's position was misrepresented by
The Sunday Telegraph article,
and that Watson would equally consider the possibility of having a
heterosexual child to be just as valid as any other reason for
abortion, to emphasise that Watson is in favor of allowing choice.
On the issue of obesity, Watson was quoted in 2000, saying: "Whenever
you interview fat people, you feel bad, because you know you're not
going to hire them."
While speaking at a conference in 2000, Watson had suggested a link
between skin color and sex drive, hypothesizing that dark-skinned
people have stronger libidos. His lecture argued that extracts
of melanin – which gives skin its color – had been found to boost
subjects' sex drive. "That's why you have Latin lovers," he said,
according to people who attended the lecture. "You've never heard of
an English lover. Only an English Patient."
Watson has repeatedly supported genetic screening and genetic
engineering in public lectures and interviews, arguing that stupidity
is a disease and the "really stupid" bottom 10% of people should be
cured. He has also suggested that beauty could be genetically
engineered, saying in 2003, "People say it would be terrible if we
made all girls pretty. I think it would be great."
Watson has had quite a few disagreements with
Craig Venter regarding
his use of EST fragments while Venter worked at NIH. Venter went on to
Celera genomics and continued his feud with Watson. Watson was
even quoted as calling Venter "Hitler".
Avoid Boring People, UK book tour and resignation
Watson signing autographs after a speech at Cold Spring Harbor
Laboratory on April 30, 2007.
In his memoir, Avoid Boring People: Lessons from a Life in Science,
Watson describes his academic colleagues as "dinosaurs", "deadbeats",
"fossils", "has-beens", "mediocre", and "vapid".
Steve Shapin in
Harvard Magazine noted that Watson had written an unlikely "Book of
Manners", telling about the skills needed at different times in a
scientist's career; he wrote Watson was known for aggressively
pursuing his own goals at the university.
E. O. Wilson
E. O. Wilson once described
Watson as "the most unpleasant human being I had ever met", but in a
later TV interview said that he considered them friends and their
rivalry at Harvard old history (when they had competed for funding in
their respective fields).
In the epilogue to the memoir Avoid Boring People, Watson alternately
attacks and defends former
Harvard University president Lawrence
Summers, who stepped down in 2006 due in part to his remarks about
women and science. Watson also states in the epilogue, "Anyone
sincerely interested in understanding the imbalance in the
representation of men and women in science must reasonably be prepared
at least to consider the extent to which nature may figure, even with
the clear evidence that nurture is strongly implicated."
In early October 2007, Watson was about to embark on a UK book tour to
promote the memoir. He was interviewed by Charlotte Hunt-Grubbe at
CSHL. In 1996, she had been a student there in a program in which
Watson recruited students to live at his family home and work at CSHL
for a year. Hunt-Grubbe had gone on to work for the Sunday Times
Magazine; she was selected for the interview as she was one of the few
women to have been mentored by him. Hunt-Grubbe broached the subject
of whether race was a factor in his hypothesis of divergence of
intellect between geographically isolated populations.[citation
needed] The following is a transcript of that part of the interview:
He says that he is "inherently gloomy about the prospect of Africa"
because "all our social policies are based on the fact that their
intelligence is the same as ours – whereas all the testing says not
really", and I know that this "hot potato" is going to be difficult to
address. His hope is that everyone is equal, but he counters that
"people who have to deal with black employees find this not true". He
says that you should not discriminate on the basis of colour, because
"there are many people of colour who are very talented, but don't
promote them when they haven't succeeded at the lower level". He
writes that "there is no firm reason to anticipate that the
intellectual capacities of peoples geographically separated in their
evolution should prove to have evolved identically. Our wanting to
reserve equal powers of reason as some universal heritage of humanity
will not be enough to make it so".
Though other publications noted that the paper had "[kept] the profile
sympathetic and place[d] the comments at the end of the piece",
the article was a public relations disaster for Watson. The Sunday
Times Magazine editor Cathy Galvin noted, "It was important the reader
understood Charlotte's relationship with Watson and her regard for him
before exploring the explosive and unscientific territory of his
opinions and history of statements about women, race, and abortion
which have stirred so much controversy in the past."
Watson's comments drew attention and criticism in the UK. Watson said
his intention was to promote science not racism, but some of the UK
venues canceled his appearances. Watson canceled the rest of his
Because of the public controversy, on October 18, 2007, the Board of
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory suspended Watson's
administrative responsibilities. On October 19, Watson issued an
apology; on October 25, he resigned from his position as
chancellor. In 2008, Watson was appointed
chancellor emeritus of CSHL. As of 2009[update], he
continues to advise and guide project work at the laboratory. In
a 2008 BBC documentary, Watson said: "I have never thought of myself
as a racist. I don't see myself as a racist. I am mortified by it. It
was the worst thing in my life." An editorial in Nature at the
time acknowledged that his remarks were "beyond the pale," but wished
that the tour had not been cancelled so that Watson would be forced to
face his critics in person, encouraging scientific discussion on the
Sale of Nobel Prize Medal
In 2014, Watson decided to auction off his Nobel prize medal in view
of his diminished income after the 2007 incident and to use part
of the funds raised by the sale to support scientific research.
The medal sold at auction at
Christie's in December 2014 for US$4.1
million. Watson intended to contribute the proceeds to conservation
work in Long Island and to funding research at Trinity College,
Dublin, as well as the purchase of artwork. Watson is the
first living recipient of the honor to auction the medal.
The medal was subsequently returned to Watson by the purchaser,
Russian tycoon Alisher Usmanov, who stated that Watson deserved the
medal and that "a situation in which an outstanding scientist has to
sell a medal recognising his achievements is unacceptable."
Watson is an atheist. In 2003, he was one of 22 Nobel
Laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto.
Marriage and family
Watson married Elizabeth Lewis in 1968. They have two sons, Rufus
Robert Watson (b. 1970) and Duncan
James Watson (b. 1972). Watson
sometimes talks about his son Rufus, who suffers from schizophrenia,
seeking to encourage progress in the understanding and treatment of
mental illness by determining how genetics contribute to it.
Awards and honors
Watson has won numerous awards including:
James D. Watson
James D. Watson with the Othmer Gold Medal, 2005
Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, 1960
EMBO Membership in 1985
Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences
Charles A. Dana Award, 1994
Copley Medal of the Royal Society, 1993
CSHL Double Helix Medal Honoree, 2008
Eli Lilly Award in Biological Chemistry, 1960
Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences
Gairdner Foundation International Award, 2002
Honorary Fellow, the Hastings Center, an independent bioethics
Honorary Knight Commander of the
Order of the British Empire
Order of the British Empire (KBE),
Hope Funds for
James D. Watson
James D. Watson Award of Excellence
for Scientific Achievement (2014)
Irish America Hall of Fame, inducted March 2011
John Collins Warren Prize of the Massachusetts General Hospital
John J. Carty Award in molecular biology from the National Academy of
Kaul Foundation Award for Excellence
Liberty Medal, 2000
Lomonosov Gold Medal, 1994
Lotos Club Medal of Merit, 2004
Mendel Medal, 2008
National Biotechnology Venture Award
National Medal of Science, 1997
New York Academy of Medicine Award, 1999
Nobel Prize in
Physiology or Medicine, 1962
Othmer Gold Medal
Othmer Gold Medal (2005)
Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1977
Research Corporation Prize
Chicago Alumni Medal, 1998
University College London Prize, 2000
University Medal at SUNY Stony Brook
Honorary degrees received
DSc, University of Chicago, US, 1961
DSc, Indiana University, US, 1963
LLD, University of Notre Dame, US, 1965
Long Island University
Long Island University (CW Post), US, 1970
DSc, Adelphi University, US, 1972
DSc, Brandeis University, US, 1973
DSc, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, US, 1974
DSc, Hofstra University, US, 1976
DSc, Harvard University, US, 1978
DSc, Rockefeller University, US, 1980
DSc, Clarkson College of Technology, US, 1981
DSc, SUNY at Farmingdale, US, 1983
MD, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1986
DSc, Rutgers University, US, 1988
DSc, Bard College, US, 1991
DSc, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1993
DSc, Fairfield University, US, 1993
DSc, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1993
DrHC, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, 1998
ScD, University of Dublin, Ireland, 2001
Professional and honorary affiliations
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Association for
American Philosophical Society
American Society of Biological Chemists
Member of the Athenaeum Club, London
Cambridge University (Honorary Fellow, Clare College, Cambridge)
Danish Academy of Arts and Sciences
National Academy of Sciences
Oxford University (Newton-Abraham Visiting Professor)
Membership of the
European Molecular Biology Organization in 1985
Elected a Foreign Member of the
Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1981
Russian Academy of Sciences
International Academy of Science, Munich
Nucleic acid double helix
Whole genome sequencing
History of molecular biology
History of RNA biology
List of RNA biologists
^ a b c WATSON, Prof. James Dewey. ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who. 2015
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of
Bloomsbury Publishing plc. (subscription required)
^ a b c d Anon (1981). "Dr
James Watson ForMemRS". royalsociety.org.
London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on November 17,
2015. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text
from the royalsociety.org website where:
“All text published under the heading 'Biography' on Fellow profile
pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License.” --"
Royal Society Terms, conditions and
policies". Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved
March 9, 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ a b c Anon (1985). "
James Watson EMBO profile". people.embo.org.
Heidelberg: European Molecular Biology Organization.
^ "Copley Medal".
Royal Society website. The Royal Society. Retrieved
April 19, 2013.
^ a b Capecchi, Mario (1967). On the Mechanism of Suppression and
Polypeptide Chain Initiation (PhD thesis). Harvard University.
^ a b Steitz, J (2011). "Joan Steitz: RNA is a many-splendored thing.
Interview by Caitlin Sedwick". The Journal of Cell Biology. 192 (5):
708–9. doi:10.1083/jcb.1925pi. PMC 3051824 .
^ a b Hopkin, Karen (June 2005). "Bring Me Your Genomes: The Ewan
Birney Story". The Scientist. 19 (11): 60.
^ a b Anon (1993). "
Richard J. Roberts
Richard J. Roberts - Biographical".
nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved
February 28, 2016.
^ a b Ferry, Georgina (2014). EMBO in perspective: a half-century in
the life sciences (PDF). Heidelberg: European Molecular Biology
Organization. p. 145. ISBN 978-3-00-046271-9.
OCLC 892947326. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 24,
^ a b Ferry, Georgina (2014). "History: Fifty years of EMBO". Nature.
London. 511 (7508): 150–151. doi:10.1038/511150a.
^ "He may have unravelled DNA, but
James Watson deserves to be
shunned". December 1, 2014 – via The Guardian.
^ "Fury at
DNA pioneer's theory: Africans are less intelligent than".
October 17, 2007.
^ Crawford, Hayley. "Short Sharp Science:
James Watson menaced by
hoodies shouting 'racist!'". New Scientist. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
... he was "inherently gloomy about the prospect of Africa" because
"all our social policies are based on the fact that their intelligence
is the same as ours, whereas all the testing says not really".
^ Watson, James D. (2012). Witkowski, Jan; Gann, Alexander, eds. The
annotated and illustrated double helix (1st Simon & Schuster
hardcover ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster.
^ a b c d e f g h i j "James Watson, The Nobel Prize in
Medicine 1962". NobelPrize.org. 1964. Retrieved June 12, 2013.
^ "James Dewey WATSON Nobel
Laureate Pedigree Tree". ancestortree.net.
2013. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
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Guardian. Retrieved December 12, 2007.
^ Watson, J. D. (2003). Genes, Girls, and Gamow: After the Double
Helix. New York: Vintage. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-375-72715-3.
^ a b "Discover Dialogue: Geneticist James Watson". Discover. July
2003. The luckiest thing that ever happened to me was that my father
didn't believe in God
^ Cullen, Katherine E. (2006). Biology: the people behind the science.
New York: Chelsea House. p. 133. ISBN 0-8160-5461-4.
^ Watson, James. "
James Watson (Oral History)". Web of Stories.
Retrieved December 5, 2013.
^ a b c d Cullen, Katherine E. (2006). Biology: the people behind the
science. New York: Chelsea House. ISBN 0-8160-5461-4.
^ Samuels, Rich. "The Quiz Kids". Broadcasting in Chicago, 1921-1989.
Retrieved November 20, 2007.
^ a b "Nobel laureate,
James Watson to receive
University of Chicago. Alumni Medal June 2". The University of
Chicago News Office. June 1, 2007. Retrieved November 20, 2007.
^ Friedberg, Errol C. (2005). The Writing Life of James D. Watson.
Cold Spring Harbor, NY:
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
ISBN 978-0-87969-700-6. Reviewed by Lewis Wolpert, Nature,
^ a b c Schwartz, James (2008). In pursuit of the gene : from
Darwin to DNA. Cambridge, Mass.:
Harvard University Press.
^ a b Watson, James (1951). The Biological Properties of X-Ray
Bacteriophage (PhD thesis). Indiana University.
^ Watson, James D.; Berry, Andrew (2003). DNA : the secret of
life (1st ed.). New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0375415463. Archived
from the original on 2008-11-21.
^ Watson, James D. (2012). "
James D. Watson
James D. Watson Chancellor Emeritus". Cold
Spring Harbor Laboratory. Archived from the original on December 11,
2013. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
^ Putnum, Frank W. (1994). Biographical Memoirs – Felix Haurowitz
(volume 64 ed.). Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
pp. 134–163. ISBN 0-309-06978-5. Among [Haurowitz's]
students was Jim Watson, then a graduate student of Luria.
^ Stewart, Ian (2011). "The structure of DNA". The Mathematics of
Life. Basic Books. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-465-02238-0.
^ Watson, J.D. (1950). "The properties of x-ray inactivated
bacteriophage. I. Inactivation by direct effect". Journal of
Bacteriology. 60 (6): 697–718. PMC 385941 .
PMID 14824063. [permanent dead link]
^ a b c McElheny, Victor K. (2004). Watson and DNA: Making a
Scientific Revolution. Basic Books. p. 28.
^ Putnam, F. W. (1993). "Growing up in the golden age of protein
Protein Science. 2 (9): 1536–1542.
doi:10.1002/pro.5560020919. PMC 2142464 .
^ Maaløe, O.; Watson, J. D. (1951). "The Transfer of Radioactive
Phosphorus from Parental to Progeny Phage". Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America. 37 (8):
507–513. Bibcode:1951PNAS...37..507M. doi:10.1073/pnas.37.8.507.
PMC 1063410 . PMID 16578386.
^ Judson, Horace Freeland (1979). "2". The eighth day of
creation : makers of the revolution in biology (1st Touchstone
ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-22540-5.
^ "PDS SSO". Retrieved June 29, 2015.
^ Holmes, K. C. (2001). "John Cowdery Kendrew". Biographical Memoirs
of Fellows of the Royal Society. 47: 311–332.
doi:10.1098/rsbm.2001.0018. PMID 15124647.
^ "Il Mattino - Il Mattino". ilmattino.it.
^ a b c "James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind
Franklin". Science History Institute. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
^ Phillips, D. (1979). "William Lawrence Bragg. 31 March 1890-1 July
1971". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 25:
74–143. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1979.0003. JSTOR 769842.
^ a b Watson, J.D.; Crick, F.H. (1953). "A structure for deoxyribose
nucleic acids" (PDF). Nature. 171 (4356): 737–738.
^ Olby, Robert (2009). "10". Francis Crick : hunter of life's
secrets. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-87969-798-3.
^ Judson, H.F. (October 20, 2003). "No Nobel Prize for Whining". New
York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2007.
^ Watson, James. "Nobel Lecture December 11, 1962 The Involvement of
RNA in the Synthesis of Proteins". 11 December 1962. Nobelprize.org.
Nobel Media. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
^ Rutherford, Adam (April 24, 2013). "
DNA double helix: discovery that
led to 60 years of biological revolution". The Guardian. Retrieved
December 6, 2013.
^ a b "The
DNA molecule is shaped like a twisted ladder".
DNA from the
beginning. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Retrieved December 6,
^ Abir-Am, Pnina Geraldine. "Watson's World". American Scientist.
Retrieved December 6, 2013.
^ Watson, J. D. (1965).
Molecular biology of the gene. New York: W. A.
^ Watson, J. D. (1968). The double helix: a personal account of the
discovery of the structure of DNA. London: Weidenfeld &
^ "100 Best Nonfiction: The Board's List". Modern Library. Retrieved
December 6, 2013.
^ Watson's 1968 autobiographical account, The Double Helix: A Personal
Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. For an edition which
contains critical responses, book reviews, and copies of the original
scientific papers, see James D. Watson, The Double Helix: A Personal
Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, Norton Critical
Edition, Gunther Stent, ed. (New York: Norton, 1980).
^ O'Sullivan, Gerald (September 8, 2010). "Honorary Doctorate awarded
to Nobel Laureate: Text of the Introductory Address". University
College, Cork, Ireland. Archived from the original on February 6,
2015. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
^ a b c "Dr.
James D. Watson
James D. Watson Retires as Chancellor of Cold Spring
Harbor Laboratory" (Press release). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
October 25, 2007. Retrieved August 31, 2011.
^ Milmo, Cahal (October 17, 2013). "Fury at
DNA pioneer's theory:
Africans are less intelligent than Westerners". The Independent.
London. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
^ Peck, Sally (October 17, 2007). "
James Watson suspended over racism
claims". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
^ "Announcement by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory". New York Times.
October 25, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2013.
James Watson Retires © 2007 Associated
Press/AP Online. © 2007 Sci-Tech Today. October 25, 2007
^ "National Human Genome Research Institute - Organization - The NIH
National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health (NIH)". Retrieved June 29,
^ Pollack, R.. 1994. Signs of Life: The Language and Meanings of DNA.
Houghton Mifflin Company, p. 95. ISBN 0-395-73530-0.
^ Genome of
DNA Discoverer Is Deciphered NYT, June 1, 2007.
James Watson genotypes, on NCBI B36 assembly Archived July 5, 2008,
at the Wayback Machine.
^ Wheeler, D. A.; Srinivasan, M.; Egholm, M.; Shen, Y.; Chen, L.;
McGuire, A.; He, W.; Chen, Y. J.; Makhijani, V.; Roth, G. T.; Gomes,
X.; Tartaro, K.; Niazi, F.; Turcotte, C. L.; Irzyk, G. P.; Lupski, J.
R.; Chinault, C.; Song, X.-Z.; Liu, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Nazareth, L.; Qin,
X.; Muzny, D. M.; Margulies, M.; Weinstock, G. M.; Gibbs, R. A.;
Rothberg, J. M. (2008). "The complete genome of an individual by
DNA sequencing". Nature. 452 (7189): 872–876.
^ Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, June 28, 2003. Watson Genotype Viewer
Now On Line Archived December 5, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Press
release. Retrieved on September 16, 2007.
^ James Watson's Personal Genome Sequence
^ Watson's personal
DNA sequence archive at the National Institutes of
^ Ian Sample. "
James Watson sets out radical theory for
range of diseases". the Guardian. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
^ Molenaar, RJ; van Noorden, CJ (September 6, 2014). "Type 2 diabetes
and cancer as redox diseases?". Lancet. 384 (9946): 853.
doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61485-9. PMID 25209484.
^ "Management Team". UBI. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
^ Teresa Firmino (March 20, 2007). "Nobel
James Watson vai presidir ao
conselho científico da Fundação Champalimaud" (in Portuguese).
Público. Archived from the original on March 24, 2007. Retrieved
March 22, 2007.
^ Graeme, Chris (December 31, 2010). "Cutting-edge cancer research
centre opens in Lisbon". Algarve Resident. Archived from the original
on December 12, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
^ Herper, Matthew (October 8, 2013). "Inside Paul Allen's Quest To
Reverse Engineer The Brain". Forbes. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
^ Costandi, Mo. "Researchers announce completion of the Allen Brain
Atlas". Retrieved December 6, 2013.
^ "Faculty Support Grows For Anti-War Proposal", The Harvard Crimson,
October 3, 1969. November 4, 2007.
^ "Three Harvard Scientists Lead Call to Stop Nuclear Reactors", The
Harvard Crimson, August 5, 1975. November 4, 2007.
^ John H. Richardson. "
James Watson - Discovery of
DNA structure -
James Watson on the Double Helix". Esquire. Retrieved June 29,
^ Judson, H.F. 1996. The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the
Revolution in Biology.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, chapter 3.
^ Cullen, Katherine E. (2006). Biology: the people behind the science.
New York: Chelsea House. p. 136. ISBN 0-8160-5461-4.
^ Cullen, Katherine E. (2006). Biology: the people behind the science.
New York: Chelsea House. p. 140. ISBN 0-8160-5461-4.
^ Stocklmayer, Susan M.; Gore, Michael M.; Brtyant, Chris (2001).
Science Communication in Theory and Practice. Kluwer Academic
Publishers. p. 79. ISBN 1-4020-0131-2.
^ Elkin, L.O. (2003). "Franklin and the Double Helix". Physics Today.
56 (3): 42. doi:10.1063/1.1570771.
^ Wilkins, M.H.F.; Stokes, A.R.; Wilson, H.R. (1953). "Molecular
Structure of Deoxypentose Nucleic Acids" (PDF). Nature. 171 (4356):
738–740. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..738W. doi:10.1038/171738a0.
^ Franklin, R.; Gosling, R.G. (1953). "Molecular Configuration in
Sodium Thymonucleate" (PDF). Nature. 171 (4356): 740–741.
^ Macdonald, V. "Abort babies with gay genes, says Nobel winner", The
Telegraph, February 16, 1997. Retrieved on October 24, 2007.
^ Dawkins, Richard (February 19, 1997). "Letter: Women to decide on
gay abortion". London: The Independent. Retrieved October 24,
^ a b Abate, T. "Nobel Winner's Theories Raise Uproar in Berkeley
Geneticist's views strike many as racist, sexist", San Francisco
Chronicle, November 13, 2000. Retrieved on October 24, 2007.
^ Thompson, C.; Berger, A. (2000). "Agent provocateur pursues
happiness". British Medical Journal. 321 (7252): 12.
doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7252.12. PMC 1127681 .
^ "UK Museum Cancels Scientist's Lecture". ABC News. October 17, 2007.
Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved May 28,
^ a b Bhattacharya, S. "Stupidity should be cured, says DNA
discoverer", New Scientist News Service, February 28, 2003. Retrieved
June 24, 2007.
^ a b Williams, Susan P. (November 8, 2007). "The Foot-in-Mouth Gene".
The Washington Post.
^ Shreeve. J. 2005. The Genome War: How
Craig Venter Tried to Capture
the Code of Life and Save the World. Ballantine Books, p. 48.
^ "Chairman of the Bored", Steven Shapin, Harvard Magazine,
^ Charlie Rose Interview, paired with
E. O. Wilson
E. O. Wilson Archived October
18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. December 14, 2005
^ Hunt-Grubbe, Charlotte (October 14, 2007). "The elementary
DNA of Dr
Watson". The Times. London.
^ a b "Gelf Magazine James Watson's Disastrous Interview". Retrieved
June 29, 2015.
^ "Museum drops race row scientist", BBC, October 18, 2007. Retrieved
October 24, 2007.
^ "Race remarks get Nobel winner in trouble", MSNBC and AP, October
18, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2007.
^ Syal, R. "Nobel scientist who sparked race row says sorry - I didn't
mean it", Times Online, October 19, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007.
^ "Watson Returns to USA after race row", International Herald
Tribune, October 19, 2007. Retrieved on November 10, 2007
^ Watson, James (September–October 2007). ""Blinded by Science". An
exclusive excerpt from Watson's new memoir, Avoid Boring People:
Lessons from a Life in Science". 02138 Magazine: 102. Archived from
the original on October 24, 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2007. As we
find the human genes whose malfunctioning gives rise to such
devastating developmental failures, we may well discover that sequence
differences within many of them also lead to much of the observable
variation in human IQs. A priori, there is no firm reason to
anticipate that the intellectual capacities of peoples geographically
separated in their evolution should prove to have evolved identically.
Our desire to reserve equal powers of reason as some universal
heritage of humanity will not be enough to make it so.
^ Jerry A. Coyne, "The complex James Watson", Times Literary
Supplement, December 12, 2007
^ "Interview with James Watson: 'How to Avoid Boring People: Lessons
from a Life in Science'", The Science Network
^ Watson, J.D. "James Watson: To question genetic intelligence is not
racism", Independent, October 19, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007
^ van Marsh, A. "Nobel-winning biologist apologizes for remarks about
blacks", CNN, October 19, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007.
^ Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. October 18, 2007. Statement by Cold
Spring Harbor Laboratory Board of Trustees and President Bruce
Stillman, PhD Regarding Dr. Watson’s Comments in The Sunday Times on
October 14, 2007. Press release. Retrieved October 24, 2007. Archived
September 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Wigglesworth, K.
DNA pioneer quits after race comments, L.A. Times,
October 26, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2007
^ "Nobel prize-winning biologist resigns.", CNN, October 25, 2007.
Retrieved on October 25, 2007.
DNA Pioneer Watson Resigns Amid Cloud of Scandal" by Malcolm Ritter
AP 10/25/07 11:29 am PhT
^ Watson, J.Statement by
James D. Watson
James D. Watson "Retirement", New York Times,
October 25, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2007.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory James D. Watson". cshl.edu. 2013.
Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved June 12,
^ WebServices. "CSHLHistory - About Us". Retrieved June 29,
^ a b
DNA father James Watson's 'holy grail' request May 10, 2009
^ Video: BBC 2 Horizon: The President's Guide to Science Archived May
31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., September 16, 2008, see 28:00 to
^ " Watson's folly", Nature, October 24, 2007. Retrieved September 27,
^ Rushton, J. Phillipe; Jensen, Arthur R. (November 2008). "James
Watson's most inconvenient truth: Race realism and the moralistic
fallacy". Medical Hypotheses. Elsevier. 71 (5): 629–640.
doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2008.05.031. PMID 18656315. Retrieved November
^ Crow, David (November 28, 2014). "
James Watson to sell Nobel Prize
medal". Financial Times. Retrieved December 1, 2014. 'Because I was an
"unperson" I was fired from the boards of companies, so I have no
income, apart from my academic income,' he said.
^ Jones, Bryony (November 26, 2014). "
James Watson to sell
Nobel Prize". CNN International World News. CNN. Retrieved November
30, 2014. Watson says he intends to use part of the money raised by
the sale to fund projects at the universities and scientific research
institutions he has worked at throughout his career.
^ "[WATSON, JAMES DEWEY]. NOBEL PRIZE MEDAL". Christies.
James Watson selling Nobel prize 'because no-one wants to admit I
exist'". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
^ Borrell, Brendan (December 5, 2014). "
Laureate James Watson's
Nobel Medal Sells for $4.1M". Scientific American.
^ "Russia's Usmanov to give back Watson's auctioned Nobel medal". BBC
News. December 9, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
^ Kitcher, Philip (1996). The Lives to Come: The Genetic Revolution
and Human Possibilities.
^ "Notable Signers". Humanism and Its Aspirations. American Humanist
Association. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved
October 4, 2012.
^ The Lasker Foundation.1960 Winners Archived July 21, 2009, at the
Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on November 4, 2007.
^ "Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the
Sciences Recipients". American Philosophical Society. Retrieved
November 27, 2011.
Hastings Center Fellows. Accessed November 6,
^ Nobility News: Honorary Knights 2007
^ O'Dowd, Niall. "He Helped Map the Structure of DNA. Up Next is a
Cure For Cancer", Irish America magazine, March 10, 2011. Accessed
March 22, 2011. "
James Watson helped unravel the structure of DNA, a
feat so stunning that it is considered the greatest scientific
achievement of the 20th century. "
^ "John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science". National
Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on December 29, 2010.
Retrieved February 15, 2011.
^ National Constitution Center.2000
Liberty Medal Recipients.
Retrieved on November 4, 2007.
^ The National Science Foundation.The President's National Medal of
Science: Recipient Details. February 14, 2006. Retrieved on November
^ "Othmer Gold Medal". Science History Institute. Retrieved 22 March
James D. Watson
James D. Watson to receive 2005 Othmer Gold Medal". Psych Central.
February 23, 2005. Archived from the original on February 6, 2015.
Retrieved June 12, 2014.
^ Presidential Medal of Freedom, 2007. Retrieved on November 4, 2007.
^ "University of Dublin, Trinity College".
Chadarevian, S. (2002) Designs For Life: Molecular Biology After World
War II. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-57078-6
Chargaff, E. (1978) Heraclitean Fire. New York: Rockefeller Press.
Chomet, S., ed., (1994) D.N.A.: Genesis of a Discovery London:
Collins, Francis. (2004) Coming to Peace With Science: Bridging the
Worlds Between Faith and Biology. InterVarsity Press.
Collins, Francis. (2007) The Language of God: A Scientist Presents
Evidence for Belief Free Press. ISBN 978-1-4165-4274-2
Crick, F.H.C. (1988) What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific
Discovery (Basic Books reprint edition, 1990) ISBN 0-465-09138-5
John Finch; 'A Nobel Fellow On Every Floor', Medical Research Council
2008, 381 pp, ISBN 978-1-84046-940-0; this book is all about the
MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge.
Friedberg, E.C.; "Sydney Brenner: A Biography",
CSHL Press October
2010, ISBN 0-87969-947-7.
Friedburg, E. C. (2005) "The Writing Life of James D. Watson". "Cold
Spring Harbor Laboratory Press" ISBN 0-87969-700-8
Hunter, G. (2004) Light Is A Messenger: the life and science of
William Lawrence Bragg. Oxford University Press.
Inglis, J., Sambrook, J. & Witkowski, J. A. (eds.) Inspiring
Science: Jim Watson and the Age of DNA. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-87969-698-6.
Judson, H. F. (1996). The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the
Revolution in Biology, Expanded edition. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Press. ISBN 0-87969-478-5
Maddox, B. (2003). Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA. Harper
Perennial. ISBN 0-06-098508-9
McEleheny, Victor K. (2003) Watson and DNA: Making a scientific
revolution, Perseus. ISBN 0-7382-0341-6
Robert Olby; 1974) The Path to The Double Helix: Discovery of DNA.
London: MacMillan. ISBN 0-486-68117-3; Definitive
with foreword by Francis Crick, revised in 1994 with a 9-page
Robert Olby; (2003) "Quiet debut for the double helix" Nature 421
(January 23): 402-405.
Robert Olby; "Francis Crick: Hunter of Life's Secrets", Cold Spring
Harbor Laboratory Press, ISBN 978-0-87969-798-3, August 2009.
Ridley, M. (2006) Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code
(Eminent Lives) New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-082333-X.
James D. Watson, "The Annotated and Illustrated Double Helix, edited
by Alexander Gann and Jan Witkowski" (2012) Simon & Schuster,
Wilkins, M. (2003) The Third Man of the Double Helix: The
Autobiography of Maurice Wilkins. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The History of the University of Cambridge: Volume 4 (1870 to 1990),
Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Find more aboutJames D. Watsonat's sister projects
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James D. Watson
James D. Watson Collection at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
The Double Helix
The Double Helix Game from Nobelprize.org
MSN Encarta biography (Archived 2009-10-31)
DNA Interactive – This site from the Dolan
DNA Learning Center (part
of CSHL) commemorates the discovery of the structure of
includes dozens of animations, as well as interviews with James Watson
DNA from the Beginning – another
DNA Learning Center site on the
basics of DNA, genes, and heredity, from Mendel to the Human Genome
Appearances on C-SPAN
James Watson on Charlie Rose
James Watson at TED
James Watson on IMDb
Works by or about
James Watson in libraries (
James Watson collected news and commentary". The New York
A Revolution at 50, February 25, 2003
Articles and interviews
BBC Four Interviews – Watson and Crick speaking on the BBC in 1962,
1972, and 1974.
NPR Science Friday: "A Conversation with
Genetics Pioneer James
Watson" – Ira Flatow interviews Watson on the history of
DNA and his
recent book A Passion for DNA: Genes, Genomes, and Society. 2002-06-02
NPR Science Friday "DNA: The Secret of Life" – Ira Flatow interviews
Watson on his new book. 2003-05-02
Discover "Reversing Bad Truths" – David Duncan interviews Watson.
Two remembrances of
James Watson by one of the founders of molecular
genetics, Esther Lederberg, can be found at
James Watson telling his life story at Web of Stories
Laureates of the Nobel Prize in
Physiology or Medicine
1901 Emil Behring
1902 Ronald Ross
1903 Niels Finsen
1904 Ivan Pavlov
1905 Robert Koch
Camillo Golgi / Santiago Ramón y Cajal
1907 Alphonse Laveran
Élie Metchnikoff / Paul Ehrlich
1909 Emil Kocher
1910 Albrecht Kossel
1911 Allvar Gullstrand
1912 Alexis Carrel
1913 Charles Richet
1914 Róbert Bárány
1919 Jules Bordet
1920 August Krogh
Archibald Hill / Otto Meyerhof
Frederick Banting / John Macleod
1924 Willem Einthoven
1926 Johannes Fibiger
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg
1928 Charles Nicolle
Christiaan Eijkman / Frederick Gowland Hopkins
1930 Karl Landsteiner
1931 Otto Warburg
Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington / Edgar Adrian
1933 Thomas Morgan
George Whipple /
George Minot / William Murphy
1935 Hans Spemann
1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi
1938 Corneille Heymans
1939 Gerhard Domagk
Henrik Dam / Edward Doisy
Joseph Erlanger / Herbert Gasser
Alexander Fleming /
Ernst Chain / Howard Florey
1946 Hermann Muller
1947 Carl Cori /
Gerty Cori / Bernardo Houssay
1948 Paul Müller
1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz
1950 Edward Kendall /
Tadeusz Reichstein / Philip Hench
1951 Max Theiler
1952 Selman Waksman
1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann
1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins
1955 Hugo Theorell
1956 André Cournand /
Werner Forssmann / Dickinson W. Richards
1957 Daniel Bovet
George Beadle /
Edward Tatum / Joshua Lederberg
Severo Ochoa / Arthur Kornberg
1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar
1961 Georg von Békésy
Francis Crick /
James Watson / Maurice Wilkins
1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley
1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen
François Jacob / André Lwoff / Jacques Monod
1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins
Ragnar Granit / Haldan Hartline / George Wald
Robert W. Holley
Robert W. Holley / Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg
Max Delbrück /
Alfred Hershey / Salvador Luria
Bernard Katz /
Ulf von Euler
Ulf von Euler / Julius Axelrod
1971 Earl Sutherland Jr.
Gerald Edelman / Rodney Porter
Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch /
Konrad Lorenz / Nikolaas Tinbergen
Albert Claude /
Christian de Duve
Christian de Duve / George Palade
David Baltimore /
Renato Dulbecco / Howard Temin
1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek
Roger Guillemin /
Andrew Schally / Rosalyn Yalow
Werner Arber /
Daniel Nathans / Hamilton O. Smith
1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield
Baruj Benacerraf /
Jean Dausset / George Snell
1981 Roger Sperry /
David H. Hubel
David H. Hubel / Torsten Wiesel
Sune Bergström /
Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane
1983 Barbara McClintock
1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein
1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein
1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini
1987 Susumu Tonegawa
1988 James W. Black /
Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion / George H. Hitchings
J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop / Harold E. Varmus
Joseph Murray / E. Donnall Thomas
Erwin Neher / Bert Sakmann
1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs
Richard J. Roberts
Richard J. Roberts / Phillip Sharp
Alfred G. Gilman
Alfred G. Gilman / Martin Rodbell
Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis /
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard / Eric F.
Peter C. Doherty
Peter C. Doherty / Rolf M. Zinkernagel
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner
Robert F. Furchgott
Robert F. Furchgott /
Louis Ignarro / Ferid Murad
1999 Günter Blobel
Arvid Carlsson /
Paul Greengard / Eric Kandel
Leland H. Hartwell /
Tim Hunt / Paul Nurse
Sydney Brenner /
H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston
Paul Lauterbur / Peter Mansfield
Richard Axel / Linda B. Buck
Barry Marshall / Robin Warren
Andrew Fire / Craig Mello
Mario Capecchi /
Martin Evans / Oliver Smithies
Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen /
Luc Montagnier / Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
Elizabeth Blackburn /
Carol W. Greider
Carol W. Greider / Jack W. Szostak
2010 Robert G. Edwards
Bruce Beutler /
Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman
John B. Gurdon
John B. Gurdon / Shinya Yamanaka
James Rothman /
Randy Schekman / Thomas C. Südhof
2014 John O'Keefe /
May-Britt Moser / Edvard Moser
2015 William C. Campbell /
Satoshi Ōmura / Tu Youyou
2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi
2017 Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young
National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science laureates
Behavioral and social science
1964: Roger Adams
Othmar H. Ammann
Neal Elgar Miller
1986: Herbert A. Simon
1987: Anne Anastasi
George J. Stigler
1988: Milton Friedman
1990: Leonid Hurwicz
1991: Robert W. Kates
George A. Miller
1992: Eleanor J. Gibson
1994: Robert K. Merton
1995: Roger N. Shepard
1996: Paul Samuelson
1997: William K. Estes
1998: William Julius Wilson
1999: Robert M. Solow
2000: Gary Becker
2001: George Bass
2003: R. Duncan Luce
2004: Kenneth Arrow
2005: Gordon H. Bower
2008: Michael I. Posner
2009: Mortimer Mishkin
2011: Anne Treisman
2014: Robert Axelrod
2015: Albert Bandura
1963: C. B. van Niel
1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg
1965: Francis P. Rous
George G. Simpson
Donald D. Van Slyke
1966: Edward F. Knipling
Fritz Albert Lipmann
William C. Rose
1967: Kenneth S. Cole
Harry F. Harlow
Alfred H. Sturtevant
1968: Horace Barker
Bernard B. Brodie
Detlev W. Bronk
Burrhus Frederic Skinner
1969: Robert Huebner
1970: Barbara McClintock
Albert B. Sabin
1973: Daniel I. Arnon
Earl W. Sutherland Jr.
1974: Britton Chance
James V. Neel
James Augustine Shannon
1975: Hallowell Davis
Sterling B. Hendricks
Orville Alvin Vogel
1976: Roger Guillemin
Keith Roberts Porter
E. O. Wilson
1979: Robert H. Burris
Elizabeth C. Crosby
Earl Reece Stadtman
George Ledyard Stebbins
Paul Alfred Weiss
1981: Philip Handler
1982: Seymour Benzer
Glenn W. Burton
1983: Howard L. Bachrach
Wendell L. Roelofs
1986: Stanley Cohen
Donald A. Henderson
Vernon B. Mountcastle
George Emil Palade
Joan A. Steitz
1987: Michael E. DeBakey
Theodor O. Diener
Har Gobind Khorana
1988: Michael S. Brown
Stanley Norman Cohen
Joseph L. Goldstein
Maurice R. Hilleman
Eric R. Kandel
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
1989: Katherine Esau
Roger W. Sperry
Harland G. Wood
1990: Baruj Benacerraf
Herbert W. Boyer
Daniel E. Koshland Jr.
Edward B. Lewis
David G. Nathan
E. Donnall Thomas
1991: Mary Ellen Avery
G. Evelyn Hutchinson
Elvin A. Kabat
Paul A. Marks
Folke K. Skoog
Paul C. Zamecnik
1992: Maxine Singer
Howard Martin Temin
1993: Daniel Nathans
Salome G. Waelsch
1994: Thomas Eisner
Elizabeth F. Neufeld
1995: Alexander Rich
1996: Ruth Patrick
1997: James Watson
Robert A. Weinberg
1998: Bruce Ames
1999: David Baltimore
2000: Nancy C. Andreasen
Peter H. Raven
2001: Francisco J. Ayala
Mario R. Capecchi
Gene E. Likens
Victor A. McKusick
2002: James E. Darnell
Evelyn M. Witkin
2003: J. Michael Bishop
Solomon H. Snyder
2004: Norman E. Borlaug
Phillip A. Sharp
Thomas E. Starzl
2005: Anthony S. Fauci
Torsten N. Wiesel
2006: Rita R. Colwell
2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz
Bert W. O'Malley
2008: Francis S. Collins
J. Craig Venter
2009: Susan L. Lindquist
Stanley B. Prusiner
2010: Ralph L. Brinster
2011: Lucy Shapiro
2014: May Berenbaum
2015: Stanley Falkow
Rakesh K. Jain
1982: F. Albert Cotton
1983: Roald Hoffmann
George C. Pimentel
Richard N. Zare
1986: Harry B. Gray
Yuan Tseh Lee
Carl S. Marvel
Frank H. Westheimer
1987: William S. Johnson
Walter H. Stockmayer
1988: William O. Baker
Konrad E. Bloch
Elias J. Corey
1989: Richard B. Bernstein
Rudolph A. Marcus
Harden M. McConnell
1990: Elkan Blout
John D. Roberts
1991: Ronald Breslow
Gertrude B. Elion
Dudley R. Herschbach
Glenn T. Seaborg
1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr.
1993: Donald J. Cram
1994: George S. Hammond
1995: Thomas Cech
Isabella L. Karle
1996: Norman Davidson
1997: Darleane C. Hoffman
Harold S. Johnston
1998: John W. Cahn
George M. Whitesides
1999: Stuart A. Rice
2000: John D. Baldeschwieler
Ralph F. Hirschmann
2001: Ernest R. Davidson
Gábor A. Somorjai
2002: John I. Brauman
2004: Stephen J. Lippard
2006: Marvin H. Caruthers
Peter B. Dervan
2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed
2008: Joanna Fowler
2009: Stephen J. Benkovic
Marye Anne Fox
2010: Jacqueline K. Barton
Peter J. Stang
2011: Allen J. Bard
M. Frederick Hawthorne
2014: Judith P. Klinman
2015: A. Paul Alivisatos
Geraldine L. Richmond
1962: Theodore von Kármán
1963: Vannevar Bush
John Robinson Pierce
1964: Charles S. Draper
1965: Hugh L. Dryden
Clarence L. Johnson
Warren K. Lewis
1966: Claude E. Shannon
1967: Edwin H. Land
Igor I. Sikorsky
1968: J. Presper Eckert
Nathan M. Newmark
1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby
1970: George E. Mueller
1973: Harold E. Edgerton
Richard T. Whitcomb
1974: Rudolf Kompfner
Ralph Brazelton Peck
1975: Manson Benedict
William Hayward Pickering
Frederick E. Terman
Wernher von Braun
1976: Morris Cohen
Peter C. Goldmark
Erwin Wilhelm Müller
1979: Emmett N. Leith
Raymond D. Mindlin
Robert N. Noyce
Earl R. Parker
1982: Edward H. Heinemann
Donald L. Katz
1983: William Redington Hewlett
George M. Low
John G. Trump
1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann
T. Y. Lin
Bernard M. Oliver
1987: R. Byron Bird
H. Bolton Seed
1988: Daniel C. Drucker
Willis M. Hawkins
George W. Housner
1989: Harry George Drickamer
Herbert E. Grier
1990: Mildred Dresselhaus
Nick Holonyak Jr.
1991: George H. Heilmeier
Luna B. Leopold
H. Guyford Stever
1992: Calvin F. Quate
John Roy Whinnery
1993: Alfred Y. Cho
1994: Ray W. Clough
1995: Hermann A. Haus
1996: James L. Flanagan
C. Kumar N. Patel
1998: Eli Ruckenstein
1999: Kenneth N. Stevens
2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung
2001: Andreas Acrivos
2002: Leo Beranek
2003: John M. Prausnitz
2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot
2005: Jan D. Achenbach
Tobin J. Marks
2006: Robert S. Langer
2007: David J. Wineland
2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán
2009: Amnon Yariv
2010: Shu Chien
2011: John B. Goodenough
2014: Thomas Kailath
Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences
1963: Norbert Wiener
1964: Solomon Lefschetz
H. Marston Morse
1965: Oscar Zariski
1966: John Milnor
1967: Paul Cohen
1968: Jerzy Neyman
1969: William Feller
1970: Richard Brauer
1973: John Tukey
1974: Kurt Gödel
1975: John W. Backus
1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs
1979: Joseph L. Doob
Donald E. Knuth
1982: Marshall Harvey Stone
1983: Herman Goldstine
1986: Peter Lax
1987: Raoul Bott
1988: Ralph E. Gomory
Joseph B. Keller
1989: Samuel Karlin
Saunders Mac Lane
Donald C. Spencer
1990: George F. Carrier
Stephen Cole Kleene
1991: Alberto Calderón
1992: Allen Newell
1993: Martin David Kruskal
1994: John Cocke
1995: Louis Nirenberg
1996: Richard Karp
1997: Shing-Tung Yau
1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz
1999: Felix Browder
Ronald R. Coifman
2000: John Griggs Thompson
Karen K. Uhlenbeck
2001: Calyampudi R. Rao
Elias M. Stein
2002: James G. Glimm
2003: Carl R. de Boor
2004: Dennis P. Sullivan
2005: Bradley Efron
2006: Hyman Bass
2007: Leonard Kleinrock
Andrew J. Viterbi
2009: David B. Mumford
2010: Richard A. Tapia
S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan
2011: Solomon W. Golomb
2014: Alexandre Chorin
2015: Michael Artin
1963: Luis W. Alvarez
1964: Julian Schwinger
Harold Clayton Urey
Robert Burns Woodward
1965: John Bardeen
Leon M. Lederman
1966: Jacob Bjerknes
John H. Van Vleck
Vladimir K. Zworykin
1967: Jesse Beams
1968: Paul Bartlett
1969: Herbert C. Brown
1970: Robert H. Dicke
Allan R. Sandage
John C. Slater
John A. Wheeler
1973: Carl Djerassi
Arie Jan Haagen-Smit
Robert Rathbun Wilson
1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen
William Alfred Fowler
Linus Carl Pauling
Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer
1975: Hans A. Bethe
Joseph O. Hirschfelder
Edgar Bright Wilson
1976: Samuel Goudsmit
Herbert S. Gutowsky
1979: Richard P. Feynman
Edward M. Purcell
Victor F. Weisskopf
1982: Philip W. Anderson
Charles H. Townes
1983: E. Margaret Burbidge
Bruno B. Rossi
J. Robert Schrieffer
1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum
H. Richard Crane
1987: Philip Abelson
Paul C. Lauterbur
James A. Van Allen
1988: D. Allan Bromley
Paul Ching-Wu Chu
Norman F. Ramsey
1989: Arnold O. Beckman
1990: Allan M. Cormack
Edwin M. McMillan
1991: Arthur L. Schawlow
1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker
1993: Val Fitch
1994: Albert Overhauser
1995: Hans Dehmelt
1996: Wallace S. Broecker
1997: Marshall Rosenbluth
1998: Don L. Anderson
John N. Bahcall
1999: James Cronin
2000: Willis E. Lamb
Jeremiah P. Ostriker
Gilbert F. White
2001: Marvin L. Cohen
Raymond Davis Jr.
2002: Richard Garwin
W. Jason Morgan
2003: G. Brent Dalrymple
2004: Robert N. Clayton
2005: Ralph A. Alpher
2006: Daniel Kleppner
2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove
Charles P. Slichter
2008: Berni Alder
James E. Gunn
2009: Yakir Aharonov
Esther M. Conwell
Warren M. Washington
2011: Sidney Drell
Sylvester James Gates
2014: Burton Richter
Sean C. Solomon
2015: Shirley Ann Jackson
Copley Medallists (1951–2000)
David Keilin (1951)
Paul Dirac (1952)
Albert Kluyver (1953)
E. T. Whittaker
E. T. Whittaker (1954)
Ronald Fisher (1955)
Patrick Blackett (1956)
Howard Florey (1957)
John Edensor Littlewood (1958)
Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Frank Macfarlane Burnet (1959)
Harold Jeffreys (1960)
Hans Adolf Krebs
Hans Adolf Krebs (1961)
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood (1962)
Paul Fildes (1963)
Sydney Chapman (1964)
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (1965)
Lawrence Bragg (1966)
Bernard Katz (1967)
Tadeusz Reichstein (1968)
Peter Medawar (1969)
Alexander R. Todd
Alexander R. Todd (1970)
Norman Pirie (1971)
Nevill Francis Mott (1972)
Andrew Huxley (1973)
W. V. D. Hodge
W. V. D. Hodge (1974)
Francis Crick (1975)
Dorothy Hodgkin (1976)
Frederick Sanger (1977)
Robert Burns Woodward
Robert Burns Woodward (1978)
Max Perutz (1979)
Derek Barton (1980)
Peter D. Mitchell
Peter D. Mitchell (1981)
John Cornforth (1982)
Rodney Robert Porter
Rodney Robert Porter (1983)
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1984)
Aaron Klug (1985)
Rudolf Peierls (1986)
Robin Hill (1987)
Michael Atiyah (1988)
César Milstein (1989)
Abdus Salam (1990)
Sydney Brenner (1991)
George Porter (1992)
James D. Watson
James D. Watson (1993)
Frederick Charles Frank
Frederick Charles Frank (1994)
Frank Fenner (1995)
Alan Cottrell (1996)
Hugh Huxley (1997)
James Lighthill (1998)
John Maynard Smith
John Maynard Smith (1999)
Alan Battersby (2000)
Eli Lilly Award in Biological Chemistry
William M. Allen (1935)
Harold S. Alcott (1937)
Abraham White (1938)
George Wald (1939)
Eric G. Ball (1940)
David Rittenberg (1941)
Earl A. Evans, Jr. (1942)
Herbert E. Carter (1943)
Joseph S. Fruton (1944)
Max A. Lauffer (1945)
John D. Ferry (1946)
Sidney Colowick (1947)
Dilworth Woodley (1948)
Irving M. Klotz (1949)
William Shive (1950)
John M. Buchanan (1951)
David M. Bonner (1952)
Nathan O. Kaplan (1953)
Harvey Itano (1954)
William F. Neuman (1955)
Robert A. Alberty (1956)
Harold A. Scheraga (1957)
Lester J. Reed (1958)
Paul Berg (1959)
James Watson (1960)
Frederick Crane (1961)
Jerard Hurwitz (1962)
William P. Jencks (1963)
Bruce Ames (1964)
Gerald M. Edelman (1965)
Phillips W. Robbins (1966)
Gordon G. Hammes (1967)
Charles C. Richardson (1968)
Mario R. Capecchi
Mario R. Capecchi (1969)
Lubert Stryer (1970)
David F. Wilson (1971)
Bruce M. Alberts (1972)
C. Fred Fox (1973)
James E. Dahlberg (1974)
Mark Ptashne (1975)
Joan A. Steitz (1976)
Robert G. Roeder (1977)
Charles R. Cantor (1978)
Christopher T. Walsh (1979)
Phillip A. Sharp
Phillip A. Sharp (1980)
Roger D. Kornberg
Roger D. Kornberg (1981)
Harold M. Weintraub (1982)
Richard Axel (1983)
David V. Goeddel (1984)
Gerald M. Rubin
Gerald M. Rubin (1985)
James E. Rothman (1986)
Jacqueline K. Barton
Jacqueline K. Barton (1987)
Peter Walter (1988)
Michael M. Cox (1989)
George L. McLendon (1990)
Peter G. Schultz (1991)
William DeGrado (1992)
Stuart L. Schreiber (1993)
Peter S. Kim
Peter S. Kim (1994)
Jeremy M. Berg
Jeremy M. Berg (1995)
Gregory L. Verdine (1996)
Alanna Schepartz (1997)
John Kuriyan (1998)
Chaitan Khosla (1999)
Xiaodong Wang (2000)
Jennifer Doudna (2001)
Kevan M. Shokat (2002)
Andreas Matouschek (2003)
Benjamin Cravatt III (2004)
Dewey G. McCafferty (2005)
Linda Hsieh-Wilson (2006)
Anna K. Mapp (2007)
Paul J. Hergenrother (2008)
Scott K. Silverman (2009)
Alice Y. Ting (2010)
Nathanael Gray (2011)
Christopher J. Chang (2012)
Matthew D. Disney (2013)
Yi Tang (2014)
Minkui Luo (2015)
Elizabeth Nolan (2016)
Howard Hang (2017)
Bradley Pentelute (2018)
History of biology
Zoology (since 1859)
Zoology (through 1859)
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Laboratory of Molecular Biology
Marine Biological Laboratory
Max Planck Society
Rothamsted Experimental Station
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
Germ theory of disease
Central dogma of molecular biology
Great chain of being
Hierarchy of life
One gene–one enzyme hypothesis
RNA world hypothesis
On Generation and Corruption
History of Animals
De Materia Medica
De humani corporis fabrica
De Motu Cordis
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Principles of Geology
On the Origin of Species
The Descent of Man
Alfred Russel Wallace
Henry Walter Bates
Genetics and the Origin of Species
R. A. Fisher
E. B. Ford
J. B. S. Haldane
Thomas Hunt Morgan
George Gaylord Simpson
Hugo de Vries
Stephen Jay Gould
W. D. Hamilton
George C. Williams
Karl Ernst von Baer
Gavin de Beer
Sean B. Carroll
Scott F. Gilbert
Edward B. Lewis
E. B. Wilson
Crick, Brenner et al. (1961)
James D. Watson
James D. Watson and Francis Crick
"Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids"
"Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease"
Karl von Frisch
Frans de Waal
History of science
Philosophy of biology
History of the creation-evolution controversy
Human Genome Project
Relationship between religion and science
Timeline of biology and organic chemistry
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