The Info List - James D. Watson

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James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA
in 1953 with Francis Crick
Francis Crick
and Rosalind Franklin. Watson, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material". Watson earned degrees at the University of Chicago
(BS, 1947) and Indiana University
Indiana University
(PhD, 1950). Following a post-doctoral year at the University of Copenhagen
University of Copenhagen
with Herman Kalckar
Herman Kalckar
and Ole Maaloe, later Watson worked at the University of Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory
Cavendish Laboratory
in England, where he first met his future collaborator and friend Francis Crick. From 1956 to 1976, Watson was on the faculty of the Harvard University Biology Department, promoting research in molecular biology. From 1968 he served as director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
(CSHL), greatly expanding its level of funding and research. At CSHL, he shifted his research emphasis to the study of cancer, along with making it a world leading research center in molecular biology. In 1994, he started as president and served for 10 years. He was then appointed chancellor, serving until he resigned in 2007 after making controversial comments claiming a link between intelligence and race.[11][12][13] Between 1988 and 1992, Watson was associated with the National Institutes of Health, helping to establish the Human Genome Project. Watson has written many science books, including the textbook Molecular Biology of the Gene
(1965) and his bestselling book The Double Helix (1968).[14]


1 Early life and education 2 Career and research

2.1 Luria, Delbrück, and the Phage Group 2.2 Identifying the double helix 2.3 Harvard University 2.4 Publishing The Double Helix 2.5 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory 2.6 Human Genome Project 2.7 Role of oxidants in disease 2.8 Notable former students 2.9 Selected books published 2.10 Other affiliations

3 Political activism 4 Controversies

4.1 Use of King's College results 4.2 Controversial comments 4.3 Avoid Boring People, UK book tour and resignation 4.4 Sale of Nobel Prize Medal

5 Personal life

5.1 Marriage and family

6 Awards and honors

6.1 Honorary degrees received 6.2 Professional and honorary affiliations

7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early life and education[edit] James D. Watson
James D. Watson
was born in Chicago, Illinois, on April 6, 1928, as the only son of Jean (Mitchell) and James D. Watson, a businessman descended mostly from colonial English immigrants to America.[15][16] His mother's father, Lauchlin Mitchell, a tailor, was from Glasgow, Scotland, and her mother, Lizzie Gleason, was the child of Irish parents from County Tipperary.[17] Raised Catholic, he later described himself as "an escapee from the Catholic
religion."[18] Watson said, "The luckiest thing that ever happened to me was that my father didn't believe in God."[19] Watson grew up on the south side of Chicago
and attended public schools, including Horace Mann Grammar School and South Shore High School.[15][20] He was fascinated with bird watching, a hobby shared with his father,[21] so he considered majoring in ornithology.[22] Watson appeared on Quiz Kids, a popular radio show that challenged bright youngsters to answer questions.[23] Thanks to the liberal policy of University president Robert Hutchins, he enrolled at the University of Chicago, where he was awarded a tuition scholarship, at the age of 15.[15][22][24] After reading Erwin Schrödinger's book What Is Life?
What Is Life?
in 1946, Watson changed his professional ambitions from the study of ornithology to genetics.[25] Watson earned his BS degree in Zoology
from the University of Chicago
in 1947.[22] In his autobiography, Avoid Boring People, Watson described the University of Chicago
as an "idyllic academic institution where he was instilled with the capacity for critical thought and an ethical compulsion not to suffer fools who impeded his search for truth", in contrast to his description of later experiences. In 1947 Watson left the University of Chicago
to become a graduate student at Indiana University, attracted by the presence at Bloomington of the 1946 Nobel Prize winner Hermann Joseph Muller, who in crucial papers published in 1922, 1929, and in the 1930s had laid out all the basic properties of the heredity molecule that Schrödinger presented in his 1944 book.[26] He received his PhD degree from Indiana University
Indiana University
in 1950; Salvador Luria
Salvador Luria
was his doctoral advisor.[22][27] Career and research[edit] Luria, Delbrück, and the Phage Group[edit] Originally, Watson was drawn into molecular biology by the work of Salvador Luria. Luria eventually shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physiology
or Medicine for his work on the Luria–Delbrück experiment, which concerned the nature of genetic mutations. He was part of a distributed group of researchers who were making use of the viruses that infect bacteria, called bacteriophages. He and Max Delbrück were among the leaders of this new "Phage Group," an important movement of geneticists from experimental systems such as Drosophila
towards microbial genetics. Early in 1948, Watson began his PhD research in Luria's laboratory at Indiana University.[27] That spring, he met Delbrück first in Luria's apartment and again that summer during Watson's first trip to the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL).[28][29] The Phage Group was the intellectual medium where Watson became a working scientist. Importantly, the members of the Phage Group sensed that they were on the path to discovering the physical nature of the gene. In 1949, Watson took a course with Felix Haurowitz that included the conventional view of that time: that genes were proteins and able to replicate themselves.[30] The other major molecular component of chromosomes, DNA, was widely considered to be a "stupid tetranucleotide," serving only a structural role to support the proteins.[31] However, even at this early time, Watson, under the influence of the Phage Group, was aware of the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, which suggested that DNA
was the genetic molecule. Watson's research project involved using X-rays to inactivate bacterial viruses.[32] Watson then went to Copenhagen University
Copenhagen University
in September 1950 for a year of postdoctoral research, first heading to the laboratory of biochemist Herman Kalckar.[15] Kalckar was interested in the enzymatic synthesis of nucleic acids, and he wanted to use phages as an experimental system. Watson, however, wanted to explore the structure of DNA, and his interests did not coincide with Kalckar's.[33] After working part of the year with Kalckar, Watson spent the remainder of his time in Copenhagen conducting experiments with microbial physiologist Ole Maaloe, then a member of the Phage Group.[34] The experiments, which Watson had learned of during the previous summer's Cold Spring Harbor phage conference, included the use of radioactive phosphate as a tracer to determine which molecular components of phage particles actually infect the target bacteria during viral infection.[33] The intention was to determine whether protein or DNA
was the genetic material, but upon consultation with Max Delbrück,[33] they determined that their results were inconclusive and could not specifically identify the newly labeled molecules as DNA.[35] Watson never developed a constructive interaction with Kalckar, but he did accompany Kalckar to a meeting in Italy, where Watson saw Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
talk about his X-ray diffraction data for DNA.[15] Watson was now certain that DNA
had a definite molecular structure that could be elucidated.[36] In 1951, the chemist Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
in California
published his model of the amino acid alpha helix, a result that grew out of Pauling's efforts in X-ray
crystallography and molecular model building. After obtaining some results from his phage and other experimental research[37] conducted at Indiana University, Statens Serum Institut (Denmark), CSHL, and the California
Institute of Technology, Watson now had the desire to learn to perform X-ray
diffraction experiments so he could work to determine the structure of DNA. That summer, Luria met John Kendrew,[38] and he arranged for a new postdoctoral research project for Watson in England.[15] In 1951 Watson visited the Stazione Zoologica 'Anton Dohrn' in Naples.[39] Identifying the double helix[edit]

model built by Crick and Watson in 1953, on display in the Science Museum, London.

In mid-March 1953, using, in part, experimental data collected mainly by Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
and also by Maurice Wilkins, Watson and Crick deduced the double helix structure of DNA.[15][40] Sir Lawrence Bragg,[41] the director of the Cavendish Laboratory
Cavendish Laboratory
(where Watson and Crick worked), made the original announcement of the discovery at a Solvay conference
Solvay conference
on proteins in Belgium on April 8, 1953; it went unreported by the press. Watson and Crick submitted a paper entitled Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid to the scientific journal Nature, which was published on April 25, 1953.[42] This has been described by some other biologists and Nobel laureates as the most important scientific discovery of the 20th century.[citation needed] Bragg gave a talk at the Guy's Hospital Medical School in London on Thursday, May 14, 1953, which resulted in a May 15, 1953, article by Ritchie Calder in the London newspaper News Chronicle, entitled "Why You Are You. Nearer Secret of Life." Sydney Brenner, Jack Dunitz, Dorothy Hodgkin, Leslie Orgel, and Beryl M. Oughton were some of the first people in April 1953 to see the model of the structure of DNA, constructed by Crick and Watson; at the time, they were working at Oxford University's Chemistry Department. All were impressed by the new DNA
model, especially Brenner, who subsequently worked with Crick at Cambridge in the Cavendish Laboratory and the new Laboratory of Molecular Biology. According to the late Beryl Oughton, later Rimmer, they all travelled together in two cars once Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin
announced to them that they were off to Cambridge to see the model of the structure of DNA.[43] The Cambridge University student newspaper Varsity also ran its own short article on the discovery on Saturday, May 30, 1953. Watson subsequently presented a paper on the double-helical structure of DNA at the 18th Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Viruses in early June 1953, six weeks after the publication of the Watson and Crick paper in Nature. Many at the meeting had not yet heard of the discovery. The 1953 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium was the first opportunity for many to see the model of the DNA
double helix.

Watson's accomplishment is displayed on the monument at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. Because the monument memorializes only American laureates, Francis Crick
Francis Crick
and Maurice Wilkins (who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology
or Medicine) are omitted.

Watson, Crick, and Wilkins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962 for their research on the structure of nucleic acids.[15][15][44][45] Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
had died in 1958 and was therefore ineligible for nomination.[40] The publication of the double helix structure of DNA
can be regarded as a turning point in science: human understanding of life was fundamentally changed and the modern era of biology began.[46] Harvard University[edit] In 1956, Watson accepted a position in the Biology department at Harvard University. His work at Harvard focused on RNA and its role in the transfer of genetic information.[47] At Harvard University, Watson achieved a series of academic promotions from assistant professor to associate professor to full professor of biology. Watson claimed, however, that he was refused a $1,000 raise in salary after winning the Nobel Prize. He championed a switch in focus for the school from classical biology to molecular biology, stating that disciplines such as ecology, developmental biology, taxonomy, physiology, etc. had stagnated and could progress only once the underlying disciplines of molecular biology and biochemistry had elucidated their underpinnings, going so far as to discourage their study by students. Watson continued to be a member of the Harvard faculty until 1976, even though he took over the directorship of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in 1968.[47] Views on Watson's scientific contributions while at Harvard are somewhat mixed. His most notable achievements in his two decades at Harvard may be what he wrote about science, rather than anything he discovered during that time.[48] Watson's first textbook, The Molecular Biology of the Gene, set a new standard for textbooks, particularly through the use of concept heads—brief declarative subheadings.[49] His next textbook was Molecular Biology of the Cell, in which he coordinated the work of a group of scientist-writers. His third textbook was Recombinant DNA, which described the ways in which genetic engineering has brought much new information about how organisms function. The textbooks are still in print. Publishing The Double Helix[edit] In 1968, Watson wrote The Double Helix,[50] listed by the Board of the Modern Library as number seven in their list of 100 Best Nonfiction books.[51] The book details the sometimes painful story of not only the discovery of the structure of DNA, but also the personalities, conflicts and controversy surrounding their work. Watson's original title was to have been "Honest Jim", in that the book recounts the discovery of the double helix from Watson's point of view and included many of his private emotional impressions at the time. Some controversy surrounded the publication of the book. Watson's book was originally to be published by the Harvard University
Harvard University
Press, but Francis Crick
Francis Crick
and Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
objected, among others. Watson's home university dropped the project and the book was commercially published.[52] Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory[edit]

External video

James Watson: Why society isn't ready for genomic-based medicine, 2012, Chemical Heritage Foundation

In 1968, Watson became the Director of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL). Between 1970 and 1972, the Watsons' two sons were born, and by 1974, the young family made Cold Spring Harbor their permanent residence. Watson served as the laboratory's director and president for about 35 years, and later he assumed the role of chancellor and then Chancellor Emeritus. In his roles as director, president, and chancellor, Watson led CSHL to articulate its present-day mission, "dedication to exploring molecular biology and genetics in order to advance the understanding and ability to diagnose and treat cancers, neurological diseases, and other causes of human suffering."[53] CSHL substantially expanded both its research and its science educational programs under Watson’s direction. He is credited with "transforming a small facility into one of the world’s great education and research institutions. Initiating a program to study the cause of human cancer, scientists under his direction have made major contributions to understanding the genetic basis of cancer."[54] In a retrospective summary of Watson's accomplishments there, Bruce Stillman, the laboratory's president, said, "Jim Watson created a research environment that is unparalleled in the world of science."[54] In October 2007, Watson was suspended following criticism of his views on genetic factors relating to intelligence,[55][56] and a week later, on the 25th, he retired at the age of 79 from CSHL from what the lab called "nearly 40 years of distinguished service".[54][57] In a statement, Watson attributed his retirement to his age, and circumstances that he could never have anticipated or desired.[58] Human Genome Project[edit]

Watson in 1992

In 1990, Watson was appointed as the Head of the Human Genome Project at the National Institutes of Health, a position he held until April 10, 1992.[59] Watson left the Genome Project after conflicts with the new NIH Director, Bernadine Healy. Watson was opposed to Healy's attempts to acquire patents on gene sequences, and any ownership of the "laws of nature." Two years before stepping down from the Genome Project, he had stated his own opinion on this long and ongoing controversy which he saw as an illogical barrier to research; he said, "The nations of the world must see that the human genome belongs to the world's people, as opposed to its nations." He left within weeks of the 1992 announcement that the NIH would be applying for patents on brain-specific cDNAs.[60] (The issue of the patentability of genes has since been resolved in the US by the US Supreme Court; see Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office) In 1994, Watson became President of CSHL. Francis Collins took over the role as Director of the Human Genome Project. In 2007, James Watson
James Watson
became the second person[61] to publish his fully sequenced genome online,[62] after it was presented to him on May 31, 2007, by 454 Life Sciences Corporation[63] in collaboration with scientists at the Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine. Watson was quoted as saying, "I am putting my genome sequence on line to encourage the development of an era of personalized medicine, in which information contained in our genomes can be used to identify and prevent disease and to create individualized medical therapies".[64][65][66] Role of oxidants in disease[edit] In 2014 Watson published a paper in The Lancet
The Lancet
suggesting that biological oxidants may have a different role than is thought in diseases including diabetes, dementia, heart disease and cancer. For example, type 2 diabetes is usually thought to be caused by oxidation in the body that causes inflammation and kills off pancreatic cells. Watson thinks the root of that inflammation is different: "a lack of biological oxidants, not an excess", and discusses this in detail. One critical response was that the idea was neither new nor worthy of merit, and that The Lancet
The Lancet
published Watson's paper only because of his name.[67] However, other scientists have expressed their support for his hypothesis and have proposed that it can also be expanded to why a lack of oxidants can result in cancer and its progression.[68] Notable former students[edit] Several of Watson's former doctoral students subsequently became notable in their own right including, Mario Capecchi,[5] Bob Horvitz, Charles Kurland, Peter D. Moore and Joan Steitz.[6] Besides numerous PhD students, Watson also supervised postdoctoral students and other interns including Ewan Birney,[7] Ronald W. Davis, Phillip Allen Sharp (postdoc), John Tooze, (postdoc)[9][10] and Richard J. Roberts (postdoc).[8] Selected books published[edit]

Library resources about James Watson

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By James Watson

Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

James D. Watson, The Annotated and Illustrated Double Helix, edited by Alexander Gann and Jan Witkowski (2012) Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-1-4767-1549-0. Watson, J. D. (1968). The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. New York: Atheneum.  Watson, J. D. (1968). Gunther S. Stent, ed. The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-95075-1.  (Norton Critical Editions, 1981). Watson, J. D.; Baker, T. A.; Bell, S. P.; Gann, A.; Levine, M.; Losick, R. (2003). Molecular Biology of the Gene
(5th ed.). New York: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-4635-X.  Watson, J. D. (2002). Genes, Girls, and Gamow: After the Double Helix. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-41283-2. OCLC 47716375.  Watson, J. D.; Berry, A. (2003). DNA: The Secret of Life. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-41546-7.  Watson, J.D. (2007). Avoid Boring People and Other Lessons from a Life in Science. New York: Random House. p. 366. ISBN 978-0-375-41284-4. 

Other affiliations[edit] Watson is a former member of the Board of Directors of United Biomedical, Inc., founded by Chang Yi Wang. He held the position for six years and retired from the board in 1999.[69] In January 2007, Watson accepted the invitation of Leonor Beleza, president of the Champalimaud Foundation, to become the head of the foundation's scientific council, an advisory organ.[70][71] Watson has also been an institute adviser for the Allen Institute for Brain Science.[72][73] Political activism[edit] During his tenure as a professor at Harvard, Watson participated in several political protests:

Vietnam War: While a professor at Harvard University, Watson, along with "12 Faculty members of the department of Biochemistry
and Molecular Biology" including one other Nobel prize winner, spearheaded a resolution for "the immediate withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam."[74] Nuclear proliferation
Nuclear proliferation
and environmentalism: In 1975, on the "thirtieth anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima," Watson along with "over 2000 scientists and engineers" spoke out against nuclear proliferation to President Ford in part because of the "lack of a proven method for the ultimate disposal of radioactive waste" and because "The writers of the declaration see the proliferation of nuclear plants as a major threat to American liberties and international safety because they say safeguard procedures are inadequate to prevent terrorist theft of commercial reactor-produced plutonium."[75] In 2007, Watson said, "I turned against the left wing because they don't like genetics, because genetics implies that sometimes in life we fail because we have bad genes. They want all failure in life to be due to the evil system."[76]

Controversies[edit] Use of King's College results[edit] An enduring controversy has been generated by Watson and Crick's unauthorized use of DNA
diffraction data collected by Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling. The controversy arose from Watson and Crick using some of Franklin's unpublished data—without her consent—in their construction of the double helix model of DNA.[40][77] Franklin's experimental results provided estimates of the water content of DNA
crystals and these results were consistent with the two sugar-phosphate backbones being on the outside of the molecule. Franklin personally told Crick and Watson that the backbones had to be on the outside, which was a crucial piece of information; before then, Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
and Watson and Crick had generated erroneous models with the chains inside and the bases pointing outwards.[26] Her identification of the space group for DNA
crystals revealed to Crick that the two DNA
strands were antiparallel. The X-ray
diffraction images collected by Gosling and Franklin provided the best evidence for the helical nature of DNA. Franklin's experimental work thus proved crucial in Watson and Crick's discovery. Watson and Crick had three sources for Franklin's unpublished data:

her 1951 seminar, attended by Watson,[78] discussions with Wilkins,[79] who worked in the same laboratory with Franklin, a research progress report that was intended to promote coordination of Medical Research Council-supported laboratories.[80] Watson, Crick, Wilkins and Franklin all worked in MRC laboratories.

Prior to publication of the double helix structure, Watson and Crick had little interaction with Franklin. Crick and Watson felt that they had benefited from collaborating with Wilkins. They offered him a co-authorship on the article that first described the double helix structure of DNA. Wilkins turned down the offer, a fact that may have led to the terse character of the acknowledgment of experimental work done at King's College in the eventual published paper. Rather than make any of the DNA
researchers at King's College co-authors on the Watson and Crick double helix article, the solution that was arrived at was to publish two additional papers from King's College along with the helix paper. According to one critic, Watson's portrayal of Franklin in The Double Helix (written after Franklin's death when libel laws did not apply anymore) was negative and gave the appearance that she was Wilkins' assistant and was unable to interpret her own DNA
data.[81] The latter accusation was indefensible since Franklin herself told Crick and Watson that the helix backbones had to be on the outside.[26] In his book The Double Helix, Watson described being intimidated by Franklin and that they were unable to establish constructive scientific interactions during the time period when Franklin was doing DNA
research. In the book's epilogue, written after Franklin's death, Watson acknowledges his early impressions of Franklin were often wrong, that she faced enormous barriers as a woman in the field of science even though her work was superb, and that it took them years to overcome their bickering before he could appreciate Franklin's generosity and integrity. A review of the handwritten correspondence from Franklin to Watson, located in the archives at CSHL, reveals that the two scientists later had exchanges of constructive scientific correspondence. In fact, Franklin consulted with Watson on her tobacco mosaic virus RNA research. Franklin's letters begin on friendly terms with "Dear Jim", and conclude with equally benevolent and respectful sentiments such as "Best Wishes, Yours, Rosalind". Each of the scientists published their own unique contributions to the discovery of the structure of DNA
in separate articles, and all of the contributors published their findings in the same volume of Nature. These classic molecular biology papers are identified as: Watson J.D. and Crick F.H.C. "A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" Nature 171, 737–738 (1953);[42] Wilkins M.H.F., Stokes A.R. & Wilson, H.R. "Molecular Structure of Deoxypentose Nucleic Acids" Nature 171, 738–740 (1953);[82] Franklin R. and Gosling R.G. "Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate" Nature 171, 740–741 (1953).[83] The wording on the DNA
sculpture (which was donated by Watson) outside Clare College's Memorial Court, Cambridge, England is: On the base:

"These strands unravel during cell reproduction. Genes are encoded in the sequence of bases." "The double helix model was supported by the work of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins."

On the helices:

"The structure of DNA
was discovered in 1953 by Francis Crick
Francis Crick
and James Watson
James Watson
while Watson lived here at Clare." "The molecule of DNA
has two helical strands that are linked by base pairs Adenine - Thymine or Guanine - Cytosine."

Controversial comments[edit]

James Watson
James Watson
(February 2003)

Watson has often expressed provocative concepts and disparaging opinions of others within the realm of genetic research.

He has been quoted in The Sunday Telegraph, 1997, as stating: "If you could find the gene which determines sexuality and a woman decides she doesn't want a homosexual child, well, let her."[84] The biologist Richard Dawkins
Richard Dawkins
wrote a letter to The Independent claiming that Watson's position was misrepresented by The Sunday Telegraph article, and that Watson would equally consider the possibility of having a heterosexual child to be just as valid as any other reason for abortion, to emphasise that Watson is in favor of allowing choice.[85] On the issue of obesity, Watson was quoted in 2000, saying: "Whenever you interview fat people, you feel bad, because you know you're not going to hire them."[86] While speaking at a conference in 2000, Watson had suggested a link between skin color and sex drive, hypothesizing that dark-skinned people have stronger libidos.[86][87] His lecture argued that extracts of melanin – which gives skin its color – had been found to boost subjects' sex drive. "That's why you have Latin lovers," he said, according to people who attended the lecture. "You've never heard of an English lover. Only an English Patient."[88] Watson has repeatedly supported genetic screening and genetic engineering in public lectures and interviews, arguing that stupidity is a disease and the "really stupid" bottom 10% of people should be cured.[89] He has also suggested that beauty could be genetically engineered, saying in 2003, "People say it would be terrible if we made all girls pretty. I think it would be great."[89][90] Watson has had quite a few disagreements with Craig Venter
Craig Venter
regarding his use of EST fragments while Venter worked at NIH. Venter went on to found Celera
genomics and continued his feud with Watson. Watson was even quoted as calling Venter "Hitler".[91]

Avoid Boring People, UK book tour and resignation[edit]

Watson signing autographs after a speech at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on April 30, 2007.

In his memoir, Avoid Boring People: Lessons from a Life in Science, Watson describes his academic colleagues as "dinosaurs", "deadbeats", "fossils", "has-beens", "mediocre", and "vapid". Steve Shapin
Steve Shapin
in Harvard Magazine noted that Watson had written an unlikely "Book of Manners", telling about the skills needed at different times in a scientist's career; he wrote Watson was known for aggressively pursuing his own goals at the university. E. O. Wilson
E. O. Wilson
once described Watson as "the most unpleasant human being I had ever met", but in a later TV interview said that he considered them friends and their rivalry at Harvard old history (when they had competed for funding in their respective fields).[92][93] In the epilogue to the memoir Avoid Boring People, Watson alternately attacks and defends former Harvard University
Harvard University
president Lawrence Summers, who stepped down in 2006 due in part to his remarks about women and science. Watson also states in the epilogue, "Anyone sincerely interested in understanding the imbalance in the representation of men and women in science must reasonably be prepared at least to consider the extent to which nature may figure, even with the clear evidence that nurture is strongly implicated."[90] In early October 2007, Watson was about to embark on a UK book tour to promote the memoir. He was interviewed by Charlotte Hunt-Grubbe at CSHL. In 1996, she had been a student there in a program in which Watson recruited students to live at his family home and work at CSHL for a year. Hunt-Grubbe had gone on to work for the Sunday Times Magazine; she was selected for the interview as she was one of the few women to have been mentored by him. Hunt-Grubbe broached the subject of whether race was a factor in his hypothesis of divergence of intellect between geographically isolated populations.[citation needed] The following is a transcript of that part of the interview:

He says that he is "inherently gloomy about the prospect of Africa" because "all our social policies are based on the fact that their intelligence is the same as ours – whereas all the testing says not really", and I know that this "hot potato" is going to be difficult to address. His hope is that everyone is equal, but he counters that "people who have to deal with black employees find this not true". He says that you should not discriminate on the basis of colour, because "there are many people of colour who are very talented, but don't promote them when they haven't succeeded at the lower level". He writes that "there is no firm reason to anticipate that the intellectual capacities of peoples geographically separated in their evolution should prove to have evolved identically. Our wanting to reserve equal powers of reason as some universal heritage of humanity will not be enough to make it so".[94]

Though other publications noted that the paper had "[kept] the profile sympathetic and place[d] the comments at the end of the piece",[95] the article was a public relations disaster for Watson. The Sunday Times Magazine editor Cathy Galvin noted, "It was important the reader understood Charlotte's relationship with Watson and her regard for him before exploring the explosive and unscientific territory of his opinions and history of statements about women, race, and abortion which have stirred so much controversy in the past."[95] Watson's comments drew attention and criticism in the UK. Watson said his intention was to promote science not racism, but some of the UK venues canceled his appearances.[96] Watson canceled the rest of his tour.[97][98][99][100][101][102] Because of the public controversy, on October 18, 2007, the Board of Trustees at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
suspended Watson's administrative responsibilities.[103] On October 19, Watson issued an apology;[104] on October 25, he resigned from his position as chancellor.[105][106][107][108][109] In 2008, Watson was appointed chancellor emeritus of CSHL.[110][111] As of 2009[update], he continues to advise and guide project work at the laboratory.[112] In a 2008 BBC documentary, Watson said: "I have never thought of myself as a racist. I don't see myself as a racist. I am mortified by it. It was the worst thing in my life."[113] An editorial in Nature at the time acknowledged that his remarks were "beyond the pale," but wished that the tour had not been cancelled so that Watson would be forced to face his critics in person, encouraging scientific discussion on the matter.[114][115] Sale of Nobel Prize Medal[edit] In 2014, Watson decided to auction off his Nobel prize medal in view of his diminished income after the 2007 incident[116] and to use part of the funds raised by the sale to support scientific research.[117] The medal sold at auction at Christie's
in December 2014 for US$4.1 million. Watson intended to contribute the proceeds to conservation work in Long Island and to funding research at Trinity College, Dublin,[118] as well as the purchase of artwork.[119] Watson is the first living recipient of the honor to auction the medal.[120] The medal was subsequently returned to Watson by the purchaser, Russian tycoon Alisher Usmanov, who stated that Watson deserved the medal and that "a situation in which an outstanding scientist has to sell a medal recognising his achievements is unacceptable."[121] Personal life[edit] Watson is an atheist.[19][122] In 2003, he was one of 22 Nobel Laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto.[123] Marriage and family[edit] Watson married Elizabeth Lewis in 1968.[1] They have two sons, Rufus Robert Watson (b. 1970) and Duncan James Watson
James Watson
(b. 1972). Watson sometimes talks about his son Rufus, who suffers from schizophrenia, seeking to encourage progress in the understanding and treatment of mental illness by determining how genetics contribute to it.[112] Awards and honors[edit] Watson has won numerous awards including:

James D. Watson
James D. Watson
with the Othmer Gold Medal, 2005

Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, 1960[124] EMBO Membership in 1985[3] Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences (2001)[125] Charles A. Dana Award, 1994 Copley Medal of the Royal Society, 1993[2] CSHL Double Helix Medal Honoree, 2008 Eli Lilly Award in Biological Chemistry, 1960 Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences Gairdner Foundation International Award, 2002 Heald Award Honorary Fellow, the Hastings Center, an independent bioethics research institution[126] Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Order of the British Empire
(KBE), 2002[127] Hope Funds for Cancer
Research: James D. Watson
James D. Watson
Award of Excellence for Scientific Achievement (2014) Irish America Hall of Fame, inducted March 2011[128] John Collins Warren Prize of the Massachusetts General Hospital John J. Carty Award in molecular biology from the National Academy of Sciences[129] Kaul Foundation Award for Excellence Liberty Medal, 2000[130] Lomonosov Gold Medal, 1994 Lotos Club
Lotos Club
Medal of Merit, 2004 Mendel Medal, 2008 National Biotechnology Venture Award National Medal of Science, 1997[131] New York Academy of Medicine Award, 1999 Nobel Prize in Physiology
or Medicine, 1962[15] Othmer Gold Medal
Othmer Gold Medal
(2005)[132][133] Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1977[134] Research Corporation Prize University of Chicago
Alumni Medal, 1998[24] University College London Prize, 2000 University Medal at SUNY Stony Brook

Honorary degrees received[edit]

DSc, University of Chicago, US, 1961 DSc, Indiana University, US, 1963 LLD, University of Notre Dame, US, 1965 DSc, Long Island University
Long Island University
(CW Post), US, 1970 DSc, Adelphi University, US, 1972 DSc, Brandeis University, US, 1973 DSc, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, US, 1974 DSc, Hofstra University, US, 1976 DSc, Harvard University, US, 1978 DSc, Rockefeller University, US, 1980 DSc, Clarkson College of Technology, US, 1981 DSc, SUNY at Farmingdale, US, 1983 MD, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1986 DSc, Rutgers University, US, 1988 DSc, Bard College, US, 1991 DSc, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1993 DSc, Fairfield University, US, 1993 DSc, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1993 DrHC, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, 1998 ScD, University of Dublin, Ireland, 2001[135]

Professional and honorary affiliations[edit]

American Academy of Arts and Sciences American Association for Cancer
Research American Philosophical Society American Society of Biological Chemists Member of the Athenaeum Club, London Cambridge University (Honorary Fellow, Clare College, Cambridge)[1] Danish Academy of Arts and Sciences National Academy of Sciences Oxford University (Newton-Abraham Visiting Professor) Membership of the European Molecular Biology Organization in 1985[3] Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(ForMemRS) in 1981[2] Russian Academy of Sciences International Academy of Science, Munich

See also[edit]

Nucleic acid
Nucleic acid
double helix Whole genome sequencing History of molecular biology History of RNA biology List of RNA biologists Predictive medicine Behavioral genetics


^ a b c WATSON, Prof. James Dewey. ukwhoswho.com. Who's Who. 2015 (online Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc.  (subscription required) ^ a b c d Anon (1981). "Dr James Watson
James Watson
ForMemRS". royalsociety.org. London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015.  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where:

“All text published under the heading 'Biography' on Fellow profile pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.” --" Royal Society
Royal Society
Terms, conditions and policies". Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved March 9, 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

^ a b c Anon (1985). " James Watson
James Watson
EMBO profile". people.embo.org. Heidelberg: European Molecular Biology Organization.  ^ "Copley Medal". Royal Society
Royal Society
website. The Royal Society. Retrieved April 19, 2013.  ^ a b Capecchi, Mario (1967). On the Mechanism of Suppression and Polypeptide Chain Initiation (PhD thesis). Harvard University.  ^ a b Steitz, J (2011). "Joan Steitz: RNA is a many-splendored thing. Interview by Caitlin Sedwick". The Journal of Cell Biology. 192 (5): 708–9. doi:10.1083/jcb.1925pi. PMC 3051824 . PMID 21383073.  ^ a b Hopkin, Karen (June 2005). "Bring Me Your Genomes: The Ewan Birney Story". The Scientist. 19 (11): 60.  ^ a b Anon (1993). " Richard J. Roberts
Richard J. Roberts
- Biographical". nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016.  ^ a b Ferry, Georgina (2014). EMBO in perspective: a half-century in the life sciences (PDF). Heidelberg: European Molecular Biology Organization. p. 145. ISBN 978-3-00-046271-9. OCLC 892947326. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 24, 2016.  ^ a b Ferry, Georgina (2014). "History: Fifty years of EMBO". Nature. London. 511 (7508): 150–151. doi:10.1038/511150a.  ^ "He may have unravelled DNA, but James Watson
James Watson
deserves to be shunned". December 1, 2014 – via The Guardian.  ^ "Fury at DNA
pioneer's theory: Africans are less intelligent than". October 17, 2007.  ^ Crawford, Hayley. "Short Sharp Science: James Watson
James Watson
menaced by hoodies shouting 'racist!'". New Scientist. Retrieved April 24, 2014. ... he was "inherently gloomy about the prospect of Africa" because "all our social policies are based on the fact that their intelligence is the same as ours, whereas all the testing says not really".  ^ Watson, James D. (2012). Witkowski, Jan; Gann, Alexander, eds. The annotated and illustrated double helix (1st Simon & Schuster hardcover ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-476715-49-0.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "James Watson, The Nobel Prize in Physiology
or Medicine 1962". NobelPrize.org. 1964. Retrieved June 12, 2013.  ^ "James Dewey WATSON Nobel Laureate
Pedigree Tree". ancestortree.net. 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2013.  ^ Randerson, James (October 25, 2007). "Watson retires". London: The Guardian. Retrieved December 12, 2007.  ^ Watson, J. D. (2003). Genes, Girls, and Gamow: After the Double Helix. New York: Vintage. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-375-72715-3. OCLC 51338952.  ^ a b "Discover Dialogue: Geneticist James Watson". Discover. July 2003. The luckiest thing that ever happened to me was that my father didn't believe in God  ^ Cullen, Katherine E. (2006). Biology: the people behind the science. New York: Chelsea House. p. 133. ISBN 0-8160-5461-4.  ^ Watson, James. " James Watson
James Watson
(Oral History)". Web of Stories. Retrieved December 5, 2013.  ^ a b c d Cullen, Katherine E. (2006). Biology: the people behind the science. New York: Chelsea House. ISBN 0-8160-5461-4.  ^ Samuels, Rich. "The Quiz Kids". Broadcasting in Chicago, 1921-1989. Retrieved November 20, 2007.  ^ a b "Nobel laureate, Chicago
native James Watson
James Watson
to receive University of Chicago. Alumni Medal June 2". The University of Chicago
News Office. June 1, 2007. Retrieved November 20, 2007.  ^ Friedberg, Errol C. (2005). The Writing Life of James D. Watson. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Press. ISBN 978-0-87969-700-6.  Reviewed by Lewis Wolpert, Nature, (2005) 433:686-687. ^ a b c Schwartz, James (2008). In pursuit of the gene : from Darwin to DNA. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University
Harvard University
Press.  ^ a b Watson, James (1951). The Biological Properties of X-Ray Inactivated Bacteriophage
(PhD thesis). Indiana University.  ^ Watson, James D.; Berry, Andrew (2003). DNA : the secret of life (1st ed.). New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0375415463. Archived from the original on 2008-11-21.  ^ Watson, James D. (2012). " James D. Watson
James D. Watson
Chancellor Emeritus". Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Archived from the original on December 11, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2013.  ^ Putnum, Frank W. (1994). Biographical Memoirs – Felix Haurowitz (volume 64 ed.). Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. pp. 134–163. ISBN 0-309-06978-5. Among [Haurowitz's] students was Jim Watson, then a graduate student of Luria.  ^ Stewart, Ian (2011). "The structure of DNA". The Mathematics of Life. Basic Books. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-465-02238-0.  ^ Watson, J.D. (1950). "The properties of x-ray inactivated bacteriophage. I. Inactivation by direct effect". Journal of Bacteriology. 60 (6): 697–718. PMC 385941 . PMID 14824063. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c McElheny, Victor K. (2004). Watson and DNA: Making a Scientific Revolution. Basic Books. p. 28. ISBN 0-7382-0866-3.  ^ Putnam, F. W. (1993). "Growing up in the golden age of protein chemistry". Protein
Science. 2 (9): 1536–1542. doi:10.1002/pro.5560020919. PMC 2142464 . PMID 8401238.  ^ Maaløe, O.; Watson, J. D. (1951). "The Transfer of Radioactive Phosphorus from Parental to Progeny Phage". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
United States
of America. 37 (8): 507–513. Bibcode:1951PNAS...37..507M. doi:10.1073/pnas.37.8.507. PMC 1063410 . PMID 16578386.  ^ Judson, Horace Freeland (1979). "2". The eighth day of creation : makers of the revolution in biology (1st Touchstone ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-671-22540-5.  ^ "PDS SSO". Retrieved June 29, 2015.  ^ Holmes, K. C. (2001). "John Cowdery Kendrew". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 47: 311–332. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2001.0018. PMID 15124647.  ^ "Il Mattino - Il Mattino". ilmattino.it.  ^ a b c "James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Rosalind Franklin". Science History Institute. Retrieved 20 March 2018.  ^ Phillips, D. (1979). "William Lawrence Bragg. 31 March 1890-1 July 1971". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 25: 74–143. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1979.0003. JSTOR 769842.  ^ a b Watson, J.D.; Crick, F.H. (1953). "A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acids" (PDF). Nature. 171 (4356): 737–738. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..737W. doi:10.1038/171737a0. PMID 13054692.  ^ Olby, Robert (2009). "10". Francis Crick : hunter of life's secrets. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-87969-798-3.  ^ Judson, H.F. (October 20, 2003). "No Nobel Prize for Whining". New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2007.  ^ Watson, James. "Nobel Lecture December 11, 1962 The Involvement of RNA in the Synthesis of Proteins". 11 December 1962. Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media. Retrieved December 5, 2013.  ^ Rutherford, Adam (April 24, 2013). " DNA
double helix: discovery that led to 60 years of biological revolution". The Guardian. Retrieved December 6, 2013.  ^ a b "The DNA
molecule is shaped like a twisted ladder". DNA
from the beginning. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Retrieved December 6, 2013.  ^ Abir-Am, Pnina Geraldine. "Watson's World". American Scientist. Retrieved December 6, 2013.  ^ Watson, J. D. (1965). Molecular biology
Molecular biology
of the gene. New York: W. A. Benjamin.  ^ Watson, J. D. (1968). The double helix: a personal account of the discovery of the structure of DNA. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.  ^ "100 Best Nonfiction: The Board's List". Modern Library. Retrieved December 6, 2013.  ^ Watson's 1968 autobiographical account, The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. For an edition which contains critical responses, book reviews, and copies of the original scientific papers, see James D. Watson, The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, Norton Critical Edition, Gunther Stent, ed. (New York: Norton, 1980). ^ O'Sullivan, Gerald (September 8, 2010). "Honorary Doctorate awarded to Nobel Laureate: Text of the Introductory Address". University College, Cork, Ireland. Archived from the original on February 6, 2015. Retrieved December 5, 2013.  ^ a b c "Dr. James D. Watson
James D. Watson
Retires as Chancellor of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory" (Press release). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. October 25, 2007. Retrieved August 31, 2011.  ^ Milmo, Cahal (October 17, 2013). "Fury at DNA
pioneer's theory: Africans are less intelligent than Westerners". The Independent. London. Retrieved July 9, 2013.  ^ Peck, Sally (October 17, 2007). " James Watson
James Watson
suspended over racism claims". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved December 5, 2013.  ^ "Announcement by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory". New York Times. October 25, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2013.  ^ Controversial DNA
Scientist James Watson
James Watson
Retires © 2007 Associated Press/AP Online. © 2007 Sci-Tech Today. October 25, 2007 11:29 am ^ "National Human Genome Research Institute - Organization - The NIH Almanac - National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH)". Retrieved June 29, 2015.  ^ Pollack, R.. 1994. Signs of Life: The Language and Meanings of DNA. Houghton Mifflin Company, p. 95. ISBN 0-395-73530-0. ^ Genome of DNA
Discoverer Is Deciphered NYT, June 1, 2007. ^ James Watson
James Watson
genotypes, on NCBI B36 assembly Archived July 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Wheeler, D. A.; Srinivasan, M.; Egholm, M.; Shen, Y.; Chen, L.; McGuire, A.; He, W.; Chen, Y. J.; Makhijani, V.; Roth, G. T.; Gomes, X.; Tartaro, K.; Niazi, F.; Turcotte, C. L.; Irzyk, G. P.; Lupski, J. R.; Chinault, C.; Song, X.-Z.; Liu, Y.; Yuan, Y.; Nazareth, L.; Qin, X.; Muzny, D. M.; Margulies, M.; Weinstock, G. M.; Gibbs, R. A.; Rothberg, J. M. (2008). "The complete genome of an individual by massively parallel DNA
sequencing". Nature. 452 (7189): 872–876. Bibcode:2008Natur.452..872W. doi:10.1038/nature06884. PMID 18421352.  ^ Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, June 28, 2003. Watson Genotype Viewer Now On Line Archived December 5, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Press release. Retrieved on September 16, 2007. ^ James Watson's Personal Genome Sequence ^ Watson's personal DNA
sequence archive at the National Institutes of Health ^ Ian Sample. " DNA
pioneer James Watson
James Watson
sets out radical theory for range of diseases". the Guardian. Retrieved June 29, 2015.  ^ Molenaar, RJ; van Noorden, CJ (September 6, 2014). "Type 2 diabetes and cancer as redox diseases?". Lancet. 384 (9946): 853. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61485-9. PMID 25209484.  ^ "Management Team". UBI. Retrieved August 5, 2011.  ^ Teresa Firmino (March 20, 2007). "Nobel James Watson
James Watson
vai presidir ao conselho científico da Fundação Champalimaud" (in Portuguese). Público. Archived from the original on March 24, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2007.  ^ Graeme, Chris (December 31, 2010). "Cutting-edge cancer research centre opens in Lisbon". Algarve Resident. Archived from the original on December 12, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2013.  ^ Herper, Matthew (October 8, 2013). "Inside Paul Allen's Quest To Reverse Engineer The Brain". Forbes. Retrieved December 6, 2013.  ^ Costandi, Mo. "Researchers announce completion of the Allen Brain Atlas". Retrieved December 6, 2013.  ^ "Faculty Support Grows For Anti-War Proposal", The Harvard Crimson, October 3, 1969. November 4, 2007. ^ "Three Harvard Scientists Lead Call to Stop Nuclear Reactors", The Harvard Crimson, August 5, 1975. November 4, 2007. ^ John H. Richardson. " James Watson
James Watson
- Discovery of DNA structure
DNA structure
- James Watson
James Watson
on the Double Helix". Esquire. Retrieved June 29, 2015.  ^ Judson, H.F. 1996. The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Press, chapter 3. ISBN 0-87969-478-5. ^ Cullen, Katherine E. (2006). Biology: the people behind the science. New York: Chelsea House. p. 136. ISBN 0-8160-5461-4.  ^ Cullen, Katherine E. (2006). Biology: the people behind the science. New York: Chelsea House. p. 140. ISBN 0-8160-5461-4.  ^ Stocklmayer, Susan M.; Gore, Michael M.; Brtyant, Chris (2001). Science Communication in Theory and Practice. Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 79. ISBN 1-4020-0131-2.  ^ Elkin, L.O. (2003). "Franklin and the Double Helix". Physics Today. 56 (3): 42. doi:10.1063/1.1570771.  ^ Wilkins, M.H.F.; Stokes, A.R.; Wilson, H.R. (1953). "Molecular Structure of Deoxypentose Nucleic Acids" (PDF). Nature. 171 (4356): 738–740. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..738W. doi:10.1038/171738a0. PMID 13054693.  ^ Franklin, R.; Gosling, R.G. (1953). "Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate" (PDF). Nature. 171 (4356): 740–741. Bibcode:1953Natur.171..740F. doi:10.1038/171740a0. PMID 13054694.  ^ Macdonald, V. "Abort babies with gay genes, says Nobel winner", The Telegraph, February 16, 1997. Retrieved on October 24, 2007. ^ Dawkins, Richard (February 19, 1997). "Letter: Women to decide on gay abortion". London: The Independent. Retrieved October 24, 2007.  ^ a b Abate, T. "Nobel Winner's Theories Raise Uproar in Berkeley Geneticist's views strike many as racist, sexist", San Francisco Chronicle, November 13, 2000. Retrieved on October 24, 2007. ^ Thompson, C.; Berger, A. (2000). "Agent provocateur pursues happiness". British Medical Journal. 321 (7252): 12. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7252.12. PMC 1127681 . PMID 10875824.  ^ "UK Museum Cancels Scientist's Lecture". ABC News. October 17, 2007. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2008.  ^ a b Bhattacharya, S. "Stupidity should be cured, says DNA discoverer", New Scientist News Service, February 28, 2003. Retrieved June 24, 2007. ^ a b Williams, Susan P. (November 8, 2007). "The Foot-in-Mouth Gene". The Washington Post.  ^ Shreeve. J. 2005. The Genome War: How Craig Venter
Craig Venter
Tried to Capture the Code of Life and Save the World. Ballantine Books, p. 48. ISBN 0-345-43374-2. ^ "Chairman of the Bored", Steven Shapin, Harvard Magazine, January–February 2008 ^ Charlie Rose Interview, paired with E. O. Wilson
E. O. Wilson
Archived October 18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. December 14, 2005 ^ Hunt-Grubbe, Charlotte (October 14, 2007). "The elementary DNA
of Dr Watson". The Times. London.  ^ a b "Gelf Magazine James Watson's Disastrous Interview". Retrieved June 29, 2015.  ^ "Museum drops race row scientist", BBC, October 18, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007. ^ "Race remarks get Nobel winner in trouble", MSNBC and AP, October 18, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2007. ^ Syal, R. "Nobel scientist who sparked race row says sorry - I didn't mean it", Times Online, October 19, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007. ^ "Watson Returns to USA after race row", International Herald Tribune, October 19, 2007. Retrieved on November 10, 2007 ^ Watson, James (September–October 2007). ""Blinded by Science". An exclusive excerpt from Watson's new memoir, Avoid Boring People: Lessons from a Life in Science". 02138 Magazine: 102. Archived from the original on October 24, 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2007. As we find the human genes whose malfunctioning gives rise to such devastating developmental failures, we may well discover that sequence differences within many of them also lead to much of the observable variation in human IQs. A priori, there is no firm reason to anticipate that the intellectual capacities of peoples geographically separated in their evolution should prove to have evolved identically. Our desire to reserve equal powers of reason as some universal heritage of humanity will not be enough to make it so.  ^ Jerry A. Coyne, "The complex James Watson", Times Literary Supplement, December 12, 2007 ^ "Interview with James Watson: 'How to Avoid Boring People: Lessons from a Life in Science'", The Science Network ^ Watson, J.D. "James Watson: To question genetic intelligence is not racism", Independent, October 19, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007 ^ van Marsh, A. "Nobel-winning biologist apologizes for remarks about blacks", CNN, October 19, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007. ^ Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. October 18, 2007. Statement by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Board of Trustees and President Bruce Stillman, PhD Regarding Dr. Watson’s Comments in The Sunday Times on October 14, 2007. Press release. Retrieved October 24, 2007. Archived September 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Wigglesworth, K. DNA
pioneer quits after race comments, L.A. Times, October 26, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2007 ^ "Nobel prize-winning biologist resigns.", CNN, October 25, 2007. Retrieved on October 25, 2007. ^ " DNA
Pioneer Watson Resigns Amid Cloud of Scandal" by Malcolm Ritter AP 10/25/07 11:29 am PhT ^ Watson, J.Statement by James D. Watson
James D. Watson
"Retirement", New York Times, October 25, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2007. ^ " Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
James D. Watson". cshl.edu. 2013. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2013.  ^ WebServices. "CSHLHistory - About Us". Retrieved June 29, 2015.  ^ a b DNA
father James Watson's 'holy grail' request May 10, 2009 ^ Video: BBC 2 Horizon: The President's Guide to Science Archived May 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., September 16, 2008, see 28:00 to 34:00 mark ^ " Watson's folly", Nature, October 24, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2008. ^ Rushton, J. Phillipe; Jensen, Arthur R. (November 2008). "James Watson's most inconvenient truth: Race realism and the moralistic fallacy". Medical Hypotheses. Elsevier. 71 (5): 629–640. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2008.05.031. PMID 18656315. Retrieved November 12, 2008.  ^ Crow, David (November 28, 2014). " James Watson
James Watson
to sell Nobel Prize medal". Financial Times. Retrieved December 1, 2014. 'Because I was an "unperson" I was fired from the boards of companies, so I have no income, apart from my academic income,' he said.  ^ Jones, Bryony (November 26, 2014). " DNA
pioneer James Watson
James Watson
to sell Nobel Prize". CNN International World News. CNN. Retrieved November 30, 2014. Watson says he intends to use part of the money raised by the sale to fund projects at the universities and scientific research institutions he has worked at throughout his career.  ^ "[WATSON, JAMES DEWEY]. NOBEL PRIZE MEDAL". Christies.  ^ " James Watson
James Watson
selling Nobel prize 'because no-one wants to admit I exist'". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-08-21.  ^ Borrell, Brendan (December 5, 2014). " DNA
James Watson's Nobel Medal Sells for $4.1M". Scientific American.  ^ "Russia's Usmanov to give back Watson's auctioned Nobel medal". BBC News. December 9, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.  ^ Kitcher, Philip (1996). The Lives to Come: The Genetic Revolution and Human Possibilities.  ^ "Notable Signers". Humanism and Its Aspirations. American Humanist Association. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2012.  ^ The Lasker Foundation.1960 Winners Archived July 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on November 4, 2007. ^ "Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences Recipients". American Philosophical Society. Retrieved November 27, 2011.  ^ The Hastings Center
Hastings Center
Hastings Center
Hastings Center
Fellows. Accessed November 6, 2010 ^ Nobility News: Honorary Knights 2007 ^ O'Dowd, Niall. "He Helped Map the Structure of DNA. Up Next is a Cure For Cancer", Irish America magazine, March 10, 2011. Accessed March 22, 2011. " James Watson
James Watson
helped unravel the structure of DNA, a feat so stunning that it is considered the greatest scientific achievement of the 20th century. " ^ "John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science". National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on December 29, 2010. Retrieved February 15, 2011.  ^ National Constitution Center.2000 Liberty Medal
Liberty Medal
Recipients. Retrieved on November 4, 2007. ^ The National Science Foundation.The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details. February 14, 2006. Retrieved on November 4, 2007. ^ "Othmer Gold Medal". Science History Institute. Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ " James D. Watson
James D. Watson
to receive 2005 Othmer Gold Medal". Psych Central. February 23, 2005. Archived from the original on February 6, 2015. Retrieved June 12, 2014.  ^ Presidential Medal of Freedom, 2007. Retrieved on November 4, 2007. ^ "University of Dublin, Trinity College". 

Further reading[edit]

Chadarevian, S. (2002) Designs For Life: Molecular Biology After World War II. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-57078-6 Chargaff, E. (1978) Heraclitean Fire. New York: Rockefeller Press. Chomet, S., ed., (1994) D.N.A.: Genesis of a Discovery London: Newman-Hemisphere Press. Collins, Francis. (2004) Coming to Peace With Science: Bridging the Worlds Between Faith and Biology. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0-8308-2742-8 Collins, Francis. (2007) The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief Free Press. ISBN 978-1-4165-4274-2 Crick, F.H.C. (1988) What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery (Basic Books reprint edition, 1990) ISBN 0-465-09138-5 John Finch; 'A Nobel Fellow On Every Floor', Medical Research Council 2008, 381 pp, ISBN 978-1-84046-940-0; this book is all about the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge. Friedberg, E.C.; "Sydney Brenner: A Biography", CSHL Press October 2010, ISBN 0-87969-947-7. Friedburg, E. C. (2005) "The Writing Life of James D. Watson". "Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press" ISBN 0-87969-700-8 Hunter, G. (2004) Light Is A Messenger: the life and science of William Lawrence Bragg. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-852921-X Inglis, J., Sambrook, J. & Witkowski, J. A. (eds.) Inspiring Science: Jim Watson and the Age of DNA. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-87969-698-6. Judson, H. F. (1996). The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology, Expanded edition. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 0-87969-478-5 Maddox, B. (2003). Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-098508-9 McEleheny, Victor K. (2003) Watson and DNA: Making a scientific revolution, Perseus. ISBN 0-7382-0341-6 Robert Olby; 1974) The Path to The Double Helix: Discovery of DNA. London: MacMillan. ISBN 0-486-68117-3; Definitive DNA
textbook, with foreword by Francis Crick, revised in 1994 with a 9-page postscript. Robert Olby; (2003) "Quiet debut for the double helix" Nature 421 (January 23): 402-405. Robert Olby; "Francis Crick: Hunter of Life's Secrets", Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, ISBN 978-0-87969-798-3, August 2009. Ridley, M. (2006) Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code (Eminent Lives) New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-082333-X. James D. Watson, "The Annotated and Illustrated Double Helix, edited by Alexander Gann and Jan Witkowski" (2012) Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-1-4767-1549-0. Wilkins, M. (2003) The Third Man of the Double Helix: The Autobiography of Maurice Wilkins. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860665-6. The History of the University of Cambridge: Volume 4 (1870 to 1990), Cambridge University Press, 1992.

External links[edit]

Find more aboutJames D. Watsonat's sister projects

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James D. Watson
James D. Watson
Collection at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Library DNA
The Double Helix
The Double Helix
Game from Nobelprize.org MSN Encarta biography (Archived 2009-10-31) DNA
Interactive – This site from the Dolan DNA
Learning Center (part of CSHL) commemorates the discovery of the structure of DNA
and includes dozens of animations, as well as interviews with James Watson and others. DNA
from the Beginning – another DNA
Learning Center site on the basics of DNA, genes, and heredity, from Mendel to the Human Genome Project. Appearances on C-SPAN James Watson
James Watson
on Charlie Rose James Watson
James Watson
at TED James Watson
James Watson
on IMDb Works by or about James Watson
James Watson
in libraries ( WorldCat
catalog) " James Watson
James Watson
collected news and commentary". The New York Times. 

A Revolution at 50, February 25, 2003

Articles and interviews

BBC Four Interviews – Watson and Crick speaking on the BBC in 1962, 1972, and 1974. NPR Science Friday: "A Conversation with Genetics
Pioneer James Watson" – Ira Flatow interviews Watson on the history of DNA
and his recent book A Passion for DNA: Genes, Genomes, and Society. 2002-06-02 NPR Science Friday "DNA: The Secret of Life" – Ira Flatow interviews Watson on his new book. 2003-05-02 Discover "Reversing Bad Truths" – David Duncan interviews Watson. 2003-07-01 Two remembrances of James Watson
James Watson
by one of the founders of molecular genetics, Esther Lederberg, can be found at http://www.estherlederberg.com/Anecdotes.html#WATSON1 and http://www.estherlederberg.com/Anecdotes.html#WATSON2 James Watson
James Watson
telling his life story at Web of Stories

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Physiology
or Medicine


1901 Emil Behring 1902 Ronald Ross 1903 Niels Finsen 1904 Ivan Pavlov 1905 Robert Koch 1906 Camillo Golgi
Camillo Golgi
/ Santiago Ramón y Cajal 1907 Alphonse Laveran 1908 Élie Metchnikoff
Élie Metchnikoff
/ Paul Ehrlich 1909 Emil Kocher 1910 Albrecht Kossel 1911 Allvar Gullstrand 1912 Alexis Carrel 1913 Charles Richet 1914 Róbert Bárány 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 Jules Bordet 1920 August Krogh 1921 1922 Archibald Hill
Archibald Hill
/ Otto Meyerhof 1923 Frederick Banting
Frederick Banting
/ John Macleod 1924 Willem Einthoven 1925


1926 Johannes Fibiger 1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg 1928 Charles Nicolle 1929 Christiaan Eijkman
Christiaan Eijkman
/ Frederick Gowland Hopkins 1930 Karl Landsteiner 1931 Otto Warburg 1932 Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Scott Sherrington
/ Edgar Adrian 1933 Thomas Morgan 1934 George Whipple
George Whipple
/ George Minot
George Minot
/ William Murphy 1935 Hans Spemann 1936 Henry Dale / Otto Loewi 1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi 1938 Corneille Heymans 1939 Gerhard Domagk 1940 1941 1942 1943 Henrik Dam
Henrik Dam
/ Edward Doisy 1944 Joseph Erlanger
Joseph Erlanger
/ Herbert Gasser 1945 Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
/ Ernst Chain
Ernst Chain
/ Howard Florey 1946 Hermann Muller 1947 Carl Cori / Gerty Cori
Gerty Cori
/ Bernardo Houssay 1948 Paul Müller 1949 Walter Hess / António Egas Moniz 1950 Edward Kendall / Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
/ Philip Hench


1951 Max Theiler 1952 Selman Waksman 1953 Hans Krebs / Fritz Lipmann 1954 John Enders / Thomas Weller / Frederick Robbins 1955 Hugo Theorell 1956 André Cournand / Werner Forssmann
Werner Forssmann
/ Dickinson W. Richards 1957 Daniel Bovet 1958 George Beadle / Edward Tatum
Edward Tatum
/ Joshua Lederberg 1959 Severo Ochoa
Severo Ochoa
/ Arthur Kornberg 1960 Frank Burnet / Peter Medawar 1961 Georg von Békésy 1962 Francis Crick
Francis Crick
/ James Watson
James Watson
/ Maurice Wilkins 1963 John Eccles / Alan Hodgkin / Andrew Huxley 1964 Konrad Bloch / Feodor Lynen 1965 François Jacob
François Jacob
/ André Lwoff / Jacques Monod 1966 Francis Rous / Charles B. Huggins 1967 Ragnar Granit
Ragnar Granit
/ Haldan Hartline / George Wald 1968 Robert W. Holley
Robert W. Holley
/ Har Khorana / Marshall Nirenberg 1969 Max Delbrück
Max Delbrück
/ Alfred Hershey
Alfred Hershey
/ Salvador Luria 1970 Bernard Katz / Ulf von Euler
Ulf von Euler
/ Julius Axelrod 1971 Earl Sutherland Jr. 1972 Gerald Edelman
Gerald Edelman
/ Rodney Porter 1973 Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
/ Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
/ Nikolaas Tinbergen 1974 Albert Claude
Albert Claude
/ Christian de Duve
Christian de Duve
/ George Palade 1975 David Baltimore
David Baltimore
/ Renato Dulbecco
Renato Dulbecco
/ Howard Temin


1976 Baruch Blumberg / Daniel Gajdusek 1977 Roger Guillemin / Andrew Schally
Andrew Schally
/ Rosalyn Yalow 1978 Werner Arber
Werner Arber
/ Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans
/ Hamilton O. Smith 1979 Allan Cormack / Godfrey Hounsfield 1980 Baruj Benacerraf / Jean Dausset
Jean Dausset
/ George Snell 1981 Roger Sperry / David H. Hubel
David H. Hubel
/ Torsten Wiesel 1982 Sune Bergström
Sune Bergström
/ Bengt I. Samuelsson / John Vane 1983 Barbara McClintock 1984 Niels Jerne / Georges Köhler / César Milstein 1985 Michael Brown / Joseph L. Goldstein 1986 Stanley Cohen / Rita Levi-Montalcini 1987 Susumu Tonegawa 1988 James W. Black / Gertrude B. Elion
Gertrude B. Elion
/ George H. Hitchings 1989 J. Michael Bishop
J. Michael Bishop
/ Harold E. Varmus 1990 Joseph Murray
Joseph Murray
/ E. Donnall Thomas 1991 Erwin Neher
Erwin Neher
/ Bert Sakmann 1992 Edmond Fischer / Edwin G. Krebs 1993 Richard J. Roberts
Richard J. Roberts
/ Phillip Sharp 1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Alfred G. Gilman
/ Martin Rodbell 1995 Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis
/ Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
/ Eric F. Wieschaus 1996 Peter C. Doherty
Peter C. Doherty
/ Rolf M. Zinkernagel 1997 Stanley B. Prusiner 1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Robert F. Furchgott
/ Louis Ignarro
Louis Ignarro
/ Ferid Murad 1999 Günter Blobel 2000 Arvid Carlsson
Arvid Carlsson
/ Paul Greengard
Paul Greengard
/ Eric Kandel


2001 Leland H. Hartwell / Tim Hunt
Tim Hunt
/ Paul Nurse 2002 Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
/ H. Robert Horvitz / John E. Sulston 2003 Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
/ Peter Mansfield 2004 Richard Axel
Richard Axel
/ Linda B. Buck 2005 Barry Marshall
Barry Marshall
/ Robin Warren 2006 Andrew Fire / Craig Mello 2007 Mario Capecchi
Mario Capecchi
/ Martin Evans
Martin Evans
/ Oliver Smithies 2008 Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
/ Luc Montagnier
Luc Montagnier
/ Françoise Barré-Sinoussi 2009 Elizabeth Blackburn
Elizabeth Blackburn
/ Carol W. Greider
Carol W. Greider
/ Jack W. Szostak 2010 Robert G. Edwards 2011 Bruce Beutler
Bruce Beutler
/ Jules A. Hoffmann / Ralph M. Steinman (posthumously) 2012 John B. Gurdon
John B. Gurdon
/ Shinya Yamanaka 2013 James Rothman
James Rothman
/ Randy Schekman
Randy Schekman
/ Thomas C. Südhof 2014 John O'Keefe / May-Britt Moser
May-Britt Moser
/ Edvard Moser 2015 William C. Campbell / Satoshi Ōmura
Satoshi Ōmura
/ Tu Youyou 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi 2017 Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young

v t e

United States
United States
National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science

Behavioral and social science


1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller


1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman


1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow


2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin


2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences


1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr


1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss


1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood


1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis


2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene
E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner


2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin



1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell


1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon


2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox


2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences


1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby


1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo


1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier


1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens


2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv


2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences


1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller


1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth


1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer


1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman


2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford


2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences


1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky


1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf


1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel


1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff


2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington


2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

v t e

Copley Medallists (1951–2000)

David Keilin
David Keilin
(1951) Paul Dirac
Paul Dirac
(1952) Albert Kluyver
Albert Kluyver
(1953) E. T. Whittaker
E. T. Whittaker
(1954) Ronald Fisher
Ronald Fisher
(1955) Patrick Blackett (1956) Howard Florey
Howard Florey
(1957) John Edensor Littlewood (1958) Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Frank Macfarlane Burnet
(1959) Harold Jeffreys
Harold Jeffreys
(1960) Hans Adolf Krebs
Hans Adolf Krebs
(1961) Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood
(1962) Paul Fildes
Paul Fildes
(1963) Sydney Chapman (1964) Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
(1965) Lawrence Bragg
Lawrence Bragg
(1966) Bernard Katz (1967) Tadeusz Reichstein
Tadeusz Reichstein
(1968) Peter Medawar
Peter Medawar
(1969) Alexander R. Todd
Alexander R. Todd
(1970) Norman Pirie (1971) Nevill Francis Mott (1972) Andrew Huxley
Andrew Huxley
(1973) W. V. D. Hodge
W. V. D. Hodge
(1974) Francis Crick
Francis Crick
(1975) Dorothy Hodgkin
Dorothy Hodgkin
(1976) Frederick Sanger
Frederick Sanger
(1977) Robert Burns Woodward
Robert Burns Woodward
(1978) Max Perutz
Max Perutz
(1979) Derek Barton (1980) Peter D. Mitchell
Peter D. Mitchell
(1981) John Cornforth
John Cornforth
(1982) Rodney Robert Porter
Rodney Robert Porter
(1983) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
(1984) Aaron Klug
Aaron Klug
(1985) Rudolf Peierls
Rudolf Peierls
(1986) Robin Hill (1987) Michael Atiyah
Michael Atiyah
(1988) César Milstein
César Milstein
(1989) Abdus Salam
Abdus Salam
(1990) Sydney Brenner
Sydney Brenner
(1991) George Porter
George Porter
(1992) James D. Watson
James D. Watson
(1993) Frederick Charles Frank
Frederick Charles Frank
(1994) Frank Fenner (1995) Alan Cottrell
Alan Cottrell
(1996) Hugh Huxley (1997) James Lighthill
James Lighthill
(1998) John Maynard Smith
John Maynard Smith
(1999) Alan Battersby (2000)

v t e

Eli Lilly Award in Biological Chemistry

William M. Allen (1935) Harold S. Alcott (1937) Abraham White (1938) George Wald
George Wald
(1939) Eric G. Ball (1940) David Rittenberg (1941) Earl A. Evans, Jr. (1942) Herbert E. Carter (1943) Joseph S. Fruton (1944) Max A. Lauffer (1945) John D. Ferry (1946) Sidney Colowick (1947) Dilworth Woodley (1948) Irving M. Klotz (1949) William Shive (1950) John M. Buchanan (1951) David M. Bonner (1952) Nathan O. Kaplan (1953) Harvey Itano
Harvey Itano
(1954) William F. Neuman (1955) Robert A. Alberty (1956) Harold A. Scheraga (1957) Lester J. Reed (1958) Paul Berg
Paul Berg
(1959) James Watson
James Watson
(1960) Frederick Crane (1961) Jerard Hurwitz (1962) William P. Jencks (1963) Bruce Ames (1964) Gerald M. Edelman (1965) Phillips W. Robbins (1966) Gordon G. Hammes (1967) Charles C. Richardson (1968) Mario R. Capecchi
Mario R. Capecchi
(1969) Lubert Stryer
Lubert Stryer
(1970) David F. Wilson (1971) Bruce M. Alberts (1972) C. Fred Fox (1973) James E. Dahlberg (1974) Mark Ptashne
Mark Ptashne
(1975) Joan A. Steitz (1976) Robert G. Roeder (1977) Charles R. Cantor (1978) Christopher T. Walsh (1979) Phillip A. Sharp
Phillip A. Sharp
(1980) Roger D. Kornberg
Roger D. Kornberg
(1981) Harold M. Weintraub (1982) Richard Axel
Richard Axel
(1983) David V. Goeddel (1984) Gerald M. Rubin
Gerald M. Rubin
(1985) James E. Rothman (1986) Jacqueline K. Barton
Jacqueline K. Barton
(1987) Peter Walter
Peter Walter
(1988) Michael M. Cox (1989) George L. McLendon (1990) Peter G. Schultz (1991) William DeGrado (1992) Stuart L. Schreiber (1993) Peter S. Kim
Peter S. Kim
(1994) Jeremy M. Berg
Jeremy M. Berg
(1995) Gregory L. Verdine (1996) Alanna Schepartz (1997) John Kuriyan
John Kuriyan
(1998) Chaitan Khosla (1999) Xiaodong Wang (2000) Jennifer Doudna
Jennifer Doudna
(2001) Kevan M. Shokat (2002) Andreas Matouschek (2003) Benjamin Cravatt III (2004) Dewey G. McCafferty (2005) Linda Hsieh-Wilson (2006) Anna K. Mapp (2007) Paul J. Hergenrother (2008) Scott K. Silverman (2009) Alice Y. Ting (2010) Nathanael Gray (2011) Christopher J. Chang (2012) Matthew D. Disney (2013) Yi Tang (2014) Minkui Luo (2015) Elizabeth Nolan (2016) Howard Hang (2017) Bradley Pentelute (2018)

v t e

History of biology

Fields, disciplines

Agricultural science Anatomy Biochemistry Biotechnology Botany Ecology Evolutionary thought Genetics Geology Immunology Medicine Model organisms Molecular biology Molecular evolution Paleontology Phycology Plant systematics RNA biology Zoology
(since 1859) Zoology
(through 1859)


Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Laboratory of Molecular Biology Marine Biological Laboratory Max Planck Society Pasteur Institute Rockefeller University Rothamsted Experimental Station Stazione Zoologica Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute

Theories, concepts

Germ theory of disease Central dogma of molecular biology Darwinism Great chain of being Hierarchy of life Lamarckism One gene–one enzyme hypothesis Protocell RNA world hypothesis Sequence hypothesis Spontaneous generation


Classical antiquity


Aristotle's biology On Generation and Corruption History of Animals


Historia Plantarum


De Materia Medica


Renaissance, Early Modern

Conrad Gessner

Historia animalium

Andreas Vesalius

De humani corporis fabrica

William Harvey

De Motu Cordis

Frederik Ruysch Jan Swammerdam Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Robert Hooke


Francesco Redi


19th century


Systema Naturae


Histoire Naturelle


Philosophie Zoologique

Humboldt Charles Lyell

Principles of Geology

Charles Darwin

On the Origin of Species The Descent of Man

Gregor Mendel Alfred Russel Wallace Martinus Beijerinck Henry Walter Bates

Modern synthesis

William Bateson Theodosius Dobzhansky

and the Origin of Species

R. A. Fisher E. B. Ford J. B. S. Haldane Ernst Mayr Thomas Hunt Morgan George Gaylord Simpson Hugo de Vries Sewall Wright


Stephen Jay Gould W. D. Hamilton Lynn Margulis Aleksandr Oparin George C. Williams Carl Woese


Ferdinand Cohn Alexander Fleming Felix d'Herelle Robert Koch Louis Pasteur Lazzaro Spallanzani Sergei Winogradsky

Develop. biol., Evo-devo

Karl Ernst von Baer Gavin de Beer Sean B. Carroll Scott F. Gilbert Walter Gehring Ernst Haeckel François Jacob Edward B. Lewis Jacques Monod Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Eric Wieschaus E. B. Wilson

Genetics, Molecular biology


Griffith's (1928) Luria–Delbrück (1943) Avery–MacLeod–McCarty (1944) Miller–Urey (1952) Hershey–Chase (1952) Meselson–Stahl (1958) Crick, Brenner et al. (1961) Nirenberg–Matthaei (1961) Nirenberg–Leder (1964)


Barbara McClintock George Beadle Seymour Benzer Rosalind Franklin

Photo 51

James D. Watson
James D. Watson
and Francis Crick

"Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids"

Linus Pauling

"Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease"

Fred Sanger Max Perutz John Kendrew Sydney Brenner Joshua Lederberg Walter Gilbert Kary Mullis Emmanuelle Charpentier Jennifer Doudna


Rachel Carson Frederic Clements Charles Elton Henry Gleason Arthur Tansley Eugenius Warming


Niko Tinbergen Karl von Frisch Konrad Lorenz Frans de Waal Jane Goodall Ivan Pavlov


History of science Philosophy of biology


Ethnobotany Eugenics History of the creation-evolution controversy Human Genome Project Humboldtian science Natural history Natural philosophy Natural theology Relationship between religion and science Timeline of biology and organic chemistry

Category Commons Portal

Authority control

Identities VIAF: 90069089 LCCN: n80015458 ISNI: 0000 0001 1451 4801 GND: 118629468 SELIBR: 236763 SUDOC: 027193454 BNF: cb11928929d (data) NLA: 35675916 NDL: 00460283 NKC: jn20000720325 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV66511 BNE: XX941