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James Curtis Hepburn
James Curtis Hepburn
(March 13, 1815 – September 21, 1911) was an American physician, translator, educator, and lay Christian missionary. He is known for the Hepburn romanization
Hepburn romanization
system for transliteration of the Japanese language
Japanese language
into the Latin alphabet, which he popularized in his Japanese–English dictionary.

Contents

1 Background and early life 2 Missionary
Missionary
work in Japan 3 Later years 4 Publications 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Background and early life[edit]

Bust of James Curtis Hepburn

Hepburn was born in Milton, Pennsylvania, on March 13, 1815. He attended Princeton University, earned a master's degree, after which he attended the University of Pennsylvania, where he received his M. D. degree in 1836,[1] and became a physician. He decided to go to China
China
as a medical missionary, but had to stay in Singapore
Singapore
for two years because the Opium War
Opium War
was under way and Chinese ports were closed to foreigners. After five years as a missionary, he returned to the United States
United States
in 1845 and opened a medical practice in New York City.[2] Missionary
Missionary
work in Japan[edit] In 1859, Hepburn went to Japan
Japan
as a medical missionary with the American Presbyterian Mission.[1] After first arriving in Nagasaki
Nagasaki
in October 1859, Hepburn swiftly relocated to the newly opened treaty port of Yokohama, opening his first clinic in April 1861 at the Sokoji Temple. Initially residing at Jobutsuji in Kanagawa, a dilapidated temple formerly occupied by the Dutch consulate, Hepburn was the first Christian
Christian
missionary to take up residence close to the newly opened treaty port. Hepburn's family shared accommodation at Jobutsuji with Dutch Reformed minister Rev. Samuel Robbins Brown
Samuel Robbins Brown
and all were quickly absorbed into the local foreign community, Hepburn being appointed honorary physician to the US Consul, Townsend Harris. Hepburn's first clinic failed as the Bakumatsu
Bakumatsu
authorities, wanting the missionaries to relocate to Yokohama, put pressure on patients to stop going to it.[3] In the spring of 1862 Hepburn and his family relocated to the house and compound at Kyoryuchi No. 39, in the heart of the foreigners residential district in the treaty port of Yokohama. There, in addition to his clinic, he and his wife Clara founded the Hepburn School, which eventually developed into Meiji Gakuin University. Hepburn's Japanese pupils included Furuya Sakuzaemon, Takahashi Korekiyo, and Numa Morikazu
Numa Morikazu
(沼間守一). For his medical contributions to the city of Yokohama, Hepburn Hall was named in his honor on the campus of Yokohama City University School of Medicine. In May 1867, with the collaboration of his long-time assistant Kishida Ginkō, Hepburn published a Japanese–English dictionary which rapidly became the standard reference work for prospective students of Japanese.[4] In the dictionary's third edition,[5] published in 1886, Hepburn adopted a new system for romanization of the Japanese language developed by the Society for the Romanization
Romanization
of the Japanese Alphabet (Rōmajikai).[6] This system is widely known as the Hepburn romanization because Hepburn's dictionary popularized it. Hepburn also contributed to the translation of the Bible into Japanese. Later years[edit]

Hepburn Hall

Hepburn returned to the United States
United States
in 1892. On March 14, 1905, a day after Hepburn's 90th birthday, he was awarded the decoration of the Order of the Rising Sun, third class. Hepburn was the second foreigner to receive this honor.[7] He died on September 21, 1911, in East Orange, New Jersey, at the age of 96. Publications[edit]

Hepburn, James Curtis (1867). A Japanese and English dictionary: with an English and Japanese index. London: Trübner & Co.  (first edition) 690pp A Japanese and English dictionary: with and English and Japanese index (1867) Japanese-English and English-Japanese Dictionary
Dictionary
(1881) Hepburn, James Curtis (1888). A Japanese-English and English-Japanese Dictionary. Tokyo: Z.P. Maruya & Company.  (4th edition), 962pp (gives Japanese next to romaji) A Japanese-English and English-Japanese dictionary (1903) Hepburn, James Curtis (1905). Hepburn's Abridged Dictionary. Tokyo: Z.P. Maruya & Company.  (2nd. ed. abrdiged), 1032pp (romaji only)

See also[edit]

Biography portal United States
United States
portal Japan
Japan
portal

Sakoku List of Westerners who visited Japan
Japan
before 1868

References[edit]

^ a b "James Curtis Hepburn: H: By Person: Stories: Biographical Dictionary
Dictionary
of Chinese Christianity". www.bdcconline.net.  ^ James Curtis Hepburn
James Curtis Hepburn
at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived July 7, 2002) - famousamericans.net ^ Ion, Hamish, A. (2009). American Missionaries, Christian
Christian
oyatoi, and Japan, 1859-73. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7748-1647-2.  ^ Ion, Hamish, A. (2009). American Missionaries, Christian
Christian
oyatoi, and Japan, 1859-73. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7748-1647-2.  ^ Hepburn, James Curtis (1886). A Japanese–English and English–Japanese Dictionary
Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Tokyo: Z. P. Maruya. Retrieved 2009-07-25.  ^ "Romajikai - Wiktionary". en.Wiktionary. San Francisco, California, United States: The Wikimedia
Wikimedia
Foundation, Inc. 12 November 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017. Borrowed from Japanese ローマ字会 (ローマじかい, Rōmajikai), from ローマ字 (ローマじ, rōmaji, “romaji, romanization of Japanese”) + 会 (かい, kai, “association”).  ^ "Japanese Order for Missionary" (PDF). The New York Times. March 15, 1905. p. 13. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 

Further reading[edit]

Hepburn, James Curtis (1955). Michio Takaya, ed. The Letters of Dr. J. C. Hepburn (in English and Japanese). Tokyo: Toshin Shobo. OCLC 2590005.  Malone, Dumas, ed. (1928). Dictionary
Dictionary
of American Biography. 8. New York: Scribner's Sons. OCLC 24963109.  Ion, A. Hamish (2009). American missionaries, Christian
Christian
oyatoi, and Japan, 1859-73. Vancouver: UBC Press. OCLC 404613481. 

External links[edit]

History of Meiji Gakuin University Article on Hepburn in Princeton Alumni Weekly Hepburn Christian
Christian
Fellowship (in Japanese)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 6242432 LCCN: n80132205 ISNI: 0000 0001 2208 4776 GND: 172491924 SUDOC: 11444109X BNF: cb13313481z (data) BIBSYS: 90366390 NLA: 35275557 NDL: 00443094 CiNii: DA01467774 SN

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