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James Burrill Angell
James Burrill Angell
(January 7, 1829 – April 1, 1916) was an American educator, academic administrator, and diplomat. He is best known for being the longest-serving president of the University of Michigan (1871–1909). Under his leadership Michigan gained prominence as an elite public university. Today, he is often cited by Michigan administrators for providing the vision of Michigan as a university that should provide "an uncommon education for the common man." Angell was a graduate of and professor of languages at Brown University, editor of The Providence Journal
The Providence Journal
(1860–1866), and president of the University of Vermont
University of Vermont
(1866–1871). He served as U.S. Minister to China (1880–1881) and to Turkey
Turkey
(1897–1898). Several of his descendants also became well-known educators and academics. Many places in Michigan are named after Angell including neighborhoods in Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
and Muskegon.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early years 1.2 Professor and editor 1.3 President of the University of Vermont 1.4 President of the University of Michigan 1.5 Diplomatic posts 1.6 Later years

2 Notable descendents and relatives 3 Commemoration 4 Honors 5 Citations 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Biography[edit] Early years[edit] James Angell was born January 7, 1829, in Scituate, Rhode Island, the eldest of eight children. The Angells had been a prominent family in and around Providence, Rhode Island
Providence, Rhode Island
since its founding in 1636 by Roger Williams and his companion Thomas Angell.[1] Though scant, there is evidence suggesting Thomas Angell's ancestors were relations of Henry I of England.[2] Thomas Angell's grandson, also named Thomas, had settled the farm where James was born in 1710, and also founded the Angell Tavern, where the leaders of Scituate held its town meetings after its incorporation in 1730 (both George Washington
George Washington
and the Marquis de Lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette
are also said to have stayed there).[3] He started his schooling in the local school, but Angell's parents placed him at the age of eight with a Quaker
Quaker
tutor who taught him arithmetic and surveying. At twelve, he left home to attend a seminary in Seekonk, Massachusetts
Seekonk, Massachusetts
in order to study Latin, but after one term went to study at the Smithville Seminary, where he stayed until the age of fourteen. Unsure what career path to take, he had worked on the family farm for two summers, and also unsuccessfully attempted to find clerk jobs with Providence businesses. When his father informed him that he had the financial means to send James to college, he decided to attend Brown University. A year too young to enroll, he went first to University Grammar School in Providence, where one of his instructors was Henry S. Frieze, who himself would later serve as acting president of the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
while Angell was abroad on diplomatic assignments. In 1845, Angell began studying at Brown, which at the time had a total of only seven instructors on the faculty. He graduated in 1849, and eventually obtained part-time jobs as an Assistant Librarian
Librarian
at the university and tutoring a boy whose eyesight prevented him from reading. In 1850, he came down with a cold and sore throat, but he refused to give his throat any rest from the daily exertion of reading aloud to his pupil. The resultant damage to his throat would last the rest of his life and make extended speaking difficult. While James was recuperating, the father of his friend Rowland Hazard (an ancestor of the same Rowland Hazard who was instrumental in the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous) suggested that James accompany his son on an upcoming winter tour of the South, designed to alleviate Rowland's own lung ailment. The trip, which began on October 5, 1850, took Angell and Hazard throughout much of the South, including the Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Kentucky. Lasting about seven and a half months, Angell details in his autobiography how it acquainted him with the realities of slavery. Upon his return, Angell had planned to attend Andover Theological Seminary and take up a career as a minister. A throat specialist, however, advised him to avoid any work that would require extended public speaking, and he instead found work in the office of the city engineer of Boston. His brief tenure there ended when his friend Rowland Hazard, still suffering from lung ailments, invited him on another trip, this time to Europe. The pair traveled first to France, arriving just three weeks after Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte had staged a coup d'état, then later to Italy
Italy
and Austria. While in Vienna, he received a letter from Francis Wayland, the president of Brown University, offering him a choice of jobs as chairman of either the Civil Engineering or Modern Language Department, with a year and a half of continued study in Europe. He chose the latter, and went to Paris
Paris
for several months to study French, then to Braunschweig, Germany
Germany
to study German, finally returning home in the summer of 1853. Professor and editor[edit] When Angell began his tenure as chairman of the Modern Languages Department at Brown University, President Wayland was in the midst of reorganizing the university away from its traditional roots. Additional study was prescribed in areas such as modern languages and engineering, Angell's own areas of interest, and students were given greater freedom to choose elective courses. Extension classes were being initiated, to bring instruction to the wider community, and Angell himself gave lectures on his experiences in Europe
Europe
and on the topic of education itself. Among his own students, Angell singled out as especially memorable two future U.S. Secretaries of State, Richard Olney and John Hay. On November 26, 1855, Angell married Sarah Swoope Caswell. She was the daughter of Alexis Caswell, who was then a professor at Brown and would become president of the university in 1868. They had a son, Alexis Caswell
Alexis Caswell
Angell, on April 26, 1857.[4] After President Wayland grew frustrated with a lack of funding for his reforms and resigned as president in 1855, affairs reverted somewhat to their earlier state and the study of modern languages was de-emphasized, leaving Angell less satisfied with his teaching duties than before. He took on work writing articles for The Providence Journal, and when the editor and part-owner, Henry B. Anthony, was elected to the United States Senate
United States Senate
in 1858, Anthony proposed that Angell replace him as the full-time editor. Angell took him up on the offer, resigning his professorship in 1860 to become the full-time editor of the paper. As the largest newspaper in Rhode Island, and the state's leading voice for the new Republican Party (then only six years old), the editorship of the Journal put Angell in a powerful public position for the first time. His first foray into electoral politics came early on, as 1860 was an election year. He lent the paper's backing to the gubernatorial candidacy of abolitionist Republican nominee Seth Padelford, which failed when a coalition of various interests instead led to the election of fellow Republican William Sprague. In the presidential contest, Angell felt that Rhode Island's interests would be best served by the nomination of staunch abolitionist William H. Seward as the Republican candidate. But when the somewhat more moderate (and virtual unknown in Rhode Island) Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
was unexpectedly nominated, he put the power of the Journal behind Lincoln's candidacy, requesting favorable letters from his old pupil John Hay, who was working in Lincoln's law offices at the time, in order to generate enthusiasm for Lincoln. In the end, Lincoln won Rhode Island by a margin of 61.4% to 38.6%. Angell ran the Journal for the entire Civil War, and briefly considered buying it to run as a non-partisan newspaper (an idea which Senator Anthony rejected), but the workload took its toll on his health. He and Sarah had a daughter, Lois, in 1863.[5] In August 1866, when the University of Vermont
University of Vermont
requested that he come serve as its new president, he accepted the offer and moved to Burlington. President of the University of Vermont[edit] As he had at Brown, Angell arrived at the University of Vermont
University of Vermont
while it was in the midst of a major reorganization. The Morrill Act had been passed in 1862, marking the beginning of land-grant colleges in the United States. A State Agricultural College had been created in Vermont, and part of Angell's job was to oversee its integration with the existing university, effecting a change from a fully private university to a quasi-public one. Much of his effort at the university was related to fundraising, as the Civil War had depleted the school of both students and funds. He was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
in 1868.[6] On May 8, 1869, James and Sarah had another son, James Rowland Angell, who later served as president of Yale University. That same year, the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
offered Angell its presidency following the resignation of Erastus Haven. He visited Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
with his wife, but felt that he owed it to his supporters in Vermont to stay on with the University of Vermont. The offer was repeated in 1871, his former teacher Henry S. Frieze having served as acting president in the meantime. This time, Angell felt that the University of Vermont
University of Vermont
had made enough progress that he could leave it in good conscience, and he accepted the offer. He made a trip to Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
to deliver his inaugural address at Commencement on June 28, 1871, then returned to Vermont to finish out the academic term before moving his family to Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
for good in September of that year. President of the University of Michigan[edit]

James B. Angell, 1875, in Detroit

While President Haven was Angell's immediate predecessor, having spent six years in office as the second president of the university, the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
at the time of Angell's arrival was still largely a reflection of its first president, Henry Philip Tappan. Prior to a falling out with the Board of Regents that led to his dismissal and self-imposed exile to Europe
Europe
in 1863, Tappan and then Haven had been among the leading American proponents of the "German model" of university curriculum, which emphasized research and laboratory work in a wide variety of disciplines over the "English model" of recitation in a core classical curriculum that typified most Eastern universities of the time and each left the University with continued resistance to the modernization. Under Angell, Michigan became a full-fledged realization of the type of university that Francis Wayland
Francis Wayland
had been attempting to create at Brown during Angell's years there, and was viewed as the model for future public universities to follow (most notably, the University of California). Angell took on teaching duties in International Law, which he carried out during his entire term. Angell's expressions of Christian
Christian
piety, while not unusual at the New England Protestant
Protestant
institutions where he had previously served, caused him trouble early on at Michigan. Controversy surrounded two comments he had made. One was during his inaugural speech, when he stated that "the Christian
Christian
spirit, which pervades the law, the customs, and the life of the State shall shape and color the life of the University, that a lofty, earnest, but catholic and unsectarian Christian
Christian
tone shall characterize the culture which is here imparted." He had also stated an express desire to hire faculty who would prepare students for "their work in promoting our Christian
Christian
civilization." A complaint was lodged in 1873 by Detroit
Detroit
resident Stephen B. McCracken, alleging that such Christian
Christian
(and specifically Protestant) favoritism violated the state constitution. A Michigan State Senate
Michigan State Senate
committee was appointed to investigate, and interviewed Angell and others at the university. The committee ultimately cleared Angell and the university, concluding that "the teachings of the university are those of a liberal and enlightened Christianity, in the general, highest and best use of the term." In spite of such complaints, Angell took action early to make the university less sectarian, first by dropping compulsory chapel attendance, then by hiring its first Roman Catholic faculty member, Eugene W. Hilgard.[7] Angell served as president of the American Historical Association
American Historical Association
from 1892 to 1893. During his tenure at Michigan, the faculty size grew from 35 to about 400; the student body from 1100 to over 5000; the annual budget from $104,000 to over $1,000,000. The following schools or colleges were founded during his tenure: Dentistry, Pharmacy, Music, Nursing, and Architecture & Urban Planning. In 1902, Angell inspired the formation of an elite senior leadership society at Michigan. Known for most of its history as Michigamua, the organization renamed itself after Angell in 2007. The organization is now named "Order of Angell" and its mission is "to advance exceptional leadership through a lifelong loyalty to and engagement with the University of Michigan." Diplomatic posts[edit] Angell's academic career was put on hold at several points so he could carry out a variety of diplomatic assignments. In February 1880, Secretary of State William M. Evarts
William M. Evarts
asked Angell to go to China as part of a two-member commission (to which Angell proposed the addition of a third member) with the goal of negotiating changes to the Burlingame Treaty that would reduce what was viewed as a flood of Chinese immigrants into the Pacific United States. Angell was nominated by President Hayes, confirmed by the Senate as Minister to China and chairman of the treaty commission on April 9, 1880, and left for Peking
Peking
that June with fellow commissioners John F. Swift
John F. Swift
and William Henry Trescot. Henry S. Frieze was appointed acting president of the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
in his absence. The commission negotiated two treaties. The first, formally called the Treaty Regulating Immigration from China and dubbed by historians as the Angell Treaty of 1880, allowed the U.S. to regulate and limit the immigration of Chinese laborers, but not to prohibit it outright.[8] The second was a trade treaty that outlawed the trade of opium and set tonnage dues and tariffs to be the same for both nations.[9] The treaties, collectively, were signed on November 17, 1880, and the other commissioners returned home, leaving Angell in China to fulfill his duties as Minister. After a year, he decided to return to academia and left China on October 4, 1881, taking a trip through Europe
Europe
and returning to Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
on February 24, 1882. Most of the protections for Chinese immigrants that the treaty had secured were reversed by Congress in the Chinese Exclusion Act
Chinese Exclusion Act
of 1882. In the fall of 1887, President Cleveland appointed Angell to the International Commission of Canadian Fisheries, along with William L. Putnam and Secretary of State Thomas F. Bayard, to negotiate with the British government regarding fishing rights off the coast of Canada, which had been a source of misunderstanding between Canada
Canada
and the U.S. since they were first agreed to in the Treaty of 1818. A new treaty was signed on February 15, 1888, but subsequently failed ratification in the U.S. Senate, whose Republican majority had objected to the formation of the commission in the first place. On November 4, 1895, President Cleveland appointed Angell to the Deep Waterways Commission, along with John E. Russell
John E. Russell
and Lyman E. Cooley. The commission, created by Congress, was to negotiate an agreement between the U.S. and Canada
Canada
regarding the creation of a waterway to allow ocean-going traffic between the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and the Atlantic Ocean. They undertook a feasibility study[10] and forwarded proposals for further appropriations to Congress, but little was done, and it was not until 1959 that the St. Lawrence Seaway
St. Lawrence Seaway
finally opened. President McKinley appointed Angell Minister to Turkey
Turkey
in 1897, and Henry S. Frieze was again appointed acting president of the university. He served in the post until August 5, 1898. Later years[edit]

Angell grave

Angell's wife, Sarah Caswell Angell, died on December 17, 1903.[11] In 1905, Angell submitted his resignation to the Board of Regents, feeling that at his age, he may be losing the qualifications for his position, but the board refused to accept it. By 1909, he had been in office for 38 years, all of his predecessors had died, and Angell was the only man alive who had been president of the University of Michigan.[12] He again submitted his resignation to the Regents, who this time accepted it, while at the same time designating him President Emeritus. Angell died April 1, 1916, in Ann Arbor, and was buried in Forest Hill Cemetery. Notable descendents and relatives[edit] A number of James Angell's descendents and near relatives rose to prominence in their respective fields, largely also in academia:

Son James Rowland Angell, a psychologist at the University of Chicago and president of Yale University Son Alexis Caswell
Alexis Caswell
Angell, Michigan Law School professor and U.S. District Judge[4]

Grandson Robert Cooley Angell, chair of the sociology department at the University of Michigan
University of Michigan
and president of the American Sociological Association[13]

Nephew Frank Angell, psychologist at Cornell University
Cornell University
and Stanford University Son-in-law Andrew McLaughlin (married daughter Lois Angell), Pulitzer Prize-winning historian

Granddaughter Constance Green, also a Pulitzer Prize-winning historian[14] Grandson James Angell MacLachlan, Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
professor and co-founder of the National Bankruptcy Conference[15]

Commemoration[edit]

Angell by Bitter

Angell Hall, one of the most prominent buildings on the University of Michigan campus, is named after him. Designed by Albert Kahn,[16] it was completed in 1924 at a cost of $1 million, providing 152,000 square feet (14,100 m2) of classroom and office space.[17] In 1910 sculptor Karl Bitter
Karl Bitter
produced a 7-foot-tall (2.1 m) bas relief depicting a seated Angell. It now resides in the lobby of Angell Hall.[18] A caricature of Angell by Ulysses Ricci's firm Ricci and Zari can be found carved on a corbel at the University of Michigan's Law Quadrangle.[19] Angell School, a kindergarten through fifth grade elementary school in the Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
Public Schools, is named after him. The former University of Michigan
University of Michigan
honor society Michigamua renamed itself the Order of Angell in 2007. Angell inspired the organization's creation through his vision of uniting student leaders in the hopes of creating meaningful dialogue surrounding campus issues. A street named after the Angell family runs by Brown University. Sarah Caswell Angell Hall
Angell Hall
was a theater in Barbour Gymnasium (a women's gymnasium on the Michigan campus), named in honor of Angell's wife in 1905. The gymnasium was torn down in 1946. Angell was inducted into the Rhode Island Heritage Hall of Fame in 2008.[20]

Honors[edit]

Elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society
in 1890.[21]

Citations[edit]

^ Markoff 2003 ^ Angell 1999 ^ Anonymous 1878 ^ a b Bentley Historical Library, Finding aid for Alexis C. Angell Papers, 1868-1876 and 1927-1928, retrieved 2007-08-22  ^ Bentley Historical Library 2005 ^ "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ Marsden 1994, pp. 168–170 ^ Arthur 1881a ^ Arthur 1881b ^ Angell, Russell & Cooley 1897 ^ Hinsdale 1906, pp. 220 ^ Anonymous 1909 ^ American Sociological Association, Robert Cooley Angell, retrieved 2007-08-22  ^ Scanlon & Cosner 1996, pp. 95–96 ^ Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
Library 1979 ^ MacInnes Margo, with Wystan Sevens, A Guide to the Campus of the University of Michigan, University of Michigan
University of Michigan
Press, Ann Arbor, 1978 . 7 ^ Ascasibar et al. ^ Keller and Curtis, Public Art in Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
and Washtenaw County, Alexa Lee Gallery, ann Arbor, 1995 p 46 ^ Forsythe, Ilene H. The Uses of Art: Medieval Metaphor in the Michigan Law Quadrangle, University of Michigan
University of Michigan
Press, Ann Arbor, 1993 fig, 71 and 72 ^ "Rhode Island Heritage Hall of Fame: Inductees from 2008". Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society
Members Directory

References[edit]

Angell, Bill (1999), The Ancestors of Thomas Angell of Providence, Rhode Island, Rhode Island USGenWeb Project, retrieved 2007-08-07  Angell, James B. (1912), The Reminiscences of James Burrill Angell, New York: Longmans, Green, retrieved 2007-08-14  Anonymous (1878), "The History of Scituate", History of the State of Rhode Island with Illustrations, Philadelphia: Hoag, Wade, pp. 299–305, retrieved 2007-08-07  Anonymous (February 19, 1909), "Dr. Angell is only man living who has been president of Michigan", Ann Arbor
Ann Arbor
Daily News, p. 8, retrieved 2007-08-07  Arthur, Chester A. (1881a), Proclamation of October 5, 1881, retrieved 2007-08-14  Arthur, Chester A. (1881b), Proclamation of October 5, 1881 (Supplemental), retrieved 2007-08-14  Ascasibar, Javier; Colthorp, Constance; Ehrlich, Rosalie; Michelson, Alan; Pandos, Kimberly, Angell Hall
Angell Hall
Stylistic Features and Social Significance, retrieved 2007-08-07  Bentley Historical Library (2005), "Women's Diaries", Michigan Historical Collections Subject Guides, University of Michigan, retrieved 2007-08-22  Harvard Law School
Harvard Law School
Library (1979), MacLachlan, James Angell, 1891-. Papers, 1925-1960: Finding Aid, retrieved 2007-08-22  Hinsdale, Burke A. (1906), Demmon, Isaac, ed., History of the University of Michigan, University of Michigan, retrieved 2007-08-16 

Markoff, Florence (2003), Roger Williams, retrieved 2007-08-07  Marsden, George M. (1994), The Soul of the American University: From Protestant
Protestant
Establishment to Established Nonbelief, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507046-1, retrieved 2007-08-14  Scanlon, Jennifer; Cosner, Shaaron (1996), American Women Historians, 1700S-1990s: A Biographical Dictionary, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-29664-2, retrieved 2007-08-22 

Further reading[edit]

Angell, James B.; Russell, John E.; Cooley, Lyman E. (1897), Report of the United States Deep Waterways Commission, at Detroit, Michigan, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office  Shaw, Wilfred (1920), "President Angell and President Hutchins", The University of Michigan, New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, pp. 64–90  Students' Christian
Christian
Association (1893), Religious Thought at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI: Register Publishing  Wilbee, Victor R. (1967), The Religious Dimensions of Three Presidencies in a State University: Presidents Tappan, Haven, and Angell at the University of Michigan, PhD Thesis, University of Michigan 

External links[edit]

United States portal North America portal Rhode Island portal Biography portal

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: James Burrill Angell

Wikimedia Commons has media related to James Burrill Angell.

Autobiography of James Burrill Angell
James Burrill Angell
as youth University of Michigan
University of Michigan
biography Brown University
Brown University
biography

Academic offices

Preceded by Joseph Torrey President of the University of Vermont 1866–1871 Succeeded by Matthew Henry Buckham

Preceded by Erastus Otis Haven Henry S. Frieze (acting) President of the University of Michigan 1871–1909 Succeeded by Harry Burns Hutchins

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by George Seward U.S. Minister to China April 9, 1880–October 4, 1881 Succeeded by John Russell Young

Preceded by Alexander W. Terrell U.S. Minister to Turkey 1897–1898 Succeeded by Oscar S. Straus

v t e

United States Ambassadors to China

Envoys to the Qing Empire 1843–1858

Caleb Cushing Alexander Hill Everett John Wesley Davis Humphrey Marshall Robert Milligan McLane Peter Parker

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plentipotentiary to the Qing Empire 1858–1913

William Bradford Reed John Elliott Ward Anson Burlingame John Ross Browne Frederick Low Benjamin Avery George Seward James Burrill Angell John Russell Young Charles Harvey Denby Edwin H. Conger William Woodville Rockhill William James Calhoun

Envoy to the Republic of China 1913–1929

Paul Samuel Reinsch Charles Richard Crane Jacob Gould Schurman John Van Antwerp MacMurray

Ambassador to the Republic of China 1929–1949

Nelson T. Johnson Clarence E. Gauss Patrick J. Hurley John Leighton Stuart American Institute in Taiwan

Chiefs of the U.S. Liaison Office in Beijing 1973–79

David K. E. Bruce George H. W. Bush Thomas S. Gates Jr. Leonard Woodcock

Ambassador to the People's Republic of China 1979–present

Leonard Woodcock Arthur W. Hummel Jr. Winston Lord James R. Lilley J. Stapleton Roy Jim Sasser Joseph Prueher Clark T. Randt Jr. Jon Huntsman Jr. Gary Locke Max Baucus Terry Branstad

v t e

United States Ambassadors to Turkey
Turkey

Ottoman Empire

Chargé d'affaires

Erving Porter

Minister Resident

Porter Carr Marsh Spence Williams Morris MacVeagh Boker Maynard Longstreet

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary

Wallace Cox Straus Hirsch Thompson Terrell Angell Straus Leishman

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary

Leishman Straus Rockhill Morgenthau Elkus

Republic of Turkey

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary

Grew Sherrill Skinner MacMurray Steinhardt Wilson Wadsworth McGhee A Warren F Warren Hare Hart Komer Handley Macomber Spiers Spain Strausz-Hupé Abramowitz Barkley Grossman Parris Pearson Edelman Wilson Jeffrey Ricciardone Bass

v t e

Presidents of the University of Michigan

Monteith Tappan Haven Frieze (acting) Angell Hutchins Burton Lloyd (acting) Little Ruthven Hatcher Fleming Smith (interim) Shapiro Fleming (interim) Duderstadt Neal (interim) Bollinger White (interim) Coleman Schlissel

v t e

Presidents of the University of Vermont

Sanders (1800–1814) Austin (1815–1821) Haskel (1821–1824) Preston (1825–1826) Marsh (1826–1833) Wheeler (1833–1849) Smith (1849–1855) Pease (1855–1861) Torrey (1862–1866) Angell (1866–1871) Buckham (1871–1910) Benton (1911–1919) Bailey (1920–1940) Millis (1941–1949) Carlson (1950–1952) Borgmann (1952–1958) Fey (1958–1964) McCune (1965–1966) Rowell (1966–1970) Andrews (1970–1976) Coor (1976–1989) Davis (1990–1991) Salmon (1991–1997) Ramaley (1997–2001) Fogel (2002–2011) Bramley # (2011–2012) Sullivan (2012– )

# denotes interim president

v t e

Presidents of the American Historical Association

1884–1900

Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White
(1884-85) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1886) Justin Winsor
Justin Winsor
(1887) William Frederick Poole
William Frederick Poole
(1888) Charles Kendall Adams
Charles Kendall Adams
(1889) John Jay (1890) William Wirt Henry (1891) James Burrill Angell
James Burrill Angell
(1892-93) Henry Adams
Henry Adams
(1893-94) George Frisbie Hoar
George Frisbie Hoar
(1895) Richard Salter Storrs
Richard Salter Storrs
(1896) James Schouler (1897) George Park Fisher (1898) James Ford Rhodes
James Ford Rhodes
(1899) Edward Eggleston
Edward Eggleston
(1900)

1901–1925

Charles Francis Adams Jr.
Charles Francis Adams Jr.
(1901) Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
(1902) Henry Charles Lea
Henry Charles Lea
(1903) Goldwin Smith
Goldwin Smith
(1904) John Bach McMaster
John Bach McMaster
(1905) Simeon Eben Baldwin
Simeon Eben Baldwin
(1906) J. Franklin Jameson (1907) George Burton Adams (1908) Albert Bushnell Hart
Albert Bushnell Hart
(1909) Frederick Jackson Turner
Frederick Jackson Turner
(1910) William Milligan Sloane
William Milligan Sloane
(1911) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1912) William Archibald Dunning (1913) Andrew C. McLaughlin
Andrew C. McLaughlin
(1914) H. Morse Stephens
H. Morse Stephens
(1915) George Lincoln Burr
George Lincoln Burr
(1916) Worthington C. Ford (1917) William Roscoe Thayer
William Roscoe Thayer
(1918-19) Edward Channing (1920) Jean Jules Jusserand
Jean Jules Jusserand
(1921) Charles Homer Haskins
Charles Homer Haskins
(1922) Edward Potts Cheyney
Edward Potts Cheyney
(1923) Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(1924) Charles McLean Andrews
Charles McLean Andrews
(1924-25)

1926–1950

Dana Carleton Munro
Dana Carleton Munro
(1926) Henry Osborn Taylor (1927) James Henry Breasted
James Henry Breasted
(1928) James Harvey Robinson
James Harvey Robinson
(1929) Evarts Boutell Greene (1930) Carl L. Becker (1931) Herbert Eugene Bolton
Herbert Eugene Bolton
(1932) Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
(1933) William Dodd (1934) Michael Rostovtzeff
Michael Rostovtzeff
(1935) Charles Howard McIlwain (1936) Guy Stanton Ford (1937) Laurence M. Larson (1938) William Scott Ferguson (1939) Max Farrand
Max Farrand
(1940) James Westfall Thompson (1941) Arthur M. Schlesinger Sr. (1942) Nellie Neilson (1943) William Linn Westermann
William Linn Westermann
(1944) Carlton J. H. Hayes (1945) Sidney Bradshaw Fay (1946) Thomas J. Wertenbaker
Thomas J. Wertenbaker
(1947) Kenneth Scott Latourette
Kenneth Scott Latourette
(1948) Conyers Read (1949) Samuel Eliot Morison
Samuel Eliot Morison
(1950)

1951–1975

Robert Livingston Schuyler (1951) James G. Randall (1952) Louis R. Gottschalk (1953) Merle Curti (1954) Lynn Thorndike
Lynn Thorndike
(1955) Dexter Perkins (1956) William L. Langer (1957) Walter Prescott Webb
Walter Prescott Webb
(1958) Allan Nevins
Allan Nevins
(1959) Bernadotte Everly Schmitt (1960) Samuel Flagg Bemis (1961) Carl Bridenbaugh (1962) Crane Brinton (1963) Julian P. Boyd (1964) Frederic C. Lane (1965) Roy Franklin Nichols (1966) Hajo Holborn (1967) John K. Fairbank (1968) C. Vann Woodward
C. Vann Woodward
(1969) Robert Roswell Palmer (1970) David M. Potter (1971) Joseph Strayer (1971) Thomas C. Cochran (1972) Lynn Townsend White Jr. (1973) Lewis Hanke (1974) Gordon Wright (1975)

1976–2000

Richard B. Morris (1976) Charles Gibson (1977) William J. Bouwsma (1978) John Hope Franklin (1979) David H. Pinkney (1980) Bernard Bailyn (1981) Gordon A. Craig
Gordon A. Craig
(1982) Philip D. Curtin (1983) Arthur S. Link (1984) William H. McNeill (1985) Carl Neumann Degler (1986) Natalie Zemon Davis
Natalie Zemon Davis
(1987) Akira Iriye (1988) Louis R. Harlan (1989) David Herlihy (1990) William Leuchtenburg (1991) Frederic Wakeman (1992) Louise A. Tilly (1993) Thomas C. Holt (1994) John Henry Coatsworth (1995) Caroline Bynum (1996) Joyce Appleby (1997) Joseph C. Miller (1998) Robert Darnton
Robert Darnton
(1999) Eric Foner
Eric Foner
(2000)

2001–Present

William Roger Louis (2001) Lynn Hunt (2002) James M. McPherson
James M. McPherson
(2003) Jonathan Spence (2004) James J. Sheehan
James J. Sheehan
(2005) Linda K. Kerber (2006) Barbara Weinstein (2007) Gabrielle M. Spiegel (2008) Laurel Thatcher Ulrich
Laurel Thatcher Ulrich
(2009) Barbara D. Metcalf (2010) Anthony Grafton
Anthony Grafton
(2011) William Cronon
William Cronon
(2012) Kenneth Pomeranz
Kenneth Pomeranz
(2013) Jan E. Goldstein (2014) Vicki L. Ruiz (2015) Patrick Manning (2016) Tyler E. Stovall (2017) Mary Beth Norton (2018)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32371656 LCCN: no90002065 ISNI: 0000 0001 1963 6496 GND: 171951476 SUDOC: 168449

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