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Jamaica
Jamaica
(/dʒəˈmeɪkə/ ( listen)) is an island country situated in the Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica
Jamaica
lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
(the island containing the countries of Haiti
Haiti
and the Dominican Republic). Previously inhabited by the indigenous Arawak
Arawak
and Taíno
Taíno
peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, and the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica
Jamaica
as labourers. Named Santiago, the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England (later Great Britain) conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica
Jamaica
became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy highly dependent on slaves forcibly transported from Africa. The British fully emancipated all slaves in 1838, and many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations. The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people,[3] Jamaica
Jamaica
is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas
Americas
(after the United States
United States
and Canada), and the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans
Jamaicans
predominately have African ancestry, with significant European, Chinese, Indian, Lebanese, and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica
Jamaica
has a large diaspora around the world, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Jamaica
Jamaica
is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
as its monarch and head of state. Her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as the head of government and Prime Minister of Jamaica
Prime Minister of Jamaica
from March 2016. Jamaica
Jamaica
is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.

A map of Jamaica

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Spanish rule (1509–1655) 2.3 British rule (1655–1962) 2.4 Independence (1962)

3 Government and politics

3.1 Political culture 3.2 Administrative divisions 3.3 Military

4 Geography and environment

4.1 Flora and fauna

5 Demographics

5.1 Ethnic origins 5.2 Languages 5.3 Emigration 5.4 Crime 5.5 Major cities

6 Religion 7 Culture

7.1 Music 7.2 Literature 7.3 Film 7.4 Cuisine 7.5 National symbols 7.6 Sport

8 Education 9 Economy 10 Infrastructure

10.1 Transport

10.1.1 Roadways 10.1.2 Railways 10.1.3 Air transport 10.1.4 Ports, shipping and lighthouses

10.2 Energy 10.3 Communication

11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan,[8] meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs".[9] Colloquially Jamaicans
Jamaicans
refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown" ("Jamdung" in Jamaican Patois), or briefly "Ja", have derived from this.[10] History Main article: History of Jamaica Prehistory Main article: Pre-Columbian Jamaica The Arawak
Arawak
and Taíno
Taíno
indigenous people, originating in South America, settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC.[11] When Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques (chiefs of villages). The south coast of Jamaica
Jamaica
was the most populated, especially around the area now known as Old Harbour.[11] The Taino
Taino
still inhabited Jamaica
Jamaica
when the English took control of the island in 1655.[11] The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/Arawak.[12] Spanish rule (1509–1655) Main article: Colony of Santiago Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
claimed Jamaica
Jamaica
for Spain after landing there in 1494. His probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay,[13] St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land. One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, Sevilla, which was established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy.[14] The capital was moved to Spanish Town, then called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534 (at present-day St. Catherine).[15] British rule (1655–1962) Main article: English Jamaica Spanish Town
Spanish Town
has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean.[15] The Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios
Ocho Rios
in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island.[16] The name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía (or Bay of Lard), alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area.[17]

Henry Morgan
Henry Morgan
was a famous Caribbean
Caribbean
pirate and privateer; he had first come to the West Indies as an indentured servant, like most of the early English colonists.[18]

In 1660, the population of Jamaica
Jamaica
was about 4,500 white and 1,500 black.[19] By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population.[20] The colony was shaken and almost destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica
Jamaica
earthquake. The Irish in Jamaica
Jamaica
also formed a large part of the island's early population, making up 2 thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica
Jamaica
by Cromwells forces in 1655, The majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
at the time.[21] Migration of large numbers Irish to the island continued into the 18th century.[22] Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and then forcibly converted to Christianity
Christianity
in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition. Some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish
Jewish
refugees went to the Netherlands and England, and from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica
Jamaica
had become a refuge for Jews in the New World, also attracting those who had been expelled from Spain and Portugal. An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
settled on the island. Primarily working as merchants and traders, the Jewish
Jewish
community was forced to live a clandestine life, calling themselves "Portugals". After the British took over rule of Jamaica, the Jews decided the best defense against Spain's regaining control was to encourage making the colony a base for Caribbean
Caribbean
pirates. With the pirates installed in Port Royal, which became the largest city in the Caribbean, the Spanish would be deterred from attacking. The British leaders agreed with the viability of this strategy to forestall outside aggression.[23] When the English captured Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1655, the Spanish colonists fled after freeing their slaves.[16] The slaves dispersed into the mountains, joining the maroons, those who had previously escaped to live with the Taíno
Taíno
native people.[24] During the centuries of slavery, Maroons established free communities in the mountainous interior of Jamaica, where they maintained their freedom and independence for generations. The Jamaican Maroons
Jamaican Maroons
fought the British during the 18th century. Under treaties of 1738 and 1739, the British agreed to stop trying to round them up in exchange for their leaving the colonial settlements alone, but serving if needed for military actions.[24] Some of the communities were broken up and the British deported Maroons to Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and, later, Sierra Leone. The name is still used today by modern Maroon descendants, who have certain rights and autonomy at the community of Accompong. During its first 200 years of British rule, Jamaica
Jamaica
became one of the world's leading sugar-exporting, slave-dependent colonies, producing more than 77,000 tons of sugar annually between 1820 and 1824. After the abolition of the international slave trade in 1807,[25] the British began to "import" indentured servants to supplement the labour pool, as many freedmen resisted working on the plantations. After slavery was abolished, workers recruited from India
India
began arriving in 1845, Chinese workers in 1854,[26] as many freedmen resisted working on the plantations. Many South Asian and Chinese descendants continue to reside in Jamaica
Jamaica
today.[27][28]

Montpelier Plantation, the property of C. R. Ellis, Esq. M.P., c. 1820

By the beginning of the 19th century, Jamaica's dependence on slave labour and a plantation economy had resulted in black people outnumbering white people by a ratio of almost 20 to 1. Although the UK had outlawed the importation of slaves, some were still smuggled in from Spanish colonies and directly. While planning the abolition of slavery, the British Parliament passed laws to improve conditions for slaves. They banned the use of whips in the field and flogging of women; informed planters that slaves were to be allowed religious instruction, and required a free day during each week when slaves could sell their produce,[29] prohibiting Sunday markets to enable slaves to attend church.[citation needed] The House of Assembly in Jamaica
Jamaica
resented and resisted the new laws. Members (then restricted to European-Jamaicans) claimed that the slaves were content and objected to Parliament's interference in island affairs. Slave owners feared possible revolts if conditions were lightened. Following a series of rebellions on the island and changing attitudes in Great Britain, the British government formally abolished slavery by an 1833 act, beginning in 1834, with full emancipation from chattel slavery declared in 1838. The population in 1834 was 371,070, of whom 15,000 were white, 5,000 free black; 40,000 'coloured' or free people of color (mixed race); and 311,070 were slaves.[19] In the 19th century, the British established a number of botanical gardens. These included the Castleton Botanical Gardens, developed in 1862 to replace the Bath Botanical Gardens (created in 1779) which was subject to flooding. Bath Botanical Gardens was the site for planting breadfruit, brought to Jamaica
Jamaica
from the Pacific by Captain William Bligh. It became a staple in island diets. Other gardens were the Cinchona
Cinchona
Plantation, founded in 1868, and the Hope Botanical Gardens founded in 1874. In 1872, Kingston was designated as the island's capital. In 1945, Sir Horace Hector Hearne became Chief Justice and Keeper of the Records in Jamaica. He headed the Supreme Court, Kingston between 1945 and 1950/1951. After Kenya
Kenya
achieved independence, its government appointed him as Chief Justice and he moved there. Independence (1962) Main article: Independence of Jamaica

Prince Charles
Prince Charles
and the Duchess of Cornwall
Duchess of Cornwall
during a visit to Jamaica in 2008

Jamaica
Jamaica
slowly gained increasing independence from the United Kingdom. In 1958, it became a province in the Federation of the West Indies, a federation among the British West Indies. Jamaica
Jamaica
attained full independence by leaving the federation in 1962. Strong economic growth, averaging approximately 6% per annum, marked the first ten years of independence under conservative Jamaica
Jamaica
Labour Party governments; they were led successively by Prime Ministers Alexander Bustamante, Donald Sangster and Hugh Shearer. The growth was fueled by strong private investments in bauxite/alumina, tourism, the manufacturing industry and, to a lesser extent, the agricultural sector. The optimism of the first decade was accompanied by a growing sense of inequality among many Afro-Jamaicans, and a concern that the benefits of growth were not being shared by the urban poor.[citation needed] Combined with the effects of a slowdown in the global economy in 1970,[citation needed] the voters elected the PNP (People's National Party) in 1972. They tried to implement more socially equitable policies in education and health, but the economy suffered under their leadership. By 1980, Jamaica's gross national product had declined to some 25% below the 1972 level. Due to rising foreign and local debt, accompanied by large fiscal deficits, the government sought International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) financing from the United States
United States
and others. Economic deterioration continued into the mid-1980s, exacerbated by a number of factors. The first and third largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa, closed, and there was a significant reduction in production by the second-largest producer, Alcan. Reynolds Jamaica Mines, Ltd. left the Jamaican industry. There was also a decline in tourism, which was important to the economy. Independence, however widely celebrated in Jamaica, has been questioned in the early 21st century. In 2011, a survey showed that approximately 60% of Jamaicans
Jamaicans
believe that the country would be better off had it remained a British colony with only 17% believing it would be worse off, citing as problems years of social and fiscal mismanagement in the country.[30][31] Government and politics Main article: Politics of Jamaica Further information: Foreign relations of Jamaica
Foreign relations of Jamaica
and Republicanism in Jamaica

Inside the Jamaican Parliament

Jamaica
Jamaica
is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
serving as the Jamaican monarch.[32] As Elizabeth II is shared as head of state of fifteen other countries and resides mostly in the United Kingdom, she is thus often represented as Queen of Jamaica
Jamaica
in Jamaica
Jamaica
and abroad by the Governor-General of Jamaica.[33] The governor-general is nominated by the Prime Minister of Jamaica
Prime Minister of Jamaica
and the entire Cabinet and appointed by the monarch. All the members of the Cabinet are appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister. The monarch and the governor-general serve largely ceremonial roles, apart from their reserve powers for use in certain constitutional crisis situations. Jamaica's current constitution was drafted in 1962 by a bipartisan joint committee of the Jamaican legislature. It came into force with the Jamaica
Jamaica
Independence Act, 1962 of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
parliament, which gave Jamaica
Jamaica
independence. The Parliament of Jamaica
Parliament of Jamaica
is bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House). Members of the House (known as Members of Parliament or MPs) are directly elected, and the member of the House of Representatives who, in the governor-general's best judgement, is best able to command the confidence of a majority of the members of that House, is appointed by the governor-general to be the prime minister. Senators are nominated jointly by the prime minister and the parliamentary Leader of the Opposition and are then appointed by the governor-general. Political culture Jamaica
Jamaica
has traditionally had a two-party system, with power often alternating between the People's National Party
People's National Party
(PNP) and Jamaica Labour Party (JLP). The party with current administrative and legislative power is the Jamaica
Jamaica
Labour Party, with a one-seat parliamentary majority as of 2016[update]. There are also several minor parties who have yet to gain a seat in parliament; the largest of these is the National Democratic Movement (NDM). Administrative divisions Main article: Parishes of Jamaica Jamaica
Jamaica
is divided into 14 parishes, which are grouped into three historic counties that have no administrative relevance. In the context of local government the parishes are designated "Local Authorities." These local authorities are further styled as "Municipal Corporations," which are either city municipalities or town municipalities.[34] Any new city municipality must have a population of at least 50,000, and a town municipality a number set by the Minister of Local Government.[34] There are currently no town municipalities. The local governments of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrews are consolidated as the city municipality of Kingston & St. Andrew Municipal Corporation. The newest city municipality created is the Municipality of Portmore in 2003. While it is geographically located within the parish of St. Catherine, it is governed independently.

Cornwall County Capital km2 Middlesex County Capital km2 Surrey County Capital km2

1 Hanover Lucea   450 6 Clarendon May Pen 1,196 11 Kingston Kingston 25

2 Saint Elizabeth Black River 1,212 7 Manchester Mandeville    830 12 Portland Port Antonio 814

3 Saint James Montego Bay   595 8 Saint Ann St. Ann's Bay 1,213 13 Saint Andrew Half Way Tree 453

4 Trelawny Falmouth   875 9 Saint Catherine Spanish Town 1,192 14 Saint Thomas Morant Bay 743

5 Westmoreland Savanna-la-Mar   807 10 Saint Mary Port Maria    611

Military Main article: Jamaica
Jamaica
Defence Force

Jamaican soldiers training to fire the FN FAL
FN FAL
in 2002

The Jamaica Defence Force
Jamaica Defence Force
(JDF) is the small but professional military force of Jamaica. The JDF is based on the British military model with similar organisation, training, weapons and traditions. Once chosen, officer candidates are sent to one of several British or Canadian basic officer courses depending on the arm of service. Enlisted soldiers are given basic training at Up Park Camp or JDF Training Depot, Newcastle, both in St. Andrew. As with the British model, NCOs are given several levels of professional training as they rise up the ranks. Additional military schools are available for speciality training in Canada, the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom. The JDF is directly descended from the British Army's West India Regiment formed during the colonial era.[35] The West India
India
Regiment was used extensively by the British Empire
British Empire
in policing the empire from 1795 to 1926. Other units in the JDF heritage include the early colonial Jamaica
Jamaica
Militia, the Kingston Infantry Volunteers of WWI and reorganised into the Jamaican Infantry Volunteers in World War II. The West Indies Regiment was reformed in 1958 as part of the West Indies Federation, after dissolution of the Federation the JDF was established. The Jamaica Defence Force
Jamaica Defence Force
(JDF) comprises an infantry Regiment and Reserve Corps, an Air Wing, a Coast Guard fleet and a supporting Engineering Unit.[36] The infantry regiment contains the 1st, 2nd and 3rd (National Reserve) battalions. The JDF Air Wing is divided into three flight units, a training unit, a support unit and the JDF Air Wing (National Reserve). The Coast Guard is divided between seagoing crews and support crews who conduct maritime safety and maritime law enforcement as well as defence-related operations.[37] The role of the support battalion is to provide support to boost numbers in combat and issue competency training in order to allow for the readiness of the force.[38] The 1st Engineer Regiment was formed due to an increased demand for military engineers and their role is to provide engineering services whenever and wherever they are needed.[39] The Headquarters JDF contains the JDF Commander, Command Staff as well as Intelligence, Judge Advocate office, Administrative and Procurement sections.[40] In recent years the JDF has been called on to assist the nation's police, the Jamaica Constabulary Force
Jamaica Constabulary Force
(JCF), in fighting drug smuggling and a rising crime rate which includes one of the highest murder rates in the world. JDF units actively conduct armed patrols with the JCF in high-crime areas and known gang neighbourhoods. There has been vocal controversy as well as support of this JDF role. In early 2005, an Opposition leader, Edward Seaga, called for the merger of the JDF and JCF. This has not garnered support in either organisation nor among the majority of citizens. Geography and environment Main article: Geography of Jamaica

Doctor's Cave Beach Club
Doctor's Cave Beach Club
is a popular destination in Montego Bay.

The picturesque Dunn's River Falls
Dunn's River Falls
in Ocho Ríos

Jamaica
Jamaica
is the third largest island in the Caribbean.[41] It lies between latitudes 17° and 19°N, and longitudes 76° and 79°W. Mountains, including the Blue Mountains, dominate the inland. They are surrounded by a narrow coastal plain.[42] Jamaica
Jamaica
only has two cities, the first being Kingston, the capital city and centre of business, located on the south coast and the 'second' city being Montego Bay, one of the best known cities in the Caribbean
Caribbean
for tourism, located on the north coast. Other towns include Portmore, Spanish Town, Mandeville and the resort towns of Ocho Ríos, Port Antonio
Port Antonio
and Negril.[43] Kingston Harbour
Kingston Harbour
is the seventh-largest natural harbour in the world,[44] which contributed to the city being designated as the capital in 1872. Tourist attractions include Dunn's River Falls
Dunn's River Falls
in St. Ann, YS Falls in St. Elizabeth, the Blue Lagoon in Portland, believed to be the crater of an extinct volcano. Port Royal
Port Royal
was the site of a major earthquake in 1692 that helped form the island's Palisadoes.[45][46][47][48] The climate in Jamaica
Jamaica
is tropical, with hot and humid weather, although higher inland regions are more temperate.[49] Some regions on the south coast, such as the Liguanea Plain and the Pedro Plains, are relatively dry rain-shadow areas.[50] Jamaica
Jamaica
lies in the hurricane belt of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and because of this, the island sometimes suffers significant storm damage.[51] Hurricanes Charlie and Gilbert hit Jamaica
Jamaica
directly in 1951 and 1988, respectively, causing major damage and many deaths. In the 2000s (decade), hurricanes Ivan, Dean, and Gustav also brought severe weather to the island. Among the variety of terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems are dry and wet limestone forests, rainforest, riparian woodland, wetlands, caves, rivers, seagrass beds and coral reefs. The authorities have recognised the tremendous significance and potential of the environment and have designated some of the more 'fertile' areas as 'protected'. Among the island's protected areas are the Cockpit Country, Hellshire Hills, and Litchfield forest reserves. In 1992, Jamaica's first marine park, covering nearly 15 square kilometres (5.8 sq mi), was established in Montego Bay. Portland Bight Protected Area
Portland Bight Protected Area
was designated in 1999.[52] The following year Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park
Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park
was created on roughly 300 square miles (780 km2) of wilderness, which supports thousands of tree and fern species and rare animals. Flora and fauna

Jamaican boa

Jamaican hutia

Jamaica's climate is tropical, supporting diverse ecosystems with a wealth of plants and animals. Jamaica's plant life has changed considerably over the centuries. When the Spanish arrived in 1494, except for small agricultural clearings, the country was deeply forested. The European settlers cut down the great timber trees for building and ships' supplies, and cleared the plains, savannas, and mountain slopes for intense agricultural cultivation. Many new plants were introduced including sugarcane, bananas, and citrus trees. Areas of heavy rainfall contain stands of bamboo, ferns, ebony, mahogany, and rosewood. Cactus and similar dry-area plants are found along the south and southwest coastal area. Parts of the west and southwest consist of large grasslands, with scattered stands of trees. The Jamaican animal life, typical of the Caribbean, includes highly diversified wildlife with many endemic species found nowhere else on earth. As with other oceanic islands, land mammals are mostly bats. The only non-bat native mammal extant in Jamaica
Jamaica
is the Jamaican hutia, locally known as the coney. Introduced mammals such as wild boar and the small Asian mongoose are also common. Jamaica
Jamaica
is also home to about 50 species of reptiles,[53] the largest of which is the American crocodile; however, it is only present within the Black River and a few other areas. Lizards such as anoles, iguanas and snakes such as racers and the Jamaican boa
Jamaican boa
(the largest snake on the island), are common in areas such as the Cockpit Country. None of Jamaica's eight species of native snakes is venomous.[54] Jamaica
Jamaica
is the indigenous home of two species of hummingbirds, the black-billed and red-billed streamertails. The red-billed streamertail, known locally as the,'doctor bird', is Jamaica's National Symbol.[55] One species of freshwater turtle is native to Jamaica, the Jamaican slider. It is found only on Jamaica, Cat Island, and a few other islands in the Bahamas. In addition, many types of frogs are common on the island, especially treefrogs. Birds are abundant, and make up the bulk of the endemic and native vertebrate species. Beautiful and exotic birds, such as the Jamaican tody
Jamaican tody
and the doctor bird (the national bird), can be found among a large number of others. Jamaican waters contain considerable resources of fresh-and saltwater fish.[56] The chief varieties of saltwater fish are kingfish, jack, mackerel, whiting, bonito, and tuna. Fish that occasionally enter freshwater and estuarine environments include snook, jewfish, mangrove snapper, and mullets. Fish that spend the majority of their lives in Jamaica's fresh waters include many species of livebearers, killifish, freshwater gobies, the mountain mullet, and the American eel. Tilapia have been introduced from Africa for aquaculture, and are very common. Insects and other invertebrates are abundant, including the world's largest centipede, the Amazonian giant centipede, and the Homerus swallowtail, the western hemisphere's largest butterfly. Demographics Further information: Demographics of Jamaica
Demographics of Jamaica
and Jamaican people Ethnic origins

Jamaica's population, 1961–2003

The streets of Montego Bay, Jamaica

Ethnic Group %

Black or Black Mixed[1] 92.1%

Mixed non-Black[1] 6.1%

Asian[1] 0.8%

Other[1] 0.4%

Unspecified[1] 0.7%

The Jamaican national motto is 'Out of Many One People', based on the population's multiracial roots. The motto is represented on the Coat of Arms, showing a male and female member of the Taino
Taino
Indian tribe standing on either side of a shield which bears a red cross with five golden pineapples.[57] Most of Jamaica's population is of African or partially African descent with many being able to trace their origins to the Western and Central African countries of Ghana
Ghana
and Cameroon,[58][59][60] as well as Europe[61] and Asia.[62] Like many other anglophone Caribbean countries, many Jamaicans
Jamaicans
with mixed ancestry self-report as black.[63] The prominent black nationalist Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey
is possibly the most famous Jamaican who was of full African heritage. Other famous full African Jamaicans
Jamaicans
include the Maroons of Accompong
Accompong
and other settlements, who were the descendants of escaped slaves that introduced the jerk cooking technique to the world. Many Maroons continue to have their own traditions and speak their own language, known locally as 'Kromanti'. It is extremely uncommon for Jamaicans
Jamaicans
to identify themselves by race as is prominent in countries like the United States
United States
where the race of a person is hyphenated with the ethnicity proceeding the nationality, for example, the American usage of the terms, White-American or African-American. Due to its history, most Jamaicans
Jamaicans
describe their nationality as a race in and of itself where they identify as simply being,'Jamaican' regardless of ethnicity.[64][65] Asians form the second-largest group and include Indo- Jamaicans
Jamaicans
and Chinese Jamaicans.[66] Most are descended from indentured workers brought by the British colonial government to fill labour shortages following the abolition of slavery in 1838. Prominent Indian Jamaicans include jockey Shaun Bridgmohan, who was the first Jamaican in the Kentucky Derby, and Miss Jamaica World and Miss Universe winner Yendi Phillips. The southwestern parish of Westmoreland is famous for its large population of Indo-Jamaicans.[67] Along with their Indian counterparts, Chinese Jamaicans
Jamaicans
have also played an integral part in Jamaica's community and history. Prominent descendants of this group include Canadian billionaire investor Michael Lee-Chin, supermodels Naomi Campbell
Naomi Campbell
and Tyson Beckford, and VP Records
VP Records
founder Vincent "Randy" Chin. There are about 20,000 Jamaicans
Jamaicans
who have Lebanese ancestry[68] Notable Jamaicans
Jamaicans
from this group include former Jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga and Jamaican politician and former Miss World Lisa Hanna. In 1835, Lord Seaford gave 500 acres of his 10,000 acre estate in Westmoreland for the Seaford Town German settlement. Today most of the town's descendants are of full or partial German descent.[69] There is also a significant Portuguese Jamaican population that is predominantly of Sephardic Jewish
Jewish
heritage that is primarily located in the Saint Elizabeth Parish
Saint Elizabeth Parish
in the southwestern part of Jamaica. Famous descendants include the dancehall artist Sean Paul, former record producer and founder of Island Records Chris Blackwell, and Jacob De Cordova
Jacob De Cordova
who was the founder of the Jamaica
Jamaica
Gleaner newspaper.[70][71][72] In recent years, immigration has increased, coming mainly from China, Haiti, Cuba, Colombia, and Latin America; 20,000 Latin Americans reside in Jamaica.[73][citation needed] The Jamaican government is currently considering making Spanish Jamaica's second official language. The move has been encouraged by Spain's Secretary for International Cooperation, Fernando Garcia Casas, who thinks that "...bilateral cooperation between (his) country and Jamaica
Jamaica
could be greatly increased by encouraging greater use of the Spanish language there".[74][75] About 7,000 Americans also reside in Jamaica,[citation needed] American fashion icon and philanthropist Ralph Lauren
Ralph Lauren
has been a resident of the island for almost 30 years. His estate, Round Hill Hotel and Villas, is a popular tourist destination and hotel, that was the location of American President John F. Kennedy's honeymoon after marrying his wife Jacqueline. It has also hosted several celebrities and politicians from around the world and has been the inspiration for many of his home and fashion collections, including the Spring 2018 collection that was officially presented at New York Fashion Week. Lauren's wife, Ricky, is also a popular socialite among locals who has written a book about the island entitled, "My Home".[76][77][78][79][80] There are also many first-generation American, British and Canadians of Jamaican descent.[81] A study found that the average admixture on the island was 78.3% Sub-Saharan African, 16.0% European, and 5.7% East Asian.[82] Languages Main articles: Jamaican Patois
Jamaican Patois
and Jamaican English Jamaica
Jamaica
is regarded as a bilingual country, with two major languages in use by the population.[83] The official language is English, which is "used in all domains of public life", including the government, the legal system, the media, and education. However, the primary spoken language is an English-based creole called Jamaican Patois
Jamaican Patois
(or Patwa). A 2007 survey by the Jamaican Language Unit found that 17.1 percent of the population were monolingual in Jamaican Standard English (JSE), 36.5 percent were monolingual in Patois, and 46.4 percent were bilingual, although earlier surveys had pointed to a greater degree of bilinguality (up to 90 percent).[84] The Jamaican education system has only recently begun to offer formal instruction in Patois, while retaining JSE as the "official language of instruction".[85] Additionally, some Jamaicans
Jamaicans
use one or more of Jamaican Sign Language (JSL), American Sign Language
American Sign Language
(ASL) or the indigenous Jamaican Country Sign Language (Konchri Sain).[86] Both JSL and ASL are rapidly replacing Konchri Sain for a variety of reasons.[86] In 2016 it was announced that the government of Jamaica
Jamaica
is considering making Spanish an official second language. The move has been discussed between Jamaican Prime Minister Andrew Holness in a meeting with Cuban President Raul Castro
Raul Castro
as well as the Jamaican House of Representatives. It has also been publicaly endorsed by Spain's Secretary for International Cooperation, Fernando Garcia Casas, who thinks that the ties between both countries could be increased with the use of Spanish there.[87][88] Emigration Main article: Jamaican diaspora Many Jamaicans
Jamaicans
have emigrated to other countries, especially to the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. In the case of the United States, about 20,000 Jamaicans
Jamaicans
per year are granted permanent residence.[89] The great number of Jamaicans
Jamaicans
living abroad has become known as the Jamaican diaspora. There has also been emigration of Jamaicans
Jamaicans
to Cuba.[90] The scale of emigration has been widespread and similar to other Caribbean
Caribbean
entities such as Puerto Rico, Guyana, and The Bahamas. It was estimated in 2004 that up to 2.5 million Jamaicans and Jamaican descendants live abroad.[91] Jamaicans
Jamaicans
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
number an estimated 800,000 making them by far the country's largest African- Caribbean
Caribbean
group. Large-scale migration from Jamaica
Jamaica
to the UK occurred primarily in the 1950s and 1960s (when the country was still under British rule). Jamaican communities exist in most large UK cities.[92] Concentrations of expatriate Jamaicans
Jamaicans
are quite considerable in numerous cities in the United States, including New York City, Buffalo, the Miami metro area, Atlanta, Chicago, Orlando, Tampa, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Hartford, Providence and Los Angeles. In Canada, the Jamaican population is centred in Toronto, and there are smaller communities in cities such as Hamilton, Montreal, Winnipeg, Vancouver
Vancouver
and Ottawa. Crime Main article: Crime in Jamaica See also: Prisons in Jamaica and LGBT
LGBT
rights in Jamaica When Jamaica
Jamaica
gained independence in 1962, the murder rate was 3.9 per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the lowest in the world. By 2009, the rate was 62 per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the highest in the world.[93] Jamaica
Jamaica
has had one of the highest murder rates in the world for many years, according to UN estimates.[94][95] Some areas of Jamaica, particularly cities such as Kingston, experience high levels of crime and violence.[96] Some Jamaicans
Jamaicans
are hostile towards LGBT
LGBT
and intersex people,[97] and there have been reported cases of mob attacks against gay people.[98][99][100] However, there were 1,682 reported murders in 2009 and 1,428 in 2010.[citation needed] Since 2011 the murder rate continued to fall following the downward trend in 2010 after a strategic programme was launched.[101] In 2012, the Ministry of National Security reported a 30 percent decrease in murders.[102] Nevertheless, in 2017 murders rose by 22% over the previous year.[103] Major cities

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Jamaica Demographic Statistics 2016, pp. 15–16 (2011 Census)

Rank Name Parish Pop.

Kingston 1 Kingston Kingston 661,862

Spanish Town

Montego Bay

2 Portmore Saint Catherine 182,153

3 Spanish Town Saint Catherine 147,152

4 Montego Bay Saint James 110,115

5 May Pen Clarendon 61,548

6 Mandeville Manchester 49,695

7 Old Harbour Saint Catherine 28,912

8 Savanna-la-Mar Westmoreland 22,633

9 Ocho Rios Saint Ann 16,671

10 Linstead Saint Catherine 15,231

Religion Main article: Religion in Jamaica

Mandeville Church (est. 1816), an Anglican
Anglican
church in Manchester Parish

Christianity
Christianity
is the largest religion practised in Jamaica. Protestants form the majority of approximately 70% in the country, and Roman Catholics are a minority with 2% of the population. According to the 2001 census, the country's largest Protestant denominations are the Church of God (24%), Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church
(11%), Pentecostal (10%), Baptist
Baptist
(7%), Anglican
Anglican
(4%), United Church
United Church
(2%), Methodist (2%), Moravian (1%) and Plymouth Brethren
Plymouth Brethren
(1%)[104] The Christian faith gained acceptance as British Christian
Christian
abolitionists and Baptist missionaries joined educated former slaves in the struggle against slavery.[105] The Rastafari
Rastafari
movement has 29,026 adherents, according to the 2011 census, with 25,325 Rastafarian males and 3,701 Rastafarian females.[104] Other religions in Jamaica
Jamaica
include Jehovah's Witnesses (2% population), the Bahá'í faith, which counts perhaps 8,000 adherents[106] and 21 Local Spiritual Assemblies,[107] Buddhism, and Hinduism. The Hindu
Hindu
Diwali
Diwali
festival is celebrated yearly amoung the Indo-Jamaican community.[108][109] There is also a small population of Jews, about 200, who describe themselves as Liberal-Conservative.[110] The first Jews in Jamaica trace their roots back to early 15th-century Spain and Portugal.[111] Kahal Kadosh Shaare Shalom, also known as the United Congregation of Israelites, is a historic synagogue located in the city of Kingston. Originally built in 1912, it is the official and only Jewish
Jewish
place of worship left on the island. The once abundant Jewish
Jewish
population has voluntarily converted to Christianity
Christianity
over time. Shaare Shalom is one of the few synagogues in the world that contains sand covered floors and is a popular tourist destination.[112][113] On March 23, 2002, Nation of Islam
Nation of Islam
leader Louis Farrakhan
Louis Farrakhan
visited Shaare Shalom, his first visit to a synagogue,[114] in an attempt to repair his controversial relationship with the Jewish
Jewish
community.[115] Farrakhan was accepted to speak at Shaare Shalom in the native country of his father, after being rejected to appear at American synagogues, many of whom had fear of sending the wrong signal to the Jewish community.[115][114] Other small groups include Muslims, who claim 5,000 adherents,[104] The Muslim
Muslim
holidays of Ashura, known locally as Hussay or Hosay
Hosay
and Eid, have been celebrated throughout the island for hundreds of years. In the past, every plantation in each parish celebrated Hosay. Today it has been called an Indian carnival and is perhaps most well known in Clarendon where it is celebrated each August. People of all religions attend the event, showing mutual respect. [116][117]

A historic Ashura
Ashura
celebration in Jamaica, which is known locally as Hussay or Hosay.

There is also a small community of Mormons.[118] Culture

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Main article: Culture of Jamaica

Marcus Garvey, father of the Back to Africa Movement and Jamaica's first National Hero

Bob Marley, the most famous reggae artist from Jamaica

Music Main article: Music
Music
of Jamaica Though a small nation, Jamaican culture has a strong global presence. The musical genres reggae, ska, mento, rocksteady, dub, and, more recently, dancehall and ragga all originated in the island's vibrant, popular urban recording industry. Jamaica
Jamaica
also played an important role in the development of punk rock, through reggae and ska. Reggae has also influenced American rap music, as they share roots as rhythmic, African styles of music. Some rappers, such as The Notorious B.I.G., Busta Rhymes, and Heavy D, are of Jamaican descent. Internationally known reggae musician Bob Marley
Bob Marley
was also Jamaican. Many other internationally known artists were born in Jamaica, including Millie Small, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Gregory Isaacs, Half Pint, Protoje, Peter Tosh, Bunny Wailer, Big Youth, Jimmy Cliff, Dennis Brown, Desmond Dekker, Beres Hammond, Beenie Man, Shaggy, Grace Jones, Shabba Ranks, Super Cat, Buju Banton, Sean Paul, I Wayne, Bounty Killer
Bounty Killer
and many others. Bands that came from Jamaica
Jamaica
include Black Uhuru, Third World Band, Inner Circle, Chalice Reggae
Reggae
Band, Culture, Fab Five and Morgan Heritage. The genre jungle emerged from London's Jamaican diaspora. The birth of hip-hop in New York City
New York City
owed much to the city's Jamaican community. Literature Main article: Jamaican literature Ian Fleming, who lived in Jamaica, repeatedly used the island as a setting in his James Bond
James Bond
novels, including Live and Let Die, Doctor No, "For Your Eyes Only", The Man with the Golden Gun, and Octopussy and The Living Daylights. In addition, James Bond
James Bond
uses a Jamaica-based cover in Casino Royale. So far, the only James Bond
James Bond
film adaptation to have been set in Jamaica
Jamaica
is Doctor No. Filming for the fictional island of San Monique in Live and Let Die took place in Jamaica. The journalist and author H. G. de Lisser (1878–1944) used his native country as the setting for his many novels. Born in Falmouth, Jamaica, de Lisser worked as a reporter for the Jamaica Times at a young age and in 1920 began publishing the magazine Planters' Punch. The White Witch of Rosehall is one of his better-known novels. He was named Honorary President of the Jamaican Press Association; he worked throughout his professional career to promote the Jamaican sugar industry. Marlon James (1970), novelist has published three novels: John Crow's Devil (2005), The Book of Night Women (2009) and A Brief History of Seven Killings (2014), winner of the 2015 Man Booker Prize. Film See also: List of Jamaican films The cinema actor Errol Flynn
Errol Flynn
lived with his third wife Patrice Wymore in Port Antonio
Port Antonio
in the 1950s. He helped develop tourism to this area, popularising trips down rivers on bamboo rafts.[119] Jamaica
Jamaica
has a history in the film industry dating from the early 1960s. A look at delinquent youth in Jamaica
Jamaica
is presented in the 1970s musical crime film The Harder They Come, starring Jimmy Cliff
Jimmy Cliff
as a frustrated (and psychopathic) reggae musician who descends into a murderous crime spree. The American film Cocktail (1988), starring Tom Cruise, is one of the more popular films to depict Jamaica. Another popular Jamaican-based film is the 1993 Disney comedy Cool Runnings, which is loosely based on the true story of Jamaica's first bobsled team trying to make it in the Winter Olympics. Cuisine Main article: Jamaican cuisine The island is famous for its Jamaican jerk spice, which is integral to Jamaican cuisine. Jamaica
Jamaica
is also home to Red Stripe
Red Stripe
beer and Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee. National symbols (From the Jamaica
Jamaica
Information Service)[120]

National bird: red-billed streamertail (also called doctor bird) (a hummingbird, Trochilus polytmus) National flower – lignum vitae (Guiacum officinale) National tree: blue mahoe (Hibiscus talipariti elatum) National fruit: ackee (Blighia sapida) National motto: "Out of Many, One People."

Jamaica
Jamaica
motto on a building at Papine High School in Kingston, Jamaica.

Sport Main article: Sport in Jamaica

Usain Bolt
Usain Bolt
at the 2009 World Championships in Athletics
2009 World Championships in Athletics
in Berlin

Sport is an integral part of national life in Jamaica
Jamaica
and the island's athletes tend to perform to a standard well above what might ordinarily be expected of such a small country.[121] While the most popular local sport is cricket, on the international stage Jamaicans have tended to do particularly well at track and field athletics.[121][122] Jamaica
Jamaica
has produced some of the world's most famous cricketers, including George Headley, Courtney Walsh, and Michael Holding.[123] The country was one of the venues of 2007 Cricket
Cricket
World Cup and the West Indies cricket team
West Indies cricket team
is one of 10 ICC full member teams that participate in international Test cricket.[124] The Jamaica
Jamaica
national cricket team competes regionally, and also provides players for the West Indies team. Sabina Park is the only Test venue in the island, but the Greenfield Stadium is also used for cricket.[125][126] Chris Gayle is the most renowned batsman from Jamaica
Jamaica
currently representing the West Indies cricket team. Since independence Jamaica
Jamaica
has consistently produced world class athletes in track and field.[121] In Jamaica
Jamaica
involvement in athletics begins at a very young age and most high schools maintain rigorous athletics programs with their top athletes competing in national competitions (most notably the VMBS Girls and Boys Athletics Championships) and international meets (most notably the Penn Relays). In Jamaica
Jamaica
it is not uncommon for young athletes to attain press coverage and national fame long before they arrive on the international athletics stage. Over the past six decades Jamaica
Jamaica
has produced dozens of world class sprinters including Olympic and World Champion Usain Bolt, world record holder in the 100m for men at 9.58s, and 200m for men at 19.19s. Other noteworthy Jamaican sprinters include Arthur Wint, the first Jamaican Olympic gold medalist; Donald Quarrie, Elaine Thompson double Olympic champion from Rio 2016 in the 100m and 200m, Olympic Champion and former 200m world record holder; Roy Anthony Bridge, part of the International Olympic Committee; Merlene Ottey; Delloreen Ennis-London; Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, the former World and two time Olympic 100m Champion; Kerron Stewart; Aleen Bailey; Juliet Cuthbert; three-time Olympic gold medalist; Veronica Campbell-Brown; Sherone Simpson; Brigitte Foster-Hylton; Yohan Blake; Herb McKenley; George Rhoden, Olympic gold medalist; Deon Hemmings, Olympic gold medalist; as well as Asafa Powell, former 100m world record holder and 2x 100m Olympic finalist and gold medal winner in the men's 2008 Olympic 4 × 100 m. Jamaica
Jamaica
has also produced several world class amateur and professional boxers including Trevor Berbick and Mike McCallum. First-generation Jamaican athletes have continued to make a significant impact on the sport internationally, especially in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
where the list of top British boxers born in Jamaica
Jamaica
or of Jamaican parents includes Lloyd Honeyghan, Chris Eubank, Audley Harrison, David Haye, Lennox Lewis and Frank Bruno. Association football
Association football
and horse-racing are other popular sports in Jamaica. The national football team qualified for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. The Jamaica national bobsled team
Jamaica national bobsled team
was once a serious contender in the Winter Olympics, beating many well-established teams. Chess and basketball are widely played in Jamaica
Jamaica
and are supported by the Jamaica
Jamaica
Chess Federation (JCF) and the Jamaica
Jamaica
Basketball Federation (JBF), respectively. Netball
Netball
is also very popular on the island, with the Jamaica national netball team
Jamaica national netball team
called The Sunshine Girls consistently ranking in the top five in the world.[127] The Jamaica national rugby league team
Jamaica national rugby league team
is made up of players who play in Jamaica, and UK-players from professional and semi professional teams in the UK.[128] Their first international was a 37–22 loss to the United States
United States
national rugby league team in November 2009.[129] Rugby league in Jamaica
Jamaica
is growing with universities and high schools taking up the sport.[130][131] The JRLA Championship is the main rugby league competition in the country.[132] The Hurricanes Rugby League are a professional rugby league team who are hoping to compete in either the USA Rugby League
USA Rugby League
or the AMNRL
AMNRL
by 2013 during that time they will be training young players aged 14–19 who will be part of the Hurricanes RL Academy in the hope of developing into full-time professional players. According to ESPN, the highest paid Jamaican professional athlete in 2011 was Justin Masterson, starting pitcher for the Cleveland Indians.[133] Education Main article: Education
Education
in Jamaica The emancipation of the slaves heralded in the establishment of the Jamaican education system for the masses. Prior to emancipation there were few schools for educating locals. Many sent their children off to England to access quality education. After emancipation the West Indian Commission granted a sum of money to establish Elementary Schools, now known as All Age Schools. Most of these schools were established by the churches.[134] This was the genesis of the modern Jamaican school system. Presently the following categories of schools exist:

Early childhood – Basic, infant and privately operated pre-school. Age cohort: 2 – 5 years. Primary – Publicly and privately owned (privately owned being called preparatory schools). Ages 3 – 12 years. Secondary – Publicly and privately owned. Ages 10 – 19 years. The high schools in Jamaica
Jamaica
may be either single-sex or co-educational institutions, and many schools follow the traditional English grammar school model used throughout the British West Indies. Tertiary – Community colleges; teachers' colleges, with the Mico Teachers' College (now The MICO University College) being the oldest, founded in 1836; the Shortwood Teachers' College (which was once an all-female teacher training institution); vocational training centres, colleges and universities, publicly and privately owned. There are five local universities: the University of the West Indies
University of the West Indies
(Mona Campus); the University of Technology, Jamaica, formerly The College of Art Science and Technology (CAST); the Northern Caribbean University, formerly West Indies College; the University College of The Caribbean; and the International University of the Caribbean.

Additionally, there are many community and teacher training colleges. Education
Education
is free from the early childhood to secondary levels. There are also opportunities for those who cannot afford further education in the vocational arena, through the Human Employment and Resource Training-National Training Agency (HEART Trust-NTA) programme,[135] which is opened to all working age national population[136] and through an extensive scholarship network for the various universities. Students are taught Spanish in school from the primary level upwards; about 40–45% of educated people in Jamaica
Jamaica
knows some form of Spanish. Economy Main article: Economy of Jamaica

A beach in Negril
Negril
with a hotel and restaurant

James Bond
James Bond
Beach in Oracabessa

Jamaica
Jamaica
is a mixed economy with both state enterprises and private sector businesses. Major sectors of the Jamaican economy include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, and financial and insurance services. Tourism
Tourism
and mining are the leading earners of foreign exchange. Half the Jamaican economy relies on services, with half of its income coming from services such as tourism. An estimated 1.3 million foreign tourists visit Jamaica
Jamaica
every year.[137] Supported by multilateral financial institutions, Jamaica
Jamaica
has, since the early 1980s, sought to implement structural reforms aimed at fostering private sector activity and increasing the role of market forces in resource allocation. Since 1991, the government has followed a programme of economic liberalisation and stabilisation by removing exchange controls, floating the exchange rate, cutting tariffs, stabilising the Jamaican currency, reducing inflation and removing restrictions on foreign investment. Emphasis has been placed on maintaining strict fiscal discipline, greater openness to trade and financial flows, market liberalisation and reduction in the size of government. During this period, a large share of the economy was returned to private sector ownership through divestment and privatisation programmes. The macroeconomic stabilisation programme introduced in 1991, which focused on tight fiscal and monetary policies, has contributed to a controlled reduction in the rate of inflation. The annual inflation rate decreased from a high of 80.2% in 1991 to 7.9% in 1998. Inflation for FY1998/99 was 6.2% compared to 7.2% in the corresponding period in CUU1997/98. The Government of Jamaica
Government of Jamaica
remains committed to lowering inflation, with a long-term objective of bringing it in line with that of its major trading partners. After a period of steady growth from 1985 to 1995, real GDP decreased by 1.8% and 2.4% in 1996 and 1997, respectively. The decrease in GDP in 1996 and 1997 was largely due to significant problems in the financial sector and, in 1997, a severe island-wide drought (the worst in 70 years) that drastically reduced agricultural production. In 1997, nominal GDP was approximately J$220,556.2 million (US$6,198.9 million based on the average annual exchange rate of the period).

Fishing boats and bauxite cargo ships share the waterways near Alligator Pond.

The economy in 1997 was marked by low levels of import growth, high levels of private capital inflows and relative stability in the foreign exchange market. Recent economic performance shows the Jamaican economy is recovering. Agricultural
Agricultural
production, an important engine of growth increased 15.3% in third quarter of 1998 compared to the corresponding period in 1997, signaling the first positive growth rate in the sector since January 1997. Bauxite
Bauxite
and alumina production increased 5.5% from January to December, 1998 compared to the corresponding period in 1997. January's bauxite production recorded a 7.1% increase relative to January 1998 and continued expansion of alumina production through 2009 is planned by Alcoa.[138] Jamaica
Jamaica
is the fifth largest exporter of bauxite in the world, after Australia, China, Brazil
Brazil
and Guinea. Tourism, which is the largest foreign exchange earner, showed improvement as well. In the third quarter of 1998, growth in tourist arrivals accelerated with an overall increase of 8.5% in tourism earnings in 1998 when compared to the corresponding period in 1997. Jamaica's agricultural exports are sugar, bananas, coffee, rum, and yams. Jamaica
Jamaica
has a wide variety of industrial and commercial activities. The aviation industry is able to perform most routine aircraft maintenance, except for heavy structural repairs. There is a considerable amount of technical support for transport and agricultural aviation. Jamaica
Jamaica
has a considerable amount of industrial engineering, light manufacturing, including metal fabrication, metal roofing, and furniture manufacturing. Food and beverage processing, glassware manufacturing, software and data processing, printing and publishing, insurance underwriting, music and recording, and advanced education activities can be found in the larger urban areas. The Jamaican construction industry is entirely self-sufficient, with professional technical standards and guidance.[139] Since the first quarter of 2006, the economy of Jamaica
Jamaica
has undergone a period of staunch growth. With inflation for the 2006 calendar year down to 6.0% and unemployment down to 8.9%, the nominal GDP grew by an unprecedented 2.9%.[140] An investment programme in island transportation and utility infrastructure and gains in the tourism, mining, and service sectors all contributed this figure. All projections for 2007 show an even higher potential for economic growth with all estimates over 3.0% and hampered only by urban crime and public policies. In 2006, Jamaica
Jamaica
became part of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) as one of the pioneering members. The global economic downturn had a significant impact on the Jamaican economy for the years 2007 to 2009, resulting in negative economic growth. The government implemented a new Debt Management Initiative, the Jamaica
Jamaica
Debt Exchange (JDX) on 14 January 2010. The initiative would see holders of Government of Jamaica
Government of Jamaica
(GOJ) bonds returning the high interest earning instruments for bonds with lower yields and longer maturities. The offer was taken up by over 95% of local financial institutions and was deemed a success by the government. Owing to the success of the JDX program, the Bruce Golding-led government was successful in entering into a borrowing arrangement with the IMF on 4 February 2010 for the amount of US$1.27b. The loan agreement is for a period of three years.[141] In April 2014, the Governments of Jamaica
Jamaica
and China
China
signed the preliminary agreements for the first phase of the Jamaican Logistics Hub (JLH) – the initiative that aims to position Kingston as the fourth node in the global logistics chain, joining Rotterdam, Dubai and Singapore, and serving the Americas.[142] The Project, when completed, is expected to provide many jobs for Jamaicans, Economic Zones for multinational companies[143] and much needed economic growth to alleviate the country's heavy debt-to-GDP ratio. Strict adherence to the IMF's refinancing programme and preparations for the JLH has favourably affected Jamaica's credit rating and outlook from the three biggest rating agencies. Infrastructure Transport Further information: Transport in Jamaica

Halfway Tree Transport Center, Kingston

The transport infrastructure in Jamaica
Jamaica
consists of roadways, railways and air transport, with roadways forming the backbone of the island's internal transport system. Roadways Main article: Roads in Jamaica The Jamaican road network consists of almost 21,000 kilometres (13,000 mi) of roads, of which over 15,000 kilometres (9,300 mi) is paved.[1] The Jamaican Government has, since the late 1990s and in cooperation with private investors, embarked on a campaign of infrastructural improvement projects, one of which includes the creation of a system of freeways, the first such access-controlled roadways of their kind on the island, connecting the main population centres of the island. This project has so far seen the completion of 33 kilometres (21 mi) of freeway. Railways Main article: Railways of Jamaica Railways in Jamaica
Jamaica
no longer enjoy the prominent position they once did, having been largely replaced by roadways as the primary means of transport. Of the 272 kilometres (169 mi) of railway found in Jamaica, only 57 kilometres (35 mi) remain in operation, currently used to transport bauxite.[1] On 13 April 2011, limited passenger service was resumed between May Pen, Spanish Town
Spanish Town
and Linstead. Air transport

A US Airways
US Airways
aircraft landing at Montego Bay
Montego Bay
(2013)

There are three international airports in Jamaica
Jamaica
with modern terminals, long runways, and the navigational equipment required to accommodate the large jet aircraft used in modern and air travel: Norman Manley International Airport
Norman Manley International Airport
in Kingston; Ian Fleming International Airport in Boscobel, Saint Mary Parish; and the island's largest and busiest airport, Sir Donald Sangster International Airport in the resort city of Montego Bay. Manley and Sangster International airports are home to the country's national airline, Air Jamaica. In addition there are local commuter airports at Tinson Pen (Kingston), Port Antonio, and Negril, which cater to internal flights only. Many other small, rural centres are served by private fields on sugar estates or bauxite mines. Ports, shipping and lighthouses See also: Lighthouses in Jamaica Owing to its location in the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
in the shipping lane to the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
and relative proximity to large markets in North America and emerging markets in Latin America, Jamaica
Jamaica
receives high container traffic. The container terminal at the Port of Kingston has undergone large expansion in capacity in recent years to handle growth both already realised as well as that which is projected in coming years.[144] Montego Freeport in Montego Bay
Montego Bay
also handles a variety of cargo like (though more limited than) the Port of Kingston, mainly agricultural products. There are several other ports positioned around the island, including Port Esquivel in St. Catherine (WINDALCO), Rocky Point in Clarendon, Port Kaiser in St. Elizabeth, Port Rhoades in Discovery Bay, Reynolds Pier in Ocho Rios, and Boundbrook Port in Port Antonio. To aid the navigation of shipping, Jamaica
Jamaica
operates nine lighthouses. Energy See also: Solar power in Jamaica Jamaica
Jamaica
depends on petroleum imports to satisfy its national energy needs.[1] Many test sites have been explored for oil, but no commercially viable quantities have been found.[145] The most convenient sources of imported oil and motor fuels (diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel) are from Mexico
Mexico
and Venezuela. Jamaica's electrical power is produced by diesel (bunker oil) generators located in Old Harbour. Other smaller power stations (most owned by the Jamaica
Jamaica
Public Service Company,[146] the island's electricity provider) support the island's electrical grid including the Hunts Bay Power Station, the Bogue Power Station, the Rockfort Power Station and small hydroelectric plants on the White River, Rio Bueno, Morant River, Black River (Maggotty) and Roaring River.[147] A wind farm, owned by the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica, was established at Wigton, Manchester.[148] Jamaica
Jamaica
has successfully operated a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor of 20 kW capacity since the early 1980s, but there are no plans to expand nuclear power at present.[149] Jamaica
Jamaica
imports approximately 80,000 barrels (13,000 m3) of oil energy products per day,[145] including asphalt and lubrication products. Just 20% of imported fuels are used for road transportation, the rest being used by the bauxite industry, electricity generation, and aviation. 30,000 barrels/day of crude imports are processed into various motor fuels and asphalt by the Petrojam Refinery in Kingston.[150] Jamaica
Jamaica
produces enormous quantities of drinking alcohol (at least 5% water content), most of which appears to be consumed as beverages, and none used as motor fuel. Facilities exist to refine hydrous ethanol feedstock into anhydrous ethanol (0% water content), but as of 2007, the process appeared to be uneconomic and the production plant was idle.[151] Communication Main article: Telecommunications in Jamaica Jamaica
Jamaica
has a fully digital telephone communication system with a mobile penetration of over 95%.[152] The country's two mobile operators – FLOW Jamaica
Jamaica
(formerly LIME, bMobile and Cable and Wireless Jamaica) and Digicel
Digicel
Jamaica
Jamaica
have spent millions in network upgrades and expansion. The newest operator, Digicel
Digicel
was granted a licence in 2001 to operate mobile services in the newly liberalised telecom market that had once been the sole domain of the incumbent FLOW (then Cable and Wireless Jamaica) monopoly. Digicel
Digicel
opted for the more widely used GSM
GSM
wireless system, while a past operator, Oceanic (which became Claro Jamaica
Jamaica
and later merged with Digicel
Digicel
Jamaica
Jamaica
in 2011) opted for the CDMA
CDMA
standard. FLOW (formerly "LIME" – pre- Columbus Communications
Columbus Communications
merger) which had begun with TDMA standard, subsequently upgraded to GSM
GSM
in 2002, decommissioned TDMA in 2006 and only utilised that standard until 2009 when LIME launched its 3G network.[153] Both operators currently provide islandwide coverage with HSPA+ (3G) technology. Currently, only Digicel
Digicel
offers LTE to its customers[154] whereas FLOW Jamaica
Jamaica
has committed to launching LTE in the cities of Kingston and Montego Bay, places where Digicel's LTE network is currently only found in, in short order. A new entrant to the Jamaican communications market, Flow Jamaica, laid a new submarine cable connecting Jamaica
Jamaica
to the United States. This new cable increases the total number of submarine cables connecting Jamaica
Jamaica
to the rest of the world to four. Cable and Wireless Communications (parent company of LIME) acquired the company in late 2014 and replaced their brand LIME with FLOW.[155] FLOW Jamaica
Jamaica
currently has the most broadband and cable subscribers on the island and also has 1 million mobile subscribers,[156] second to Digicel
Digicel
(which had, at its peak, over 2 million mobile subscriptions on its network). Digicel
Digicel
entered the broadband market in 2010 by offering WiMAX broadband,[157] capable of up to 6 Mbit/s per subscriber. To further their broadband share post-LIME/FLOW merger in 2014, the company introduced a new broadband service called Digicel
Digicel
Play,[158] which is Jamaica's second FTTH offering (after LIME's deployment in selected communities in 2011[159]). It is currently only available in the parishes of Kingston, Portmore and St. Andrew. It offers speeds of up to 200 Mbit/s down, 100 Mbit/s up via a pure fibre optic network. Digicel's competitor, FLOW Jamaica, has a network consisting of ADSL, Coaxial and Fibre to the Home (inherited from LIME) and only offers speeds up to 100 Mbit/s. FLOW has committed to expanding its Fibre offering to more areas in order to combat Digicel's entrance into the market. It was announced that the Office and Utilities Regulations (OUR), Ministry of Science, Technology, Energy and Mining
Mining
(MSTEM) and the Spectrum Management Authority (SMA) have given approval for another mobile operator licence in January 2016.[160] The identity of this entrant was ascertained on May 20, 2016, when the Jamaican Government named the new carrier as Symbiote Investments Limited operating under the name Caricel.[161] The company will focus on 4G LTE data offerings and will first go live in the Kingston Metropolitan Area and will expand to the rest of Jamaica
Jamaica
thereafter. See also

Index of Jamaica-related articles Outline of Jamaica

Jamaica
Jamaica
portal Caribbean
Caribbean
portal Caribbean
Caribbean
Community portal Commonwealth realms portal

References

^ a b c d e f g h i The CIA World Factbook – Jamaica. Retrieved 2015-09-16. ^ " The World Factbook
The World Factbook
— Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-25.  ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ a b c d "Jamaica". International Monetary Fund. 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.  ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.  ^ "Country Comparison: Distribution 0f Family Income – Gini Index". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 8 February 2016.  ^ "2015 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme. 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ As represented in Old Spanish orthography, meaning it began with a "sh" sound. ^ " Taíno
Taíno
Dictionary" (in Spanish). The United Confederation of Taíno People. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2007.  ^ as known from the songs "Roots, Rock, Reggae" by Bob Marley
Bob Marley
("roots" referring to Africa, while "rock" means Jamaica), "Jahman inna Jamdown" by Peter Tosh, and "Welcome to Jamrock" by Damian Marley ^ a b c "The Taino
Taino
of Jamaica
Jamaica
(Jamaica)". Jamaicans.com. 1 April 2001. Retrieved 4 July 2009.  ^ "Jamaican National Heritage Trust". Web.archive.org. 28 September 2007. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ Pickering, Keith A. "A Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
Timeline". Retrieved 30 September 2010. [permanent dead link] ^ "History of Jamaica". Jamaica
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National Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010.  ^ a b "Spanish Town". Jamaica
Jamaica
National Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 25 September 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010.  ^ a b "Jamaica's English History". Jamaica
Jamaica
National Heritage Trust. Retrieved 3 March 2016.  ^ " Montego Bay, Jamaica
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– Visitors Guide". Mobay.com. 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2017.  ^ "Henry Morgan: The Pirate Who Invaded Panama
Panama
in 1671", Historynet.com. ^ a b Donovan, J. (1910). Jamaica. [[Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company] ^ Trevor Burnard, "A failed settler society: marriage and demographic failure in early Jamaica", Journal of Social History, Fall, 1994 ^ https://tudorstuartireland.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/tsi-2015-abstracts.pdf ^ "Rodgers, Nini, 'The Irish in the Caribbean
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1641–1837: An Overview'". Irlandeses.org. Retrieved 2017-09-25.  ^ Kritzler, Edward, The Jewish
Jewish
Pirates of the Caribbean, Anchor, 2009, p. 15, ISBN 0767919521 ^ a b Benitez, Suzette. "The Maroons". Retrieved 30 September 2010.  ^ The Sugar
Sugar
Revolutions and Slavery, U.S. Library of Congress ^ "Embassy of Jamaica, Washington, DC". www.embassyofjamaica.org.  ^ Tortello, Rebecca (3 November 2003). "The Arrival Of The Indians". The Jamaica
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Gleaner. Retrieved 27 May 2017. [permanent dead link] ^ Hemlock, Doreen (17 April 2005). "Out of Many, One People: Chinese- Jamaicans
Jamaicans
Treasure Their Roots and Their Communities". The Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 27 May 2017.  ^ History of the Catholic Church in Jamaica ISBN 978-0-829-40544-6 p. 68 ^ "Give Us The Queen!". The Gleaner. Gleaner Company. 28 June 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2017.  ^ Ghosh, Palash (29 June 2011). "Most Jamaicans
Jamaicans
Would Prefer To Remain British". International Business Times. Retrieved 13 February 2017.  ^ Queen of Jamaica http://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchAndCommonwealth/Jamaica/Jamaica.aspx ^ "The Monarchy Today: Queen and Commonwealth". Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2007.  ^ a b "Local Government Act, 2015" (PDF). http://www.localauthorities.gov.jm/. Retrieved 17 January 2018.  External link in website= (help) ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
Defense Force History". Jamaica
Jamaica
Defense Force. Retrieved 10 October 2010.  ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
Defense Force General Information". Jamaica
Jamaica
Defense Force. Retrieved 10 October 2010.  ^ "JDF Coast Guard Roles". Jamaica
Jamaica
Defense Force. Retrieved 10 October 2010.  ^ "The Combat Support Battalion (Cbt Sp Bn)". Jamaica
Jamaica
Defense Force. Retrieved 10 October 2010.  ^ "1st Engineering Regiment History". Jamaica
Jamaica
Defense Force. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Headquarters Jamaica Defence Force
Jamaica Defence Force
(HQ JDF)". Jamaica
Jamaica
Defense Force. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ " County
County
Background – Jamaica" (PDF). Pan American Health Organization. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Geography of Jamaica". Jamaica
Jamaica
Gleaner. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Jamaican Cities". My Island Jamaica. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Port Authority History". Port Authority of Jamaica. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Kingston tourist destinations". Planet Aware. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Jamaican tourist attractions". Planet Aware. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ " Port Antonio
Port Antonio
tourist attractions". Planet Aware. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ " Ocho Rios
Ocho Rios
tourist attractions". Planet Aware. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
Climate and Weather". Word Travels. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Climate of Jamaica". Jamaica
Jamaica
Gleaner. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Construction and Building in Jamaica". Projects Abroad. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "CSI Activities (Portland Bight, Jamaica)". Unesco.org. Retrieved 20 October 2012.  ^ "THE REPTILE DATABASE". reptile-database.org.  ^ "Amphibians and reptiles found in Cockpit Country
Cockpit Country
jamaica". Cockpitcountry.com. Retrieved 31 October 2011.  ^ "The Doctor Bird - Jamaica
Jamaica
Information Service". jis.gov.jm.  ^ "All fishes reported from Jamaica". fishbase.org.  ^ jis.gov.jm/symbols/jamaican-coat-of-arms title= The Jamaican Coat of Arms - Jamaican National Symbol ^ Richardson, David; Tibbles, Anthony; Schwarz, Suzanne (2007). Liverpool and Transatlantic Slavery. Liverpool University Press. p. 141. ISBN 1-84631-066-0.  ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bight_of_Biafra title= Bight of Biafra - ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Afro-Jamaican title= Afro-Jamaican - Wikipedia ^ "Pieces of the Past:The Arrival Of The Irish". Jamaica
Jamaica
Gleaner. 1 December 2003. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2010.  ^ Bouknight-Davis 2004, p. 83 ^ http://jamaicans.com/reasons-many-jamaicans-dont-understand-racism/ title= 5 Reasons Many Jamaicans
Jamaicans
Don’t Understand Racism ^ http://jamaicans.com/jamaicanrace/ title=Out of Many One People, We Are A Race Apart ^ http://jamaicans.com/reasons-many-jamaicans-dont-understand-racism/ title= 5 Reasons Many Jamaicans
Jamaicans
Don’t Understand Racism ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/jm.html CIA (The World Factbook): Jamaica ^ www.jnht.com/disndat_people.php title= Jamaica
Jamaica
National Heritage Trust - The People Who Came ^ "Out Of Many Cultures The People Who Came The Arrival Of The Lebanese".  ^ www.jnht.com/disndat_people.php Jamaica
Jamaica
National Heritage Trust - The People Who Came ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20070120042650/http://jamaica-gleaner.com/pages/history/story0054.htm title= Out Of Many Cultures: The People Who Came The Jews In Jamaica ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jamaica-virtual-jewish-history-tour title= Jamaica
Jamaica
Virtual Jewish
Jewish
History Tour ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_in_ Jamaica
Jamaica
History of the Jews in Jamaica ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
* Rastafari
Rastafari
* ToZion.org *". www.tozion.org. Retrieved 2018-02-13.  ^ http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/PM-wants-Spanish-to-be-Jamaica-s-second-language title= PM wants Spanish to be Jamaica’s second language ^ http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/sunday-finance/spain-wants-jamaica-to-make-spanish-a-second-language_105607?profile=1056 title=Spain wants Jamaica
Jamaica
to make Spanish a second language ^ https://www.vogue.com/article/ralph-lauren-spring-2018-nyfw-show-round-hill-jamaica-home title= Ralph Lauren's Latest Collection Is a Love Letter to His Roundhill Jamaica
Jamaica
Home ^ https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/ralph-lauren-jamaica-home-article title= Take a Look Inside Ralph Lauren's Retreat in Jamaica ^ https://www.usatoday.com/story/life/2018/02/12/ralph-lauren-heads-jamaica-ny-fashion-week/330247002/ title= Ralph Lauren
Ralph Lauren
heads to Jamaica
Jamaica
at New York Fashion Week ^ https://www.harpersbazaar.com/culture/travel-dining/a18120/round-hill-jamaica/ title= Inside Ralph Lauren's Go-To Jamaican Getaway ^ https://www.forbes.com/sites/karlaalindahao/2016/01/12/round-hill-jamaica-review-2016/ title: A Caribbean
Caribbean
Classic: Inside Roundhill Hotel ^ " Special
Special
Reports Brits Abroad". BBC News. 6 December 2006. Retrieved 4 July 2009.  ^ Simms, Tanya M.; Rodríguez, Carol E.; Rodríguez, Rosa; Herrera, René J. (May 2010). "The genetic structure of populations from Haiti and Jamaica
Jamaica
reflect divergent demographic histories". Am J Phys Anthropol. 142: 63. doi:10.1002/ajpa.21194. PMID 19918989. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ Ronald C. Morren and Diane M. Morren (2007). Are the goals and objectives of Jamaica's Bilingual
Bilingual
Education
Education
Project being met?" – SIL International
SIL International
(working paper). Retrieved 31 August 2015. ^ Jettka, Daniel (2010). "English in Jamaica: The Coexistence of Standard Jamaican English
Jamaican English
and the English-based Jamaican Creole" (PDF). Hamburg Centre for Language Corpora. Hamburg University. Retrieved 31 August 2015.  ^ Claude Robinson (30 March 2014). "English lessons for Jamaica" – Jamaica
Jamaica
Observer. Retrieved 31 August 2015. ^ a b "Konchri Sain". Ethnologue. Retrieved February 1, 2018.  ^ http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/PM-wants-Spanish-to-be-Jamaica-s-second-language title= PM wants Spanish to be Jamaica’s second language ^ http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/sunday-finance/spain-wants-jamaica-to-make-spanish-a-second-language_105607?profile=1056 title=Spain wants Jamaica
Jamaica
to make Spanish a second language ^ " United States
United States
immigration statistics". Dhs.gov. 23 June 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.  ^ Jamaicans
Jamaicans
to Cuba. Encarta.msn.com. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.  ^ Linking the Jamaican Diaspora. Jamaica
Jamaica
Observer. 20 June 2004. ^ "Jamaica: Mapping exercise" (PDF). London: International Organization for Migration. July 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2010.  ^ "Crime and crisis in Jamaica". Focal.ca. Retrieved 2017-09-25.  ^ "Nationmaster Crime Stats". Nationmaster.com. Retrieved 4 July 2009.  ^ "Crime, violence and development: trends, costs, and policy options in the Caribbean" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
Office on Drugs and Crime. p. 37. Retrieved 26 December 2007.  ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
Travel Advice: Safety and Security". Foreign Travel Advice. Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 25 June 2014.  ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
Travel Advice: Local Laws and Customs". Foreign Travel Advice. Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 25 June 2014.  ^ Lacey, Marc (24 February 2008). "Attacks Show Easygoing Jamaica
Jamaica
Is Dire Place for Gays". New York Times. Retrieved 19 March 2009.  ^ "Jamaica: Shield Gays from Mob Attacks". Human Rights Watch. 31 January 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2009.  ^ "Document – Jamaica: Amnesty International condemns homophobic violence" (Press release). Amnesty International. 15 April 2007. Archived from the original on 8 September 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2009.  ^ "Prime Minister Golding Speaks on Crime Reduction". The Gleaner. June 9, 2011. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 16 Dec 2017.  ^ Pachico, Elyssa (2012-3-30). " Jamaica
Jamaica
Murder Rate Dropped 30% in 2012". InSightCrime: Organized Crime in the Americas. Retrieved 2012-12-1. ^ "Jamaica's Murder Tally Over 1,500 This Year". http://www.rjrnewsonline.com.  External link in website= (help) ^ a b c "Jamaica". State.gov. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2009.  ^ Jamaican Christian
Christian
Missions:Their Influence in the Jamaican Slave Rebellion "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2010.  ^ "Map Source: www.worldmap.org". 2007. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.  ^ Bahá'í International Community (11 August 2006). "Jamaicans celebrate 4th National Baha'i Day". Bahá'í World News Service.  ^ religiousintelligence.co.uk, religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://old.jamaica-gleaner.com/pages/history/story0057.htm title=Out Of Many Cultures The People Who Came The Arrival Of The Indians ^ Haruth Communications; Harry Leichter. "Jamaican Jews". Haruth.com. Retrieved 4 July 2009.  ^ Dawes, Mark (10 June 2003). "Jews hold firm Life goes on in Old Synagogue". Gleaner Co. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2010.  ^ https://www.haaretz.com/jewish-footprints-in-the-caribbean-sand-1.5281292 title= A synagogue drawn in the sand - Haaretz - Israel News ^ https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/Caribbean-synagogue-sand-floor-180963581/ title= Why Sand Covers the Floor of One of the Western Hemisphere's ^ a b Muhammad, Richard. "A new beginning in Jamaica", The Final Call, 2 April 2002. ^ a b "Louis Farrakhan's first visit to a Jewish
Jewish
Synagogue... 'It took courage to bring me here'" Archived 16 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Jamaica
Jamaica
Gleaner, 26 March 2002. ^ http://caribbeanmuslims.com/hosay-festival-westmoreland-jamaica title= Hosay
Hosay
Festival, Westmoreland, Jamaica ^ http://old.jamaica-gleaner.com/pages/history/story0057.htm title= Out Of Many Cultures The People Who Came The Arrival Of The Indians ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
– LDS Statistics and Church Facts Total Church Membership". Mormonnewsroom.org. Retrieved 6 August 2012.  ^ Dr. Rebecca Tortello "The History of Jamaica
History of Jamaica
– Captivated by Jamaica" Archived 17 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine., Jamaica Gleaner ^ "National Symbols of Jamaica". Jis.gov.jm. 6 August 1962. Archived from the original on 19 June 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2010.  ^ a b c "Athletics in Jamaica". My island Jamaica. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Jamaican Sports An Overview". My Island Jamaica. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ Margaret J.Bailey, Cricket
Cricket
in Jamaica :http://jamaicans.com/cricketjamaica/ Retrieved 9 January 2016 ^ "Test and ODI cricket playing nations". Cricinfo. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ " Cricket
Cricket
Ground Information". Windies Online. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ "Greenfield Stadium". Surf India. Retrieved 11 October 2010.  ^ IFNA. "Current World Rankings". Retrieved 3 November 2013.  ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
to Tour UK". Americanrugbynews.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.  ^ "Rugby League Europe Federation". Rlef.eu.com. 15 November 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2010.  ^ "The World of Rugby League". rleague.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2010.  ^ "The World of Rugby League". rleague.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2010.  ^ "The World of Rugby League". rleague.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2010.  ^ "Best-paid athletes from 200 countries". espn.com. Retrieved 4 May 2012.  ^ " Moravian Church
Moravian Church
Contribution to Education
Education
in Jamaica". Archived from the original on 23 November 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2007.  ^ "Transforming the Jamaican Education
Education
System". Archived from the original on 20 May 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2007.  ^ "Vocational Education
Education
in Jamaica". UNESCO-UNEVOC. August 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2014.  ^ Sex tourism as economic aid. Smh.com.au. 12 July 2003. ^ No gas from Trinidad, Venezuela
Venezuela
by 2009 – Jamaica
Jamaica
Observer.com Archived 17 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. at www.jamaicaobserver.com ^ "History of Aviation
Aviation
in Jamaica: Part I". Jamaica-gleaner.com. Archived from the original on 17 July 2009. Retrieved 4 July 2009.  ^ Statistical Institute of Jamaica
Jamaica
at www.statinja.com ^ " Jamaica Gleaner
Jamaica Gleaner
News – IMF says yes – US$1.27b loan for Jamaica approved – US$950m fund for financial sector". Jamaica-gleaner.com. 5 February 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2011.  ^ " Jamaica
Jamaica
signs deal for China-built cargo shipping hub". Reuters.  ^ "Proposed Caymanas Economic Zone To Be One Of 16 – Jamaica Information Service". Jamaica
Jamaica
Information Service.  ^ The Jamaica Observer Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 27 June 2007. ^ a b "Petroleum Corp of Jamaica, Petroleum Industry Statistics". Archived from the original on 3 February 2001. Retrieved 21 July 2007.  ^ Jamaica
Jamaica
Public Service Company ^ "JPS – JPS' Power Plants". Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2011.  ^ "Wigton Wind Farm Company". Retrieved 25 March 2008.  ^ List of nuclear reactors#Jamaica ^ "Corporate Fact Sheet Petrojam Limited". Petrojam.com. Retrieved 2017-09-25.  ^ "Petroleum Corp of Jamaica, Petrojam Ethanol". Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 21 July 2007.  ^ Doing eBusiness in Jamaica, The Economist Intelligence Unit. ^ "LIME 3G launch in 2009" (PDF).  ^ TeleGeography. " Digicel
Digicel
Jamaica
Jamaica
launches LTE".  ^ "Cable & Wireless Communications - NEW FLOW BRAND UNVEILED IN JAMAICA". www.cwc.com.  ^ Limited, Jamaica
Jamaica
Observer. "Flow celebrates hitting one million customers". Jamaica
Jamaica
Observer.  ^ TeleGeography. " Digicel
Digicel
launches WiMAX to non-business users". www.telegeography.com.  ^ "Home". www.digicelgroup.com.  ^ TeleGeography. "LIME Jamaica
Jamaica
launches 100Mbps FTTH service".  ^ TeleGeography. "Jamaican government approves third mobile player".  ^ Limited, Jamaica
Jamaica
Observer. " Caricel — first Jamaican company to get mobile spectrum licence". Jamaica
Jamaica
Observer. 

Further reading

Ahmed, Faiz (2008). The Development Path Taken by Jamaica: A brief account of the islands natural-history, economic policies, and social conditions (PDF).  (pp. 45–83) Arbell, Mordehay (2000). The Portuguese Jews of Jamaica. Canoe Press. ISBN 978-976-8125-69-9.  Ammar, N. "From Whence they came". Jamaica
Jamaica
Journal. Bahadur, Gaiutra. Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. The University of Chicago (2014), ISBN 978-0-226-21138-1 Chapman, Valentine Jackson (1961). The marine algae of Jamaica: Myxophyceae and Chlorophyceae.  Chapman, Valentine Jackson (1963). The marine Algae of Jamaica: Part II: Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.  Hall, D. "Bounties European Immigration with Special
Special
Reference of the German Settlement at Seaford Town, Parts 1 and 2". Jamaica
Jamaica
Journal, 8, (4), 48–54 and 9 (1), 2–9. Issa, Suzanne (1994). Mr Jamaica, Abe Issa: a pictorial biography. S. Issa. ISBN 978-976-8091-69-7.  Jacobs, H. P. (2003). Germany in Jamaica. Indian heritage in Jamaica. Jamaica
Jamaica
Journal, 10, (2,3,4), 10–19, Mullally, R (2003). "'One Love' The Black Irish of Jamaica". Jamaica Journal. 42: 104–116.  Parboosingh, I. S. "An Indo- Jamaica
Jamaica
beginning". Jamaica
Jamaica
Journal. 18 (3): 2–10, 12.  Senior, Olive (2003). Encyclopedia of Jamaican Heritage. Twin Guinep Publishers. ISBN 978-976-8007-14-8.  Sherlock, Philip Manderson; Bennett, Hazel (1998). The Story of the Jamaican People. Ian Randle Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55876-145-2.  Thomson, Ian (2009). The Dead Yard: Tales of Modern Jamaica. Nation Books. ISBN 978-0-571-22761-7.  Williams, Joseph John (1932). Whence the "Black Irish" of Jamaica?. L. MacVeagh, Dial Press, Inc.  The Gleaner. Seaford Town Advertising Feature. 14 August 2003, D7-8,

Bernstein, Antje (2006). "English in Jamaica: The Coexistence of Standard Jamaican English
Jamaican English
and the English-based Jamaican Creole". English Language and Literature Studies. seminar paper. Retrieved 31 August 2015. 

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International membership

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Caribbean
Caribbean
Community (CARICOM)

Secretariat (Secretary-General)

Members

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas1 Barbados Belize Dominica Grenada Guyana Haiti1 Jamaica Montserrat2 St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago

Associate members

Anguilla Bermuda British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Observers

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Institutions

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Related organizations

CARIFORUM Organisation of Eastern Caribbean
Caribbean
States (OECS)

1 Member of the Community but not of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) 2 British overseas territory awaiting entrustment to join the CSME

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Members of the Commonwealth of Nations

Sovereign states (Members)

Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Fiji Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania The Gambia Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

Dependencies of Members

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Norfolk Island

New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue Ross Dependency Tokelau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Montserrat Pitcairn Islands St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Source: Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States

v t e

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Current

Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua and Barbuda
(monarchy) Australia
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Belize
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Grenada
(monarchy) Jamaica
Jamaica
(monarchy) Realm of New Zealand

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(monarchy) Saint Kitts and Nevis
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Saint Lucia
(monarchy) Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
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(monarchy) Tuvalu
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(monarchy) United Kingdom
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(monarchy)

Former

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(monarchy) Mauritius Newfoundland1 Nigeria Pakistan Rhodesia2 Sierra Leone South Africa
South Africa
(monarchy) Tanganyika Trinidad and Tobago Uganda

1 Annexed by Canada
Canada
in 1949 2 Rhodesia
Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965, but this was not recognised internationally. Declared itself a republic in 1970.

v t e

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Africa

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Americas

Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Dominica Falkland Islands Grenada Guyana Jamaica Montserrat Saba Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Trinidad and Tobago Turks and Caicos Islands United States United States
United States
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Europe

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Countries and territories where English is an official language, but not the majority first language

Africa

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Americas

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Asia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Special
Special
Administrative Region India Pakistan Philippines Singapore

Europe

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Oceania

American Samoa Cook Islands Fiji Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia Nauru Niue Northern Mariana Islands Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau Tuvalu Vanuatu

Dependencies shown in italics.

Coordinates: 18°N 77°W / 18°N 77°W / 18; -77

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 150701983 LCCN: n83017737 GND: 4028456-6 HDS:

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