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Jakarta
Jakarta
(/dʒəˈkɑːrtə/, Indonesian pronunciation: [dʒaˈkarta]), officially the Special
Special
Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia, and was formerly known as Batavia in the colonial era Dutch East Indies; and as Sunda Kelapa
Sunda Kelapa
during the era of the Sunda Kingdom. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island Java, Jakarta is the centre of economics, culture and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014[update].[8][9]The Greater Jakarta metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek
Jabodetabek
(a name formed by combining the initial syllables of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang
Tangerang
and Bekasi), is the second largest urban agglomeration and 2nd largest urban area in the world after Tokyo, with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010[update] census.[10] Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over the Indonesian archipelago, making it a melting pot of many communities and cultures.[11] Jakarta
Jakarta
is officially a province with special capital region status, but is commonly referred to as a city. The Jakarta
Jakarta
provincial government consists of five cities and one administrative regency. Established in the fourth century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, and was known as Batavia at that time. The city is currently the seat of the ASEAN
ASEAN
Secretariat and other important financial institutions such as the Bank of Indonesia, the Indonesia
Indonesia
Stock Exchange, and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations. As of 2017, six Forbes Global 2000 companies have headquarters in the city.[12] The city is also home for two Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies.[13]Four Unicorn start ups operates from head offices in Jakarta.[14][15] Jakarta
Jakarta
is listed as an Alpha Global City
City
by the Globalization and World
World
Cities Research Network (GaWC).[16] Based on the global metro monitor by the Brookings Institution
Brookings Institution
in 2014, the GDP
GDP
of Jakarta
Jakarta
was estimated at US$321.3 billion[17] and economic growth was ranked 34th among the world's 200 largest cities.[18] Jakarta
Jakarta
has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok
Bangkok
and Beijing.[19] Major challenges for Jakarta
Jakarta
include rapid urban growth leading to overpopulation and ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion, poverty and inequality, and flooding.[20] The Indonesian capital is sinking up to 17 cm (6.7 inches) per year, which, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding.[21]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Names and etymology 1.2 Pre-colonial era 1.3 Colonial era 1.4 Independence era

2 Administration

2.1 Government 2.2 Municipal finances 2.3 Administrative divisions of Jakarta

3 Geography

3.1 Topography 3.2 Climate 3.3 Parks and Lakes

4 Demography

4.1 Population 4.2 Ethnicity and language 4.3 Religion

5 Culture

5.1 Arts and festivals 5.2 Cuisine 5.3 Museums 5.4 Media

6 Economy

6.1 Shopping 6.2 Tourism

6.2.1 City
City
tour bus service

7 Infrastructure

7.1 Road 7.2 Water supply 7.3 Healthcare

8 Transportation

8.1 Road transport

8.1.1 Electronic road pricing 8.1.2 Bus service 8.1.3 Traditional transports 8.1.4 Taxi cab 8.1.5 Motorcycle taxi/ojek

8.2 Rail

8.2.1 High speed rail

8.3 Rapid transit

8.3.1 Bus rapid transit 8.3.2 Commuter rail 8.3.3 Jakarta
Jakarta
MRT 8.3.4 Jakarta
Jakarta
LRT 8.3.5 Soekarno-Hatta Airport
Airport
Rail Link

8.4 Air 8.5 Waterway

8.5.1 Sea 8.5.2 River

9 Cityscape

9.1 Architecture 9.2 Landmarks

10 Sports 11 Education 12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Jakarta
History of Jakarta
and Timeline of Jakarta Names and etymology[edit]

Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between Portuguese Kingdom and Hindu
Hindu
Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta
Jakarta
History Museum.

Jakarta
Jakarta
has been home to multiple settlements along with their respective names:

Sunda Kelapa
Sunda Kelapa
(397–1527), Jayakarta
Jayakarta
(1527–1619), Batavia (1619–1949), Djakarta (1949–1972), and Jakarta
Jakarta
(1972–present).

Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta. The origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language; जय jaya (victorious)[22] and कृत krta (accomplished, acquired),[23] thus "Jayakarta" translates as "victorious deed", "complete act", or "complete victory". Jakarta
Jakarta
is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region,[1] as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of the US city of New York (the Big Apple).[24] In the colonial era, the city was also known as Koningin van het Oosten (Queen of the Orient), initially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals, mansions and ordered city layout.[25] After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs (e.g. Menteng
Menteng
and the area around Merdeka Square), with their wide lanes, many green spaces and villas.[26] Pre-colonial era[edit] Further information: Sunda Kelapa

The 5th century Tugu inscription
Tugu inscription
discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta

The north coast area of Western Java
Java
including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture
Buni culture
that flourished around 400 BC to 100 AD.[27] The area in and around modern Jakarta
Jakarta
was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms in Indonesia.[28] The area of North Jakarta
North Jakarta
around Tugu was a populated settlement since at least early 5th century. The Tugu inscription (probably written around 417 AD) discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, Koja, North Jakarta, mentioned King Purnawarman
Purnawarman
of Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
undertook hydraulic projects; the irrigation and water drainage project of the Chandrabhaga river and the Gomati river near his capital.[29] Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta
Jakarta
area, became part of the Hindu
Hindu
Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya
Srivijaya
maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua
Chou Ju-kua
reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya
Srivijaya
still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java
Java
(Sunda). The source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles.[30] The harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa (Sundanese: ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮊᮜᮕ) and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices.[31] The Hindu
Hindu
Kingdom of Sunda
Kingdom of Sunda
made an alliance treaty with Portugal
Portugal
by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of the Islamic Sultanate of Demak
Sultanate of Demak
from central Java.[32] In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa
Sunda Kelapa
was renamed Jayakarta,[32] and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta
Jayakarta
in 1596. In 1602, the English East India
India
Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh
Aceh
and sailed on to Banten
Banten
where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia
Indonesia
until 1682.[33] Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.[34] Colonial era[edit] See also: Batavia, Dutch East Indies
Batavia, Dutch East Indies
and List of colonial buildings and structures in Jakarta

Dutch Batavia built in what is now Jakarta, by Andries Beeckman
Andries Beeckman
c. 1656

The City
City
Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor
Governor
General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta
Jakarta
History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.

When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, Jayawikarta's soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress. Prince Jayawikarta's army and the English were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Jan Pieterszoon Coen
(J.P. Coen). The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced the English to retreat on their ships. The victory consolidated Dutch power and in 1619 they renamed the city Batavia. Commercial opportunities in the capital of the Dutch colony attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese and Arab immigrants. This sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. Following a revolt, 5,000 Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October 1740 and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok
Glodok
outside the city walls.[35] At the beginning of the nineteenth century, around 400 Arabs and Moors lived in Batavia, a number which changed little during the following decades. Among the commodities traded, fabrics, especially imported cotton, batik and clothing worn by Arab communities.[36] The city began to expand further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 caused more people to move away from the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng
Menteng
was started in 1913,[37] and Kebayoran Baru
Kebayoran Baru
was the last Dutch-built residential area.[35] By 1930 Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants,[38] including 37,067 Europeans.[39] After World
World
War II, the city of Batavia was renamed "Jakarta" (a short form of Jayakarta) by the Indonesian nationalists after achieving independence from the Dutch in 1949.[40] Independence era[edit]

Monas
Monas
which stands in the centre of Merdeka square, commemorates the Indonesian struggle for independence.

Following World
World
War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from Allied-occupied Jakarta
Jakarta
during their fight for Indonesian independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta. In 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta
Jakarta
was once again made the national capital.[35] Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, envisaged Jakarta
Jakarta
as a great international city, and instigated large government-funded projects with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture.[41][42] Projects included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, Hotel Indonesia, a shopping centre, and a new parliament building. In October 1965, Jakarta
Jakarta
was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which 6 top generals were killed, precipitating a violent anti-communist purge in which half-a million people were killed, including many ethnic Chinese,[43] and the beginning of Suharto's New Order. A monument stands where the generals' bodies were dumped.

Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jakarta's main avenue and business district

In 1966, Jakarta
Jakarta
was declared a "special capital region" (daerah khusus ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a province.[44] Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin
Ali Sadikin
served as Governor
Governor
from the mid-1960s commencement of the "New Order" through to 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. He also cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family[45][46]—and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city to stem overcrowding and poverty.[47] Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom which changed the face of the city.[48] The boom ended with the 1997/98 East Asian Economic crisis putting Jakarta
Jakarta
at the centre of violence, protest, and political manoeuvring. After 32 years in power, support for President Suharto
President Suharto
began to wane. Tensions reached a peak when four students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings.[49] Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians.[50] Suharto resigned as president, and Jakarta
Jakarta
has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia.[51] Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings occurred almost annually in the city between 2000 and 2005,[35] with another bombing in 2009.[52] Administration[edit] See also: Governor
Governor
of Jakarta Government[edit]

Governor's office at Jakarta
Jakarta
City
City
Hall Complex

The name and status, as well as the governing system of Jakarta, has changed throughout its history. On March 5, 1942, the Japanese wrested Batavia from Dutch control and the city was named Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jakarta Special
Special
City
City
(ジャカルタ特別市, Jakaruta tokubetsu-shi), in accordance with the special status that was assigned to the city). After the collapse of Japan, Indonesian nationalists declared independence on August 17, 1945, [53] and the government of Jakarta City
City
was changed into the Jakarta
Jakarta
National Administration in September, 1945. After the war, the Dutch name Batavia was internationally recognized until full Indonesian independence was achieved on December 27, 1949 and Jakarta
Jakarta
was officially proclaimed the national capital of Indonesia. This first government was led by a Mayor until the end of 1960, when the office was changed to that of a Governor. The last mayor of Jakarta
Jakarta
was Sudiro, until he was replaced by Dr Sumarno as governor of the province. Based on Act No. 5 of 1974 relating to the Fundamentals of Regional Government, Jakarta
Jakarta
was confirmed as the capital of Indonesia
Indonesia
and one of Indonesia's 26 provinces in 1974 at that time.[54] In August 2007, Jakarta
Jakarta
held its first ever election to choose a governor, whereas previously the city's governors were elected by members of DPRD. The poll was part of a country-wide decentralisation drive, allowing for direct local elections in several areas.[55] At present, Jakarta
Jakarta
is administratively equal to a province with special status as the capital of Indonesia. The executive heads of Jakarta
Jakarta
are a Governor
Governor
(instead of a mayor) and a Deputy Governor. As a province, the official name of Jakarta
Jakarta
is Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta
Jakarta
(' Special
Special
Capital City
City
District of Jakarta'), which is abbreviated to DKI Jakarta. The legislative branch of Jakarta
Jakarta
is the People's regional representative council (DPRD). The Governor, Deputy Governor
Governor
and 106 members of the DPRD, are all elected by direct election procedures. The executive governance of Jakarta
Jakarta
consists of five Administrative City/Kota Administratif, each headed by a Mayor – and one Administrative Regency/Kabupaten Administratif headed by a Regent/Bupati. Unlike other cities and regencies in Indonesia
Indonesia
where the mayor or regent are elected by the people, Jakarta's mayors and regent are chosen by the Governor
Governor
of Jakarta. Each city and regency is again divided into administrative districts. Polda Metro Jaya maintains the law, security and order of Jakarta. It is led by a Regional Chief of police Kapolda, who holds the rank of Inspector General of Police. Municipal finances[edit] The Jakarta
Jakarta
provincial government, like all other provincial governments in Indonesia, relies on transfers from the central government for the bulk of budget income. Local (non-central government) sources of revenue are incomes from various taxes such as vehicle ownership and vehicle transfer fees among others.[56] The ability of the regional government to respond to the many problems of Jakarta
Jakarta
is constrained by extremely limited finances. In 2013 the total budget available to the Jakarta
Jakarta
regional government was approved at around Rp 50 trillion (about $US 5.2 billion), equivalent to around $US 380 per citizen. Priority areas of spending were listed as education, transport, flood control measures, environment programs, and various types of social spending (such as health and housing).[57] In recent years, the Jakarta
Jakarta
provincial government has consistently run a surplus of between 15–20% of total planned spending, largely because of delays in procurement procedures and other inefficiencies in the spending process.[58] Regular underspending is a matter of frequent public comment but the legal and administrative blockages that cause the underspending problem seem very difficult to overcome.[59]

Jakarta
Jakarta
city finances: 2007–2012 (Rp trillion)

Year Revenue Expenditure

2007 Actual 18.7 18.7

2008 Actual 32.9 16.4

2009 Actual 23.7 19.6

2010 Actual 26.8 21.6

2011 Actual 31.8 31.7

2012 Actual 41.4 41.4

Indonesian Statistics Bureau: Jakarta
Jakarta
in Figures[60] Administrative divisions of Jakarta[edit]

Map of the municipalities (Kota administrasi) in Jakarta
Jakarta
province. Each city is divided into districts (Kecamatan).

Jakarta
Jakarta
consists of five Kota Administratif (Administrative cities/municipalities), each headed by a mayor – and a Kabupaten Administratif (Administrative regency). Each city and regency is again divided into districts/Kecamatan. The administrative cities/municipalities of Jakarta
Jakarta
are:

Central Jakarta
Central Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Pusat) is Jakarta's smallest city and home to most of Jakarta's administrative and political centre. It is divided into 8 administrative districts. It is characterised by large parks and Dutch colonial buildings. Landmarks include the National Monument (Monas), Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta
Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta
Cathedral, and museums.[61] West Jakarta
West Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Barat) has the highest concentration of small-scale industries in Jakarta. This city has 8 districts. The area includes Jakarta's Chinatown
Chinatown
and Dutch colonial landmarks such as the Chinese Langgam building and Toko Merah. West Jakarta
West Jakarta
contains part of Jakarta
Jakarta
Old Town.[62] South Jakarta
South Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Selatan), originally planned as a satellite city, is now the location of large upscale shopping centres and affluent residential areas. South Jakarta
South Jakarta
is again divided into 10 territorial districts. Jakarta
Jakarta
Selatan functions as Jakarta's ground water buffer,[63] but recently the green belt areas are threatened by new developments. Much of the CBD area of Jakarta
Jakarta
is concentrated in Setiabudi, South Jakarta, bordering the Tanah Abang/ Sudirman
Sudirman
area of Central Jakarta. East Jakarta
East Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Timur) territory is characterised by several industrial sectors.[64] Also located in East Jakarta
East Jakarta
are Taman Mini Indonesia
Indonesia
Indah and Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport. This city has 10 districts/kecamatan. North Jakarta
North Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Utara) is the only city in Jakarta
Jakarta
that is bounded by the sea ( Java
Java
Sea). It is the location of the Tanjung Priok. Large-scale and medium-scale industries are concentrated in North Jakarta. North Jakarta
North Jakarta
contains part of Jakarta
Jakarta
Old Town, formerly known as Batavia since the 17th century, and was the centre of VOC trade activity in Dutch East Indies. Also located in North Jakarta
Jakarta
is Ancol
Ancol
Dreamland (Taman Impian Jaya Ancol), currently the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia.[65] North Jakarta is divided into 6 districts.

The only administrative regency (kabupaten) of Jakarta
Jakarta
is:

Thousand Islands
Thousand Islands
(Kepulauan Seribu), formerly a district within the city of North Jakarta, is a collection of 105 small islands located on the Java
Java
Sea. It has of high conservation value because of its unique and special ecosystems. Marine tourism, such as diving, water bicycling, and wind surfing, are the primary touristic activities in this territory. The main mode of transportation between the islands are speed boats or small ferries.[66]

Jakarta's Cities/Municipalities (Kota Administrasi/Kotamadya)

City/Regency Area (km2) Total population (2010 Census) Total population (2014)[8] Population Density (per km2) in 2010 Population Density (per km2) in 2014 HDI [67] 2015 Estimates

South Jakarta
South Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Selatan) 141.27 2,057,080 2,164,070 14,561 15,319 0.833 (Very High)

East Jakarta
East Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Timur) 188.03 2,687,027 2,817,994 14,290 14,987 0.807 (Very High)

Central Jakarta
Central Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Pusat) 48.13 898,883 910,381 18,676 18,915 0.796 (High)

West Jakarta
West Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Barat) 129.54 2,278,825 2,430,410 17,592 18,762 0.797 (High)

North Jakarta
North Jakarta
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Utara) 146.66 1,645,312 1,729,444 11,219 11,792 0.796 (High)

Thousand Islands
Thousand Islands
(Kepulauan Seribu) 8.7 21,071 23,011 2,422 2,645 0.688 (Medium)

Geography[edit] DKI Jakarta
DKI Jakarta
covers an area of 699.5 square kilometers, which is ranked 33rd among the provinces of Indonesia. Greater Jakarta
Greater Jakarta
metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, which extends into two of the bordering provinces of West Java
Java
and Banten.[68] The Greater Jakarta
Jakarta
area includes 3 bordering regencies ( Bekasi
Bekasi
Regency, Tangerang Regency and Bogor
Bogor
Regency) and five adjacent cities (Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang
Tangerang
and South Tangerang). Topography[edit] See also: Jakarta Flood Canal
Jakarta Flood Canal
and Giant Sea Wall Jakarta

Ancol
Ancol
beach

Jakarta
Jakarta
is situated on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River
Ciliwung River
on Jakarta
Jakarta
Bay, which is an inlet of the Java
Java
Sea. The northern part of Jakarta
Jakarta
is plain land, some areas of which are below sea level and subject to frequent flooding. The southern parts of the city are hilly. It is one of only two Asian capital cities located in the southern hemisphere (the other is Dili, capital of Timor Leste). Officially, the area of the Jakarta
Jakarta
Special
Special
District is 662 km2 (256 sq mi) of land area and 6,977 km2 (2,694 sq mi) of sea area.[69] The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta
Jakarta
Bay, north of the city. Jakarta
Jakarta
lies in a low and flat Alluvial plain, ranging from −2 to 50 metres (−7 to 164 ft) with an average elevation of 8 metres (26 ft) above sea level with historically extensive swampy areas. 40% of Jakarta, particularly the northern areas, is below sea level,[70] while the southern parts are comparatively hilly. Thirteen rivers flow through Jakarta. They are:[71] Ciliwung River, Kalibaru, Pesanggrahan, Cipinang, Angke River, Maja,[72] Mookervart, Krukut, Buaran, West Tarum, Cakung, Petukangan, Sunter River
Sunter River
and Grogol River. These rivers flow from the Puncak
Puncak
highlands to the south of the city, then across the city northwards towards the Java
Java
Sea. The Ciliwung River divides the city into the western and eastern districts. All these rivers, combined with the wet season rains and insufficient drainage due to clogging, make Jakarta
Jakarta
prone to flooding. Moreover, Jakarta
Jakarta
is sinking about 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 inches) each year, even up to 20 centimetres (7.9 inches) in the northern coastal areas. To help cope with the threat from the sea, the Netherlands
Netherlands
will give $4 million for a feasibility study to build a dike around Jakarta
Jakarta
Bay. The ring dike will be equipped with a pumping system and retention areas to defend against seawater. Additionally, the dike will function as a toll road. The project will be built by 2025.[73] In January 2014, Central Government agreed to build 2 dams in Ciawi, Bogor
Bogor
and a 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile) tunnel from Ciliwung River
Ciliwung River
to Cisadane River
Cisadane River
to ease Jakarta
Jakarta
floods. Construction costs will be paid for by the central government, but land acquisitions are the responsibility of the Jakarta
Jakarta
Authority.[74] Nowadays, an 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile), with capacity 60 cubic metres (2,100 cubic feet) per second, underground water tunnel between Ciliwung River
Ciliwung River
and the East Flood Canal is being worked on to ease the Ciliwung River overflows.[75] Climate[edit] Jakarta
Jakarta
has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system. The wet season in Jakarta
Jakarta
covers the majority of the year, running from October through May. The remaining four months (June through September) constitute the city's drier season (each of these 4 months has an average monthly rainfall of less than 100 millimetres (3.9 in)). Located in the western part of Java, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peak is January and February with average monthly rainfall of 299.7 millimetres (11.80 in), and its dry season low point is August with a monthly average of 43.2 mm (1.70 in).

Climate data for Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, Jakarta, Indonesia (temperature: 1924–1994, precipitation: 1931–1994)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 33.3 (91.9) 32.8 (91) 33.3 (91.9) 33.3 (91.9) 33.3 (91.9) 33.3 (91.9) 34.4 (93.9) 35.6 (96.1) 35.6 (96.1) 35.6 (96.1) 35.6 (96.1) 33.9 (93) 35.6 (96.1)

Average high °C (°F) 28.9 (84) 28.9 (84) 29.4 (84.9) 30.0 (86) 30.6 (87.1) 30.0 (86) 30.0 (86) 30.6 (87.1) 31.1 (88) 31.1 (88) 30.6 (87.1) 29.4 (84.9) 30.1 (86.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1 (79) 26.1 (79) 26.4 (79.5) 27.0 (80.6) 27.2 (81) 26.7 (80.1) 26.4 (79.5) 26.7 (80.1) 27.0 (80.6) 27.2 (81) 27.0 (80.6) 26.4 (79.5) 26.7 (80.1)

Average low °C (°F) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.9 (75) 23.9 (75) 23.3 (73.9) 22.8 (73) 22.8 (73) 22.8 (73) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9) 23.3 (73.9)

Record low °C (°F) 20.6 (69.1) 20.6 (69.1) 20.6 (69.1) 20.6 (69.1) 21.1 (70) 19.4 (66.9) 19.4 (66.9) 19.4 (66.9) 18.9 (66) 20.6 (69.1) 20.0 (68) 19.4 (66.9) 18.9 (66)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 299.7 (11.799) 299.7 (11.799) 210.8 (8.299) 147.3 (5.799) 132.1 (5.201) 96.5 (3.799) 63.5 (2.5) 43.2 (1.701) 66.0 (2.598) 111.8 (4.402) 142.2 (5.598) 203.2 (8) 1,816 (71.495)

Average relative humidity (%) 85 85 83 82 82 81 78 76 75 77 81 82 80.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 189 182 239 255 260 255 282 295 288 279 231 220 2,975

Source #1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[76]

Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute (humidity and sun only)[77]

Parks and Lakes[edit]

Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia
Indonesia
Indah

In June 2011, Jakarta
Jakarta
had only 10.5% green open spaces (Ruang Terbuka Hijau) and this has grown to 13.94% public green open spaces. Public parks are included in public green open spaces. By 2030, the administration also hope there is 16% private green open spaces.[78] In a goal to develop a child friendly city and to provide green open spaces for citizens, Jakarta
Jakarta
administration has targeted to build 300 'Child Friendly Integrated Public Space (Indonesian: 'Ruang Publik Terpadu Ramah Anak, abbreviated RPTRA) by 2017, which is a public space in the form of green open spaces or parks equipped with playground, games, library, lactation room, and other facilities to serve the interests of communities around with CCTV surveillance.[79][80] As of 2014, there are 183 water reservoirs and lakes in greater Jakarta
Jakarta
area.[81]

Merdeka Square ( Medan
Medan
Merdeka) is an almost 1 km2 field housing the symbol of Jakarta, Monas
Monas
or Monumen Nasional (National Monument) and is the largest city square in the world. The square was created by Dutch Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels
Herman Willem Daendels
(1810) and was originally named Koningsplein (King's Square). On 10 January 1993, President Soeharto started the beautification of the square. Several features including a deer park and 33 trees that represent the 33 provinces of Indonesia
Indonesia
were added.[82] Lapangan Banteng
Lapangan Banteng
(Buffalo Field) is located in Central Jakarta
Central Jakarta
near Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta
Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta
Cathedral, and Jakarta
Jakarta
Central Post Office. It is about 4.5 hectares. Initially it was called Waterlooplein and functioned as the ceremonial square during the Netherlands
Netherlands
East Indies colonial period. A number of colonial monuments and memorials erected on the square during the colonial period were demolished during the Sukarno
Sukarno
era. The most notable monument in the square is the Monumen Pembebasan Irian Barat (Monument of the Liberation of West Irian). During the 1970s and 1980s the park was used as a bus terminal. In 1993 the park was turned into a public space again. It has become a recreation place for people and is occasionally also used as an exhibition place or for other events.[83] ' Jakarta
Jakarta
Flona' (Flora dan Fauna), a flower and decoration plants and pet exhibition, is held in this park around August annually.

Ancol
Ancol
Gondola

Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
(Miniature Park of Indonesia), in East Jakarta, has 10 mini parks. Suropati Park is located in Menteng, Central Jakarta. The park is surrounded by several Dutch colonial buildings. Taman Suropati
Taman Suropati
was known as Burgemeester Bisschopplein during the Dutch colonial time. The park is circular shaped with a surface area of 16,322 square metres (175,690 square feet). There are several modern statues in the park made by artists of ASEAN
ASEAN
countries, which contributes to the nickname of the park Taman persahabatan seniman ASEAN
ASEAN
('Park of the ASEAN
ASEAN
artists friendship').[84] Menteng
Menteng
Park and the Situ Lembang pond - Menteng
Menteng
Park was built on the site of the former Persija
Persija
football stadium. Kalijodo Park
Kalijodo Park
is the newest park in the city at Penjaringan subdistrict, with 3.4 hectares (8.4 acres) of land area besides the Krendang River which formally opened on 22 February 2017. The park is open 24 hours as a green open space (RTH) and child-friendly integrated public space (RPTRA) and has international-standard skateboard facilities. It is expected that the park can function as an iconic tourist location.[85] Muara Angke Wildlife Sanctuary and Angke Kapuk Nature Tourism
Tourism
Park at Penjaringan
Penjaringan
in North Jakarta.[86] Ragunan Zoo
Ragunan Zoo
is located in Pasar Minggu, South Jakarta. It is the third oldest zoo in the world and is the second largest zoo in the world with the most diverse animal and plant populations.[87] Setu Babakan
Setu Babakan
is a 32 hectare lake surrounded by Betawi cultural village, located at Jagakarsa, South Jakarta.[88] Ancol
Ancol
Dreamland is the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia at present. It is located along the bay, at Ancol
Ancol
in North Jakarta. Taman Waduk Pluit/ Pluit Lake park at Pluit, North Jakarta, Honda Park at Tebet, South Jakarta Taman Langsat and Taman Ayodya in South Jakarta[89]

Demography[edit] Population[edit]

Year Population

1870 65,000

1875 99,100

1880 102,900

1883 97,000

1886 100,500

1890 105,100

1895 114,600

1901 115,900

1905 138,600

1918 234,700

Year Population

1920 253,800

1925 290,400

1928 311,000

1930 435,184

1940 533,000

1945 600,000

1950 1,733,600

1959 2,814,000

1961 2,906,533

1971 4,546,492

Year/Date Population

31 October 1980 6,503,449

31 October 1990 8,259,639

30 June 2000 8,384,853

1 January 2005 8,540,306

1 January 2006 7,512,323

June 2007 7,552,444

2010 9,588,198

2014 10,075,310

* 2010 Population census

Since 1950, Jakarta
Jakarta
has attracted people from all parts of Java
Java
and other Indonesian islands. The flood of migrants came to Jakarta
Jakarta
for economic reasons as Jakarta
Jakarta
offered the hope of employment. The 1961 census showed only 51% of the city's population was actually born in Jakarta.[90] Between 1961 and 1980, the population of Jakarta
Jakarta
doubled and during the period 1980–1990, the city's population grew annually by 3.7%.[91] The 2010 census counted some 9.58 million people, well above all government estimates.[92] According to the government's ' Jakarta
Jakarta
in Figures' document, the population stood at 10,187,595 in 2011 and 9,761,407 in 2012.[93] As per 2014, the population stood at 10,075,310 people.[8] The area of DKI Jakarta
DKI Jakarta
is 664 km2, suggesting a population density of 15,174 people/km2.[94] Inwards immigration tended to negate the effect of family planning programs.[54] The population has risen from 4.5 million in 1970 doubled to 9.5 million in 2010, counting only its legal residents.[citation needed] While the population of Greater Jakarta
Greater Jakarta
( Jabodetabek
Jabodetabek
Region) has risen from 8.2 million in 1970 jumping to 28.5 million in 2010.[95] As per 2014, the population of Greater Jakarta
Greater Jakarta
was 30,326,103, accounting for 11% of Indonesia's overall population.[96] The gender ratio was 102.8 (males per 100 females) in 2010[97] and 101.3 in 2014.[8] Ethnicity and language[edit]

Ethnicities of Jakarta
Jakarta
– 2010 Census[98]

ethnic group

percent

Javanese

36.17%

Betawi

28.29%

Sundanese

14.61%

Chinese

6.62%

Batak

3.42%

Minangkabau

2.85%

Malays

0.96%

Others

7.08%

Jakarta
Jakarta
is a pluralistic and religiously diverse city. As of 2000, 35.16% of the city's population are Javanese, 27.65% Betawi, 15.27% Sundanese, 5.53% Chinese, 3.61% Batak, 3.18% Minangkabau and 1.62% Malays.[99] And as of 2010 Census, 36.17% of the city's population are Javanese, 28.29% Betawi, 14.61% Sundanese, 6.62% Chinese, 3.42% Batak, 2.85% Minangkabau, 0.96% Malays and others 7.08%. The 'Betawi' (Orang Betawi, or 'people of Batavia') are the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia, and are recognised as an ethnic group from around the 18th–19th century. The Betawi people
Betawi people
are mostly descended from various Southeast-Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs, and include people from different parts of Indonesia.[100] Betawi people are a creole ethnic group that came from various parts of Indonesia and intermarried with Chinese, Arabs, and Europeans.[101] Nowadays, most Betawi form a minority in the city; most of them live in the fringe areas of Jakarta
Jakarta
and there are hardly any Betawi-dominated areas in central Jakarta.[102] There has been a significant Chinese community in Jakarta
Jakarta
for many centuries. Jakarta
Jakarta
is home to the largest population of Chinese on Java
Java
island. The Chinese in Jakarta
Jakarta
traditionally reside around old urban areas, such as Pinangsia, Pluit and Glodok
Glodok
( Jakarta
Jakarta
Chinatown) areas. They also can be found in the old Chinatowns of Senen
Senen
and Jatinegara. Officially, they make up 5.53% of the Jakarta
Jakarta
population, although this number may be under-reported.[103] The Sumatran people of the city are very diverse. According to 2010 Census, there were roughly 346,000 Batak, 305,000 Minangkabau and 155,000 Malays. The Batak
Batak
and Minangkabau are spread throughout the city. The Batak
Batak
ethnic group has increased in ranking, from eighth in 1930 to fifth in 2000. Toba Batak
Batak
is the largest sub-ethnic Batak group in Jakarta.[104] Beside the Chinese, Minangkabau people
Minangkabau people
also as merchants, peddlers, and artisans, in addition to working in white collar professions: doctors, teachers, and journalists.[105][106] Bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
is the official as well as the spoken language of Jakarta. English is used widely as second language, while a number of elderly people can speak Dutch. Each of the ethnic groups use their mother language at home, such as Betawi language, Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Batak, Minangkabau, and Chinese. Betawi language is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. The language is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Dutch, Portuguese, Sundanese, Javanese, Minangkabau, Chinese, and Arabic. Nowadays, the Jakarta
Jakarta
dialect (Bahasa Jakarta), used as a street language by people in Jakarta, is loosely based on the Betawi language. Religion[edit]

Jakarta Cathedral
Jakarta Cathedral
(Gereja Santa Perawan Maria Diangkat Ke Surga, Paroki Katedral Jakarta) is the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Jakarta. This cathedral is located directly across the road from Istiqlal Mosque.

Religion in Jakarta
Jakarta
(2017)[107]

religion

percent

Islam

83.43%

Protestant

8.63%

Roman Catholic

4.00%

Buddhism

3.74%

Hinduism

0.19%

Confucianism

0.01%

Folk

0.00%

As of the 2010 census the population of Jakarta
Jakarta
was 85.36% Muslim, 7.53% Protestant, 3.30% Buddhist, 3.15% Roman Catholic, 0.21% Hindu, and 0.06% Confucianist. The majority of Jakartans are Sunni Muslims.[108] Most pesantren (Islamic boarding schools) in Jakarta
Jakarta
are affiliated with the traditionalist Nahdlatul Ulama, [109] modernist organisations mostly catering to a socioeconomic class of educated urban elites and merchant traders. They give priority to education, social welfare programs and religious propagation activities.[110] Many Islamic organisations have headquarters in Jakarta, including Nahdlatul Ulama, Indonesian Ulema Council, Muhammadiyah, Jaringan Islam
Islam
Liberal, and Front Pembela Islam. Data from Jakarta
Jakarta
Central Bureau of Statistics 17 July 2017, shows that the population of Jakarta
Jakarta
who embrace Islam
Islam
is 83.43%, Protestant 8.63%, Catholic
Catholic
4.0%, Buddhist
Buddhist
3.74%, Hindu
Hindu
0.19%, and Confucianist 0.01%. Folk religion is claimed for 231 people.[111] Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
have a Metropolitan see, the Archdiocese of Jakarta, which includes West Java
Java
as part of the ecclesiastical province.

Religious Affiliation in Jakarta
Jakarta
(2017)[112]

City Population Islam Protestant Roman Catholic Buddhism Hinduism Confucianism Folk

Kepulauan Seribu 27.041 99.94% 0.04% 0.00% 0.02% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%

West Jakarta 2.317.171 75.08% 10.46% 5.96% 8.37% 0.11% 0.02% 0.00% (21 Peoples)

Central Jakarta 1.134.962 81.58% 9.80% 4.56% 3.70% 0.34% 0.02% 0.00% (43 peoples)

South Jakarta 2.184.264 91.43% 5.23% 2.63% 0.53% 0.17% 0.01% 0.00% (14 peoples)

East Jakarta 2.935.685 88.44% 8.14% 2.70% 0.53% 0.18% 0.01% 0.00% (104 peoples)

North Jakarta 1.706.281 76.88% 10.66% 5.00% 7.21% 0.23% 0.01% 0.00% (11 peoples)

Jakarta 10.305.404 83.43% 8.63% 4.00% 3.74% 0.19% 0.01% 0.00% (231 peoples)

Culture[edit] As the economic and political capital of Indonesia
Indonesia
with so many different languages and ethnic groups, it is difficult to describe or define a common culture for Jakarta, as the city attracts many native immigrants, from the vast and diverse Indonesian archipelago, who also bring their various languages, dialects, foods and customs. This diversity of origins and languages leads to differences in regard to religion, traditions and linguistics. However ethnic Betawi are considered as the indigenous people of Jakarta. Arts and festivals[edit]

Ondel-Ondel, often used as a symbol of Betawi culture

The Betawi culture is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. Betawi arts have a low profile in Jakarta, and most Betawi have moved to the suburbs of Jakarta, displaced by new migrants. It is easier to find Java
Java
or Minang-based wedding ceremonies rather than Betawi weddings in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan
Gamelan
instead of Tanjidor (a mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music), Marawis (a mixture between Betawi and Yemeni music) or Gambang Kromong (a mixture between Betawi and Chinese music). The Chinese also influenced Betawi culture, such as the popularity of Chinese cakes and sweets, firecrackers, to Betawi wedding attire that demonstrates Chinese and Arab influences. However, some festivals such as the Jalan Jaksa
Jalan Jaksa
Festival or Kemang Festival include efforts to preserve Betawi arts by inviting artists to give performances.[113] Jakarta
Jakarta
has several performing art centres, such as the classical concert hall Aula Simfonia Jakarta
Jakarta
in Kemayoran, Taman Ismail Marzuki (TIM) art centre in Cikini, Gedung Kesenian Jakarta
Jakarta
near Pasar Baru, Balai Sarbini in the Plaza Semanggi area, Bentara Budaya Jakarta in Palmerah area, Pasar Seni (Art Market) in Ancol, and traditional Indonesian art performances at the pavilions of some provinces in Taman Mini Indonesia
Indonesia
Indah. Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including Wayang
Wayang
and Gamelan performances. Javanese Wayang
Wayang
Orang performances can be found at Wayang
Wayang
Orang Bharata theatre near Senen
Senen
bus terminal. As the country's largest city and capital, Jakarta
Jakarta
has lured much national and regional talent who hope to find a greater audience and more opportunities for success. Jakarta
Jakarta
hosts several prestigious art and culture festivals, and exhibitions, such as the annual Jakarta
Jakarta
International Film Festival (JiFFest), Jakarta
Jakarta
International Java
Java
Jazz Festival, Djakarta Warehouse Project, Jakarta
Jakarta
Fashion Week, Jakarta
Jakarta
Fashion & Food Festival (JFFF), Jakarta
Jakarta
Fair, Indonesia
Indonesia
Creative Products and Jakarta Arts and Crafts exhibition. Flona Jakarta
Jakarta
is a flora-and-fauna exhibition, held annually in August at Lapangan Banteng
Lapangan Banteng
Park, featuring flowers, plant nurseries, and pets. Jakarta Fair
Jakarta Fair
is held annually from mid-June to mid-July to celebrate the anniversary of the city and is largely centred around a trade fair. However, this month-long fair also features entertainment, including arts and music performances by local musicians. Jakarta
Jakarta
International Java
Java
Jazz Festival (JJF) is one of the largest jazz festivals in the world and arguably the biggest in the Southern hemisphere. The annual jazz festival is held every early March and was designed to be one of the largest jazz festivals globally. Several foreign art and culture centres are also established in Jakarta, and mainly serve to promote culture and language through learning centres, libraries, and art galleries. Among these foreign art and cultural centres are China
China
Confucius Institute, Netherlands Erasmus Huis, UK British Council, France
France
Alliance Française, Germany Goethe-Institut, Japan
Japan
Foundation, and India
India
Jawaharlal Nehru Indian Cultural Center.

Chinese paifang in Mangga Dua, Central Jakarta

The Golden Snail IMAX theatre at Taman Mini Indonesia
Indonesia
Indah

Jakarta
Jakarta
Fair

Cuisine[edit] Main article: Betawi cuisine

Gado-gado
Gado-gado
is a popular Indonesian salad dish

As the capital, all varieties of Indonesian cuisine
Indonesian cuisine
have a presence in Jakarta. The local cuisine of Jakarta
Jakarta
is the Betawi cuisine, which reflects various foreign culinary traditions that have influenced the inhabitants of Jakarta
Jakarta
for centuries. Betawi cuisine
Betawi cuisine
is heavily influenced by Malay-Chinese Peranakan cuisine, Sundanese and Javanese cuisine, which is also influenced by Indian, Arabic
Arabic
and European cuisines. One of the most popular local dishes of Betwai cuisine is Soto Betawi which is prepared from chunks of beef and offal in rich and spicy cow's milk or coconut milk broth. Other popular Betawi dishes include soto kaki, nasi uduk, kerak telor (spicy omelette), nasi ulam, asinan, ketoprak, rujak and gado-gado Betawi (salad in peanut sauce). Jakarta
Jakarta
has a vast range of food available at hundreds of eating venues and food courts located all over the city, from modest street-side warung foodstalls and kaki lima (five legs) travelling vendors to high-end fine dining restaurants. From rooftop bar to glamorous lounge, Jakarta
Jakarta
has plenty of bars, cafes and clubs.[114] Since Jakarta
Jakarta
is regarded as the 'melting-pot' and a miniature version of Indonesia, many traditional foods from far-flung regions in Indonesia
Indonesia
can be found in Jakarta. For example, traditional Padang restaurants and low-budget Warteg ( Warung
Warung
Tegal) foodstalls are ubiquitous in the capital. Other popular street foods include nasi goreng (fried rice), sate (skewered meats), pecel lele (fried catfish), bakso (meatballs), bakpau (Chinese bun) and siomay (fish dumplings). Jalan Sabang,[115] Jalan Sidoarjo, Jalan Kendal at Menteng
Menteng
area, Kota Tua, Blok S, Blok M,[116] Jalan Tebet[117] are all popular destinations for street-food lovers. While Menteng, Kemang,[118] Jalan Senopati,[119] Kuningan, Senayan and Pantai Indah Kapuk,[120] Kelapa Gading areas have trendy restaurants, cafe and bars. From old town of Batavia with Indonesia’s Dutch colonial past to the fashionable Menteng
Menteng
district, the city has hive of live music venues and exclusive restaurants.[121] Lenggang Jakarta
Jakarta
is a food court area built with a concept of culinary and cultural centre, accommodating small traders and street vendors with toilet, free WiFi facility and non-cash payment system.[122] This place is unique as most of the Indonesian food's are available within a single compound. At present there are two such food courts at Monas
Monas
and Kemayoran
Kemayoran
area.[123] TransJakarta operates free tour buses on every Saturday from 5PM to 11 PM to some of the most popular culinary destinations in Central Jakarta.[124]Chinese street-food is plentifully available at Jalan Pangeran, Manga Besar and Petak Sembilan in the old Jakarta
Jakarta
area, while Little Tokyo
Tokyo
area of Blok M
Blok M
has many Japanese style restaurants and bars.[125] Next to a myriad of Indonesian food and regional specialties from all over Indonesia, foreign food is also represented: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Indian, American, French, Mediterranean cuisine's like Turkish, Italian, Middle-Eastern cuisine, and modern fusion food can all be found in Jakarta.[126] Museums[edit] See also: List of museums and cultural institutions in Indonesia

National Museum of Indonesia
Indonesia
in Central Jakarta

There are in total 142 museums in Jakarta.[127] The museums in Jakarta cluster around the Central Jakarta
Central Jakarta
Merdeka Square area, Jakarta
Jakarta
Old Town, and Taman Mini Indonesia
Indonesia
Indah. The Jakarta Old Town
Jakarta Old Town
contains museums that are former institutional buildings of Colonial Batavia. Some of these museums are: Jakarta History Museum (former City
City
Hall of Batavia), Wayang
Wayang
Museum (Puppet Museum) (former Church of Batavia), the Fine Art and Ceramic Museum (former Court House of Justice of Batavia), the Maritime Museum (former Sunda Kelapa
Sunda Kelapa
warehouse), Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
Museum (former Javasche Bank), and Bank Mandiri Museum (former Nederlandsche Handels Maatschappij).

Indonesia
Indonesia
Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia
Indonesia
Indah

Several museums clustered in central Jakarta
Jakarta
around the Merdeka Square area include: National Museum of Indonesia
Indonesia
which also known as Gedung Gajah (the Elephant Building), Monumen Nasional (National Monument), Istiqlal Islamic Museum in Istiqlal Mosque, and Jakarta
Jakarta
Cathedral Museum on the second floor of Jakarta
Jakarta
Cathedral. Also in the central Jakarta
Jakarta
area is the Taman Prasasti Museum
Taman Prasasti Museum
(former cemetery of Batavia), and Textile Museum in Tanah Abang
Tanah Abang
area. The recreational area of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
in East Jakarta contains fourteen museums, such as Indonesia
Indonesia
Museum, Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum, Asmat Museum, Bayt al-Qur'an Islamic Museum, Pusaka (heirloom) Museum, and other science-based museum such as Research & Technology Information Centre, Komodo Indonesian Fauna Museum, Insect Museum, Petrol and Gas Museum, plus the Transportation Museum. Other museums are Satria Mandala Military Museum, Museum Sumpah Pemuda, and Lubang Buaya
Lubang Buaya
(Crocodile Well). Media[edit] Jakarta
Jakarta
has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Several newspapers, including daily, business, and digital papers, are based in Jakarta. Daily newspapers include Kompas, Koran Tempo, Media Indonesia, Republika, Suara Pembaruan, Seputar Indonesia, Suara Karya, Sinar Harapan, Indo Pos, Jurnal Nasional, and Harian Pelita. English language newspapers are also published daily, for example The Jakarta Post
The Jakarta Post
and The Jakarta
Jakarta
Globe. Chinese language newspapers are Indonesia
Indonesia
Shang Bao (印尼商报), Harian Indonesia (印尼星洲日报), and Guo Ji Ri Bao (国际日报). The only Japanese language
Japanese language
newspaper is The Daily Jakarta
Jakarta
Shimbun (じゃかるた新聞). Jakarta
Jakarta
has also the daily newspapers segment such as Pos Kota, Warta Kota, Koran Jakarta, Berita Kota for local readers; Bisnis Indonesia, Investor Daily, Kontan, Harian Neraca (business news) as well as Top Skor and Soccer (sport news). Jakarta
Jakarta
are the headquarters for Indonesia's state media public government stations, TVRI as well as private national television include Metro TV, tvOne, Kompas
Kompas
TV, Trans TV, Trans 7, RCTI, MNC, SCTV, Global TV, Indosiar, ANTV, RTV and NET.. Jakarta
Jakarta
has also the local television channels such as Jak TV, O Channel, Elshinta TV, and DAAI TV Indonesia. The city is home to the country's main pay television service. The wide range of cable channels available includes First Media and TelkomVision. Satellite television
Satellite television
(DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance in Jakarta. Prominent DTH entertainment services are Indovision, Okevision, Yes TV, Transvision, and Aora TV. Many TV stations are analogue PAL, but some are now converting to digital signals using DVB-T2
DVB-T2
following a government plan to digital television migration.[128]

A Metro TV
Metro TV
news van parked in Merdeka Square, Jakarta

The TVRI Tower in Senayan, South Jakarta

Channel Name Type Language Country of Region

22 UHF INTV Local Indonesian  Indonesia

23 UHF RTV National

25 UHF Kompas
Kompas
TV

26 UHF CTV Banten Local

27 UHF NET. National

28 UHF KTV Local

29 UHF Trans TV National

30 UHF iNews TV

31 UHF TVRI Jakarta
Jakarta
& Banten Local

33 UHF O Channel

35 UHF Elshinta TV

37 UHF MNCTV National

39 UHF TVRI Nasional

41 UHF Indosiar

43 UHF RCTI

45 UHF SCTV

47 UHF antv

49 UHF Trans7

51 UHF Global TV

53 UHF tvOne

55 UHF JakTV Local

57 UHF Metro TV National

59 UHF DAAI TV Local

60 UHF Radar TV

There are seventy five radio stations in Jakarta, with fifty two broadcasting on the FM band, and twenty three radio stations broadcasting on the AM band. Economy[edit]

Night view of SCBD
SCBD
( Sudirman
Sudirman
Central Business District), Jakarta

Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
head office in Central Jakarta

Indonesia
Indonesia
is the largest economy of ASEAN
ASEAN
and Jakarta
Jakarta
is the economic nerve centre of Indonesian archipelago. The city generated about one-sixth of Indonesian GDP
GDP
in 2008.[129] Nominal GDP
GDP
of DKI Jakarta was US$483.8 billion in 2016, which is about 17.5% of the nominal GDP of Indonesia.[130] Jakarta
Jakarta
ranked 67th in Global Financial Centres Index 21 published by Z/Yen.[131] The city ranks higher at 62 in Global Financial Centres Index 22, published in September, 2017. Jakarta
Jakarta
ranked at 41 in Global Power City
City
Index by The Mori Memorial Foundation in 2017.[132]EIU’s recent survey ranked Jakarta
Jakarta
at 8th among 45 cities in the world with the highest confidence in the environment for digital transformation, beating London, Madrid, New York, as well as its closest neighbor, Singapore.[133] Jakarta's economy depends highly on service sectors, banking, trading, financial, and manufacturing. Most of industries in Jakarta
Jakarta
include electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing. Head office of Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
and Indonesia
Indonesia
Stock Exchange located in the city. Most of the SOE like Pertamina, PLN, PGN, Angkasa Pura, BULOG, Telkomsel, Waskita operate from their head offices in the city. Also major Indonesian conglomerates maintains head office in Jakarta. Important conglomerates which have corporate office in the city are, Salim Group, Sinar Mas Group, Astra International, Lippo Group, Bakrie Group, Ciputra Group, Agung Podomoro Group, Unilever Indonesia, Djarum, Gudang Garam, Kompas
Kompas
Gramedia, Lion Air, Sriwijaya Air, MedcoEnergi, MNC, Trans Corp, Kalbe Farma, and many more. The economic growth of Jakarta
Jakarta
in 2007 was 6.44% up from 5.95% the previous year, with the growth in the transportation and communication (15.25%), construction (7.81%) and trade, hotel and restaurant sectors (6.88%).[54] In 2007, GRDP (Gross Regional Domestic Product) was Rp. 566 trillion (around $US 56 billion). The largest contributions to GRDP were by finance, ownership and business services (29%); trade, hotel and restaurant sector (20%), and manufacturing industry sector (16%).[54] In 2007, the increase in per capita GRDP of DKI Jakarta
DKI Jakarta
inhabitants was 11.6% compared to the previous year[54] Both GRDP by at current market price and GRDP by at 2000 constant price in 2007 for the Municipality of Central Jakarta, which was Rp 146 million and Rp 81 million, was higher than other municipalities in Jakarta.[54] Last data update was on 2014 by end of year Jakarta
Jakarta
have a GRDP (Gross Regional Domestic Product) was Rp. 1,761.407 trillion (around USD 148.53 billion) with economic growth above 6% per year since 2009. In 2014, per capita GRDP of DKI Jakarta inhabitants was Rp 174.87 million or USD 14,727. In 2015, GDP
GDP
per capita in the city was estimated Rp 194.87 million or US$14,570.[134] The Wealth Report 2015 by Knight Frank
Knight Frank
reported that there were 24 individuals in Indonesia
Indonesia
in 2014 with wealth at least one billion US Dollar and 18 of them live in the capital Jakarta.[135] The cost of living in the city continues to rise. Both land price and rents has become expensive. Mercer’s 2017 Cost of Living Survey ranked Jakarta as 88th costliest city in the world for expatriate employees living.[136] Industrial development and the construction of new housing are usually undertaken on the outskirts, while commerce and banking remain concentrated in the city centre.[137] Jakarta
Jakarta
has a bustling luxury property market. The investment in the property sector, including offices, commercial buildings, new town development, and high rise apartments and hotels grew substantially. Knight Frank, a global real estate consultancy based in London, reported in 2014 that Jakarta
Jakarta
offered the highest return on high-end property investment in the world in 2013, citing supply shortage and a sharply depreciated currency as reasons.[138] Shopping[edit]

Grand Indonesia
Indonesia
Shopping Town in Central Jakarta

Jakarta
Jakarta
has numerous shopping malls and markets. With a total of 550 hectares, Jakarta
Jakarta
has the world's largest shopping mall floor area within a single city.[139][140] The annual " Jakarta
Jakarta
Great Sale" is held every year in June and July to celebrate Jakarta's anniversary, with about 73 participating shopping centres in 2012.[141] Malls such as Plaza Indonesia, Grand Indonesia
Indonesia
Shopping Town, Plaza Senayan, Senayan City
City
and Pacific Place provide luxury brands, while Mall Taman Anggrek, Pondok Indah Mall, Mal Kelapa Gading, Central Park Jakarta, Lotte Shopping Avenue, Gandaria City, Kota Kasablanka, Kemang Village, Lippo Mall Puri, and Bay Walk Mall have high-street brands such as Topshop, Uniqlo
Uniqlo
and Zara.[142]

Mall Taman Anggrek, West Jakarta

Department stores in Senayan City, Supermall Karawaci and Lippo Mall Kemang Village use the Debenhams
Debenhams
brand under licence,[143] while the Japanese Sogo
Sogo
department store has about seven stores in various shopping malls in the city.[144] Seibu flagship store is located in Grand Indonesia
Indonesia
Shopping Town, and French luxury department store, Galeries Lafayette
Galeries Lafayette
opened its doors for the first time in South East Asia in Pacific Place. Internationally known luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton, Bulgari, Chanel, Gucci, Christian Louboutin, Balenciaga, and Giorgio Armani
Giorgio Armani
can be found in Jakarta's luxury shopping malls. The Satrio-Casablanca corridor, 3.5-kilometre street is a new shopping belt in Jakarta.[145] Many multistorey shopping centres are located here, such as Kuningan City, Mal Ambassador, Kota Kasablanka, and Lotte Shopping Avenue. Traditional markets include Blok M, Tanah Abang, Senen, Pasar Baru, Glodok, Mangga Dua, Cempaka Mas, and Jatinegara. In Jakarta
Jakarta
there are also markets that sell specific collectable items, such as antique goods in Surabaya
Surabaya
Street and gemstones in Rawabening Market. Tourism[edit] See also: Tourism
Tourism
in Indonesia Though Jakarta
Jakarta
has been named the most popular location as per tag stories[146] and ranked 8th most posted among the cities in the world in 2017 on image sharing site Instagram,[147] the city is not a top international tourist destination till date unlike other neighboring Southeast Asian cities like Singapore, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and Bangkok. Most of the visitors attracted to Jakarta
Jakarta
are domestic tourists from all over Indonesia. Jakarta
Jakarta
ranked as the fifth fastest growing destination among 132 cities according to MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index published in September, 2017. Those who were visiting, 59.1% for business, while the other 40.9% were visiting for leisure.[148] According to Euromonitor International’s latest Top 100 City
City
Destinations Ranking, Jakarta
Jakarta
ranked at 83 with more than 3.5 million international tourists visited in a year, which is 48.5% higher in comparison to previous year.[149] As the gateway of Indonesia, Jakarta
Jakarta
often serves as the stop-over for foreign visitors on their way to Indonesian popular tourist destinations such as Bali, Lombok
Lombok
and Yogyakarta. Jakarta
Jakarta
is trying to attract more international tourist by MICE tourism, by arranging increasing numbers of conventions.[150][151] Slowly but steadily and gradually tourism contributes a growing amount of income to the city. In 2012, the tourism sector contributed 2.6 trillion rupiah (US$268.5 million) to the city's total direct income of 17.83 trillion rupiah (US$1.45 billion), 17.9% increase from the previous year 2011. Tourism stakeholders are expecting greater marketing of the Jakarta
Jakarta
as a tourism destination.[152]

Pinisi
Pinisi
at Sunda Kelapa
Sunda Kelapa
harbor

The popular heritage tourism attractions are in Kota[153] and around Merdeka square. Kota is the centre of old Jakarta, with its Maritime Museum, Kota Intan drawbridge, Gereja Sion, Wayang
Wayang
Museum, Stadhuis Batavia, Fine Art and Ceramic Museum, Toko Merah, Bank Indonesia Museum, Bank Mandiri Museum, Jakarta
Jakarta
Kota Station, and Glodok
Glodok
(Jakarta Chinatown). In the old ports of Sunda Kelapa, the tall masted pinisi ship still sails. The Jakarta Cathedral
Jakarta Cathedral
with neo-gothic architecture in Central Jakarta
Central Jakarta
also attracted architecture enthusiast. Kota Tua was named the most-visited destination in Indonesia
Indonesia
in 2017 by image-sharing platform Instagram.[154] Other than monuments, landmarks, and museums around Merdeka square and Jakarta
Jakarta
Old Town, tourist attractions of the city include Thousand Islands, Taman Mini Indonesia
Indonesia
Indah, Setu Babakan, Ragunan Zoo, Sunda Kelapa old port and the Ancol
Ancol
Dreamland complex on Jakarta
Jakarta
Bay, including Dunia Fantasi (Fantasy World) theme park, Sea World, Atlantis Water Adventure, and Gelanggang Samudra. Thousand Islands, which is north to the coast of the city and in Java
Java
Sea is also a popular tourist destination.Since

Most of the renowned international hotel chains have presence in the city. Jalan Jaksa
Jalan Jaksa
and surrounding area is popular among backpackers for cheaper accommodation, travel agencies, second-hand bookstores, money changers, laundries, pubs, etc.,[155] while Kemang is a favorite suburb for expats living. City
City
tour bus service[edit] Jakarta
Jakarta
city government provides free double-decker bus tours that offers sightseeing in the city. Tourists can catch the double-decker bus — free of charge, in several designated bus stops in front of city's points of interest. Several routes of this bus service covers main tourist attractions, such as Monas, Istiqlal Mosque, the Cathedral, National Museum, Sarinah, Hotel Indonesia
Hotel Indonesia
crossing, Kota Tua and Kalijodo Park
Kalijodo Park
.[156][157] The service is expanded to include Kota Tua
Kota Tua
in the north, Kalijodo Park
Kalijodo Park
in the west and Gelora Bung Karno Stadium in Senayan area in the south, via Sudirman
Sudirman
avenue.[158][159] TransJakarta
TransJakarta
also operates free tour buses on every Saturday from 5PM to 11 PM to some of the most popular culinary destinations in Central Jakarta.[160] Infrastructure[edit] See also: Indonesian future capital proposal Road[edit] See also: List of toll roads in Indonesia

Part of Jakarta Inner Ring Road
Jakarta Inner Ring Road
or Jalan Tol Lingkar Dalam Jakarta
Jakarta
in Grogol Petamburan, West Jakarta

A street in Jakarta

A structured road network had been developed in the early 19th century as a part of the Java
Java
Great Post Road
Great Post Road
by former Governor-General Daendels, which connects most major cities throughout Java. During the following decades, the road network was expanded to a great extent, although it could not keep up with the rapidly increasing numbers of motorised vehicles, resulting in highly congested traffic. A notable feature of Jakarta's present road system is the toll road network. Composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards, the network provides inner as well as outer city connections. Jakarta Outer Ring Road
Jakarta Outer Ring Road
2 is an under-construction toll road encircling greater Jakarta
Jakarta
area, parallel with Jakarta
Jakarta
Outer Ring Road (JORR 1). The five radiating toll roads are:

Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road
Prof. Dr. Sedyatmo Toll Road
linking to Soekarno–Hatta International Airport Jakarta– Tangerang
Tangerang
Toll Road linking to Tangerang
Tangerang
and further to Merak in the west Jakarta–Serpong Toll Road
Jakarta–Serpong Toll Road
linking to Serpong Jagorawi Toll Road
Jagorawi Toll Road
linking to Bogor
Bogor
and Ciawi in the south Jakarta–Cikampek Toll Road
Jakarta–Cikampek Toll Road
linking to Bekasi
Bekasi
and Cikampek in the east

Throughout the years, several attempts have been made to reduce traffic congestion on Jakarta's main arteries. Implemented solutions include a 'three-in-one' rush-hour law, during which cars with fewer than three passengers are prohibited from driving on the main avenues. Another example is the ban on trucks passing main avenues during the day.[161] In 2016, 'odd-even' policy was introduced which designated cars with either odd or even-numbered registration plates on a particular day.[162] This aims to function as a transitional measure to alleviate traffic congestion until the future introduction of Electronic Road Pricing
Electronic Road Pricing
which would be more effective.[163] Water supply[edit] Further information: Water privatisation in Jakarta Two private companies, PALYJA and Aetra, provide piped water supply in the western and eastern half of Jakarta
Jakarta
respectively under 25-year concession contracts signed in 1998. A public asset holding company called PAM Jaya owns the infrastructure. 80% of the water distributed in Jakarta
Jakarta
comes through the West Tarum Canal system from Jatiluhur reservoir on the Citarum River
Citarum River
70 km (43 mi) southeast of the city. Water supply had been privatised by government of then President Suharto
President Suharto
in 1998 to the French company Suez Environnement
Suez Environnement
and the British company Thames Water
Thames Water
International. Both foreign companies subsequently sold their concessions to Indonesian companies. Customer growth in the 7 first years of the concessions had been lower than before, despite substantial inflation-adjusted tariff increases during this period. In 2005 tariffs were frozen, leading the private water companies to cut down on investments. According to PALYJA in its western half of the concession the service coverage ratio increased substantially from 34% in 1998 to 59% in 2007 and 65% in 2010.[164] According to data by the Jakarta
Jakarta
Water Supply Regulatory Body, access in the eastern half of the city served by PTJ increased from about 57% in 1998 to about 67% in 2004, but stagnated after that.[165] However, other sources cite much lower access figures for piped water supply to houses, excluding access provided through public hydrants: One study estimated access as low as 25% in 2005,[166] while another source estimates it to be as low as 18.5% in 2011.[167] Those without access to piped water supply get water mostly from wells that are often salty and polluted with bacteria. As of 2017, according to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Jakarta
Jakarta
has a crisis of clean water.[168] Healthcare[edit] Indonesia’s healthcare system is lagging behind than neighboring countries, such as Singapore, Malaysia
Malaysia
or Thailand, but capital Jakarta
Jakarta
does have many of the country’s best-equipped private and public facilities. In January 2014, the Indonesian government launched Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN), a scheme to implement universal health care in Indonesia.[169] It is expected that the entire population will be covered in 2019.[170][171][172] Hospitals in Jakarta
Jakarta
are of a very good standard, however, they are in high demand and thus often overcrowded. There are many government run specialized hospitals as well as community hospitals Puskesmas
Puskesmas
in Jakarta. Private hospitals and clinics are the best option for healthcare services in Jakarta. Private healthcare sector has seen significant changes during last few years, as Indonesian government began allowing foreign investment in the private sector in 2010. While there are some private facilities that are run by nonprofit or religious organizations, most are for profit. There are many hospital chains with branches operating in the city, such as Siloam, Mayapada, Mitra Keluarga, Medika, Medistra, Hermina and many others.[173][174] Transportation[edit]

Jakarta
Jakarta
pedestrians, joggers and bicyclists take over the main avenue during Car-Free Day

As a metropolitan area of about 30 million people with limited rapid transit system[175] Jakarta
Jakarta
is strained by transportation problems.[176] The city suffers a lack of urban public transport services due to prioritised development of road networks, which were mostly designed to accommodate private vehicles.[177] According to the National Development Planning Agency, or Bappenas, traffic congestion in Greater Jakarta
Greater Jakarta
wastes about $7.4 billion each year due to the high number of motorcycles and cars on the roads.[178] As of 2015, about 1.4 million commuters travel into the city centre from the outskirts of Jakarta. Based on the survey, 58 percent of these commuters use motorcycles, 12.8 percent use cars and only 27 percent use public transportation.[179] In 2004, a study was undertaken to prepare a master-plan for an integrated public transport system within Greater Jakarta, which revealed the mode of transport among city dwellers.[180][181][182] The city's 9.5% average annual growth rate of motorized vehicles far exceeds the 0.01% increase in road length between 2005 and 2010. As of 2010, public transportation in Jakarta serves only 56% of commuter trips. [183]

Argo Bromo, a non-stop train connecting Jakarta
Jakarta
and Surabaya

Road transport[edit] Electronic road pricing[edit] Due to the city's acute gridlock, the Jakarta
Jakarta
administration has decided to implement Electronic Road Pricing
Electronic Road Pricing
in 10 districts: Tanah Abang, Menteng, Setiabudi, Tebet, Matraman, Senen, Gambir, Tambora, Sawah Besar and Taman Sari.[184] The ERP is planned to be implemented in the three-in-one zone and along Jl. Rasuna Said. The ERP system is expected to be operational by 2019 along with the opening of the Jakarta
Jakarta
MRT.[185]ERP sysyem would be implemented into two phases; the first one will be for vehicles moving from the Senayan traffic circle to the Hotel Indonesia
Hotel Indonesia
(HI) traffic circle. The second phase will be installed from the HI traffic circle to Jl. Medan
Medan
Merdeka Barat.[186] Bus service[edit] There are many bus terminals in the city, from where buses operate on numerous routes to connect neighborhoods within the city limit, to other areas of Greater Jakarta
Greater Jakarta
area and to cities across the island of Java. The biggest of the bus terminal is Pulo Gebang Bus Terminal, which is arguably the largest of its kind in Southeast Asia.[187] Besides TransJakarta, other private owned bus systems like Kopaja, MetroMini, Mayasari Bakti and APTB also provide important services for Jakarta
Jakarta
commuters with numerous routes throughout the city. Since January 2013, Jakarta
Jakarta
Government has integrated Kopaja
Kopaja
AC buses with TransJakarta
TransJakarta
feeder bus routes. For the future, Metromini AC bus it is also possible to enter TransJakarta
TransJakarta
bus lanes to enhance integrated bus rapid transit system. Traditional transports[edit]

Becak: In 1966, an estimated 160 thousand pedicabs (becak) operated in the city; as much as 15% of Jakarta's total workforce was engaged in becak driving. In 1971, becak were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them. A campaign to eliminate them succeeded in 1990 and 1991, but during the economic crisis of 1998, some returned amid less effective government attempts to control them.[188] In 2018, Governor
Governor
Anies Baswedan attempted to allow becak again because of a political contract with becak drivers during his campaign.[189] Auto rickshaw: Bajaj auto rikshaw provide local transportation in the back streets of some parts of the city. From the early 1940s to 1991 they were a common form of local transportation in the city. Microbus: Angkot
Angkot
microbuses also play a major role in road transport of Jakarta. They operates in numerous routes to connect neighbourhoods of the city.

Taxi cab[edit]

A taxicab waiting at a mall in Jakarta

Plenty of taxi cabs are available in the city. Many companies operate & maintain pools of different model of cars in own their brands. Taxi's operated by app-based ride hailing company Grab
Grab
and GO-JEK also have wide presence. Motorcycle taxi/ojek[edit] Although ojek are not an official form of public transport, they can be found throughout Indonesia
Indonesia
and in Jakarta. They are especially useful when navigating crowded urban roads, narrow alleyways, heavy traffic and cramped locations that larger vehicles cannot reach. Now a days most of the ojeks are operated under app bases ride hailding companies like GO-JEK and Grab. Rail[edit] Long-distance railways and local tram services were first introduced during the Dutch colonial era. While the trams were replaced with buses in the post-colonial era, long-distance railways continued to connect the city to its neighbouring regions as well as cities throughout the island of Java. Main terminus for long distance train services are Gambir and Pasar Senen. A commuter rail system KRL Jabodetabek
Jabodetabek
connects areas within Greater Jakarta. Major rail stations of commter line are Jakarta
Jakarta
Kota, Jatinegara, Tanah Abang, Duri, Pasar Senen, Manggarai and Sudirman. High-speed railways are planned connecting Jakarta- Bandung
Bandung
and Jakarta-Surabaya. High speed rail[edit] Further information: High-speed rail in Indonesia The first high-speed rail to connect Jakarta
Jakarta
with Bandung
Bandung
is currently under construction which is expected to start operation in 2019. The contract was awarded to China. Both Japan
Japan
and China
China
contested as a potential contractor, but it was awarded to China
China
mainly because of their proposal did not require Indonesian fiscal spending or government debt guarantees.[190] The project cost was estimated to be US$5.5 billion. China
China
Development Bank will fund 75 percent of the project. A joint venture company PT Kereta Cepat Indonesia- China
China
has formed by China
China
Railway Group Limited (CREC) with a consortium of Indonesia's state-owned enterprises (SOEs) led by PT Wijaya Karya Tbk to develop the project.[191] Another project to upgrade of existing Jakarta- Surabaya
Surabaya
route to high speed rail is undertaken in 2016. Priority was given to Japan
Japan
this time who had been one of the biggest investors to Indonesia. The route is supposed to finish construction in 2019.[192] Rapid transit[edit] At present rapid transit in Greater Jakarta
Greater Jakarta
consists of a BRT TransJakarta
TransJakarta
and commuter rail, KRL Jabodetabek
Jabodetabek
and Soekarno-Hatta Airport
Airport
Rail Link. Other transit systems, those are now being under construction are Jakarta MRT
Jakarta MRT
and Jakarta
Jakarta
LRT, which are expected to be operational by 2018. Bus rapid transit[edit] Further information: TransJakarta

TransJakarta
TransJakarta
has the world's longest bus rapid transit routes.

The TransJakarta
TransJakarta
bus rapid transit service (known as Busway) was developed in the context of development reforms (or reformasi) and used Bogota's TransMilenio
TransMilenio
system as a model.[193] Jakarta's first busway line, from Blok M
Blok M
to Jakarta
Jakarta
Kota opened in January 2004 and as of 14 February 2013, twelve out of fifteen corridors are in use. TransJakarta
TransJakarta
has the world's longest bus rapid transit routes (210 kilometres (130 miles) in length). So far TransJakarta
TransJakarta
serves total 80 routes (corridor, cross route & feeder route) at the end of 2016.[194] Transjakarta owned more than 1,500 buses in the first three months of 2017 and targets to have 3,000 buses by the end of the year.[195] Commuter rail[edit] Further information: KRL Jabodetabek

A KRL Jabotabek
KRL Jabotabek
commuter train

KRL Jabodetabek
Jabodetabek
or commonly known as Commuterline is a commuter rail system which serves commuters in Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, South Tangerang, and Bekasi. The commuter system was started in 2000.[196] The number of passengers in 2014 reached 208 million, rising from 158 million in the previous year.[197] About 315.8 million commuters used KRL Jabodetabek
Jabodetabek
in the year of 2017.[198] KRL Jabotabek serves all municipalities in Jakarta
Jakarta
excluding the Thousand Islands, as well as Greater Jakarta
Greater Jakarta
region. Though during rush hours, the number of passengers greatly exceeds the system's capacity, and crowding is common. Currently KRL Jabotabek
KRL Jabotabek
is the only rail-based transit system in Jakarta, as the mass rapid transit and light rail transit are still under construction. Jakarta
Jakarta
MRT[edit] Further information: Jakarta
Jakarta
Mass Rapid Transit

Jakarta MRT
Jakarta MRT
construction in Jalan M.H. Thamrin, in 2016.

After a long planning and years of delay, Jakarta
Jakarta
Mass Rapid Transit is currently under construction. Jakarta
Jakarta
city government decided for a rail-based system because of its ability to carry large numbers of people quickly and cheaply.[199] Jakarta MRT
Jakarta MRT
has a north–south line between Kota and Lebak Bulus; and an east–west line, which will connect to the north–south line at Sawah Besar station. The Jakarta MRT will be a combination of subways and elevated rails. Preparation work started in April 2012,[200] and groundbreaking was done in October 2013, with the first, 15.2 km-long line between Hotel Indonesia
Indonesia
and Lebak Bulus scheduled to be operational by 2018, and the north–south line MRT network is scheduled to be operational by 2020. The total length of the network when complete will be approximately 110.8 kilometres (68.8 miles).[201][202]As of 2016[update], the mass rapid transit system has an investment of nearly US $1.7 billion to ease the capital's traffic issue in the coming years, including the construction of a subway.[203] Jakarta
Jakarta
LRT[edit] Further information: Jakarta
Jakarta
Light Rail Transit Jakarta LRT
Jakarta LRT
is a light metro system which is currently under construction. The light rail transit (LRT) project was launched to replace the previously abandoned monorail project.[204] Jakarta
Jakarta
Light Rail Transit groundbreaking ceremony was held on 9 September 2015, with the first phase of the construction will connect Cibubur
Cibubur
in East Jakarta
Jakarta
with Dukuh Atas in downtown Central Jakarta, passing through Cawang intersection. This phase will be 42.1 kilometres (26.2 miles) long, which include 18 stations, and expected to be operated by the first half of 2018, prior to the 2018 Asian Games.[205] Soekarno-Hatta Airport
Airport
Rail Link[edit] See also: Soekarno-Hatta Airport
Airport
Rail Link This is a commuter train service connecting the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport
Airport
to the city centre. Another express train service is now under planning stage to connect Soekarno-Hatta International Airport
Airport
with Halim Perdanakusuma Airport. Completion of this line is expected to be in 2019 at the earliest.[206] Air[edit]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Terminal 3

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
(CGK) is the main airport serving the Greater Jakarta
Greater Jakarta
area. The airport is named after the first President of Indonesia, Soekarno, and the first Vice President of Indonesia, Mohammad Hatta. The airport is often called Cengkareng airport or Soetta by Indonesians. The airport's IATA code, CGK, originates from the name of the Cengkareng
Cengkareng
locality, Tangerang, Banten, although the location of this airport is located outside of the city, it is used as a gate out by the Jakartans and citizen of the surrounding areas, therefore at the main gate of the airport, there is an inscription " Jakarta
Jakarta
Airports".[207] Soekarno–Hatta International Airport
Airport
was ranked as 8th busiest airport in the world by Airports Council International in 2013.[208] Today the airport is running over capacity. After T3 Soekarno-Hatta Airport
Airport
expansion has finished in May 2016, the total capacity of three terminals become 43 million passengers a year. T1 and T2 also will be revitalised, so all the three terminals finally will accommodate 67 million passengers a year.[209] A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma Airport
Halim Perdanakusuma Airport
(HLP) serves domestic flight of low cost airline, private and VIP/presidential flights. Other airports in the Jakarta
Jakarta
metropolitan area include Pondok Cabe Airport
Airport
and an airfield on Pulau Panjang, part of the Thousand Island archipelago (Kepulauan Seribu). Waterway[edit] See also: Port of Tanjung Priok Sea[edit] Jakarta's main seaport Port of Tanjung Priok
Port of Tanjung Priok
serves many ferry connections to different parts of Indonesia. Port of Tanjung Priok
Port of Tanjung Priok
is Indonesia's busiest port, and the 21st busiest port in the world in 2013, handling over 6.59 million TEUs.[210] To boost the port capacity, two-phase "New Tanjung Priok" extension project is currently ongoing. When fully operational in 2023, it will triple existing annual capacity. The port is also an important employer in the area, with more than 18,000 employees who provide services to more than 18,000 ships every year. The Port of Tanjung Priok
Port of Tanjung Priok
has 20 terminals: general cargo, multipurpose terminal, scraps terminal, passenger terminal, dry bulk terminal, liquid bulk terminal, oil terminal, chemicals terminal and three container terminals, 76 berths, a quay length of 16,853 metres (55,292 feet), a total storage area of 661,822 square metres (7,123,790 square feet) and a storage capacity of 401,468 tonnes.[211] In December 2011, Muara Angke Port was renovated for Rp 130 billion ($14.4 million) in a 3 hectare area. Muara Angke Port would then be used as a public port to Thousand Islands
Thousand Islands
(Indonesia), while Marina Ancol
Ancol
Port would be used as a tourist port.[212] River[edit] On 6 June 2007, the city administration introduced the Waterway (officially Angkutan Sungai), a new river boat service along the Ciliwung River.[176][213] However, because of the large amount of floating garbage which kept jamming the propeller, it is no longer in service. The varying water levels during the dry and wet seasons were also a contributing factor to the close-down. Cityscape[edit] See also: Colonial architecture in Jakarta, List of tallest buildings in Jakarta, and Golden Triangle of Jakarta Architecture[edit]

Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
in Kota Tua

Jakarta
Jakarta
has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect Malay, Javanese, Arabic, Chinese and Dutch influences.[214] The external influence gives a role in forming the architecture of the Betawi house. The houses were built of nangka wood (Artocarpus integrifolia) and comprised three rooms. The shape of the roof is reminiscent of the traditional Javanese joglo.[36] There are about six hundred registered cultural heritage buildings in Jakarta.[215] Colonial buildings and structures in Jakarta
Jakarta
include those that were constructed during the Dutch colonial period of Indonesia. The dominant styles of the Dutch colonial period can be divided into three periods: the Dutch Golden Age
Dutch Golden Age
(17th to late 18th century), the transitional style period (late 18th century – 19th century), and Dutch modernism (20th century). Dutch colonial architecture in Jakarta is apparent in buildings such as houses or villas, churches, civic buildings, and offices, mostly concentrated in the Jakarta
Jakarta
Old Town and Central Jakarta. Architects such as J.C. Schultze and Eduard Cuypers designed some significant buildings in Jakarta. Works of Schultze includes Jakarta
Jakarta
Art Building, the Indonesia
Indonesia
Supreme Court Building and Ministry of Finance Building, while Cuypers designed Bank Indonesia
Indonesia
Museum and Bank Mandiri Museum.

Wisma 46
Wisma 46
in post-modernist architecture, currently fourth tallest building in Jakarta.

At the early 20th century, most of the buildings in the Jakarta
Jakarta
were built in Neo Renaissance style of Europe. By the 1920s, the architectural taste have begun to shift in favour of rationalism and modernist movement, particularly there was increasing art deco architecture. The elite suburbs Menteng, developed during the 1910s, was the city's first attempt at creating an ideal and healthy housing area for the middle class. The original houses had a longitudinal organisation of space, as well as overhanging eaves, large windows and open ventilation, all practical features for a tropical climate with a hint of modern art deco.[216] It was developed by the private real estate company N.V. de Bouwploeg, established by P.A.J. Moojen. After independence, the process of nation building in Indonesia
Indonesia
and demolishing the memory of Dutch colonialism was as important as the symbolic building of arterials, monuments, government buildings during the Sukarno
Sukarno
era. The National Monument in Jakarta, designed by Sukarno, is Indonesia's beacon nationalism. In the early 1960s, Jakarta
Jakarta
with Soviet Union
Soviet Union
funding providing infrastructure development for highways and super-scale cultural monuments as well as Senayan Sports Stadium. The parliament building features a hyperbolic shaped roof reminiscent of German rationalist and Corbusian design concepts.[217] In 1996, Wisma 46
Wisma 46
soars to height of 262 metres (860 feet) with forty eight stories and its nib shaped top celebrates technology and symbolises stereoscopy. The urban construction booms have continued in the 21st century and are shaping skylines in Jakarta. Golden Triangle of Jakarta
Golden Triangle of Jakarta
is one of the fastest evolving CBD in Asia-Pacific region.[218] According to CTBUH and Emporis, there are 88 skyscrapers that reaches or exceeds the height of 150 metres (490 feet) in Jakarta, which puts the city at the top 10 of world rankings.[219] It has more buildings taller than 500 feet (150 m) than any other Southeast Asia's cities as well as southern hemisphere. At present Gama Tower with 310 meters tip height is the tallest building in Jakarta. Landmarks[edit]

Night view of Monas, the Jakarta
Jakarta
landmark

Most of Jakarta's landmarks, monuments and statues were built during the Sukarno
Sukarno
era beginning in the 1960s, then completed in the Suharto era, while some originated in the colonial Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
period. The most famous Jakarta's landmark that become the symbol of the city is the 132-metre (433-foot) obelisk of National Monument (Monumen Nasional or Monas) right in the centre of Merdeka Square. On its southwest corner stands a Mahabharata
Mahabharata
themed Arjuna
Arjuna
Wijaya chariot statue and fountain. Further south through Jalan M.H. Thamrin, one of the main avenue of Jakarta, the Selamat Datang monument stands on the fountain in the centre of Hotel Indonesia
Hotel Indonesia
roundabout. Other landmarks include the Istiqlal Mosque, the Jakarta Cathedral
Jakarta Cathedral
and Immanuel Church. The former Batavia Stadhuis, Sunda Kelapa
Sunda Kelapa
port in Jakarta
Jakarta
Old Town is also the city's landmark. Gama Tower building at Jalan H.R. Rasuna Said, South Jakarta
South Jakarta
is currently the tallest building in Indonesia. Some of statues and monuments in Jakarta
Jakarta
are nationalist, such as the West Irian
West Irian
Liberation monument, Youth statue and Dirgantara statue. Several Indonesian national heroes are commemorated in statues, such as Diponegoro
Diponegoro
and Kartini
Kartini
statues in Merdeka Square, Sudirman
Sudirman
and Thamrin statues located in each respectable avenues, also Sukarno
Sukarno
and Hatta statues in Proclamation Monument also on the entrance of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport. Sports[edit]

Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium.

Jakarta
Jakarta
was host of the 1962 Asian Games[220] and will host the upcoming 2018 Asian Games, co-hosted by Palembang.[221] Jakarta
Jakarta
also hosted the regional-scale Southeast Asian Games
Southeast Asian Games
in 1979, 1987, 1997, and 2011 where it serves as supporting city for Palembang. Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, located in Central Jakarta, hosted the group stage, quarterfinal and final of 2007 AFC Asian Cup
2007 AFC Asian Cup
along with Malaysia, Thailand
Thailand
and Vietnam.[222] Jakarta's most popular home football club is Persija, which plays its matches in their home stadium at Bung Karno Stadium. The home match of Persija
Persija
often draws its large fanbase – The Jak, usually clad in Persija's typical orange kit – to watch the match in the main stadium. The large number of spectators flocking to the main stadium usually worsen the traffic congestion in Jakarta. Another football team in Jakarta
Jakarta
is Persitara who compete in Liga Indonesia
Indonesia
Premier Division and play its games in Kamal Muara Stadium. Kamal, North Jakarta. The biggest stadium in Jakarta
Jakarta
is Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, with a capacity of 88,083 seats.[223] The Senayan sports complex has several sport venues, including the Bung Karno football stadium, Madya Stadium, Istora Senayan, aquatic arena, baseball field, basketball court, badminton court, a shooting range, several indoor and outdoor tennis court and a golf driving range. The Senayan complex was built in 1959 to accommodate the Asian Games
Asian Games
in 1962. For basketball, the Kelapa Gading
Kelapa Gading
Sport Mall in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta, with a capacity of 7,000 seats, is the home arena of the Indonesian national basketball team. The BritAma Arena serves as playground for Satria Muda Pertamina
Pertamina
Jakarta, 2017 Runner-up of the Indonesian Basketball League. The Jakarta
Jakarta
Car-free Days are held weekly on Sunday on the main avenues of the city, Jalan Sudirman
Sudirman
and Jalan Thamrin, from 6 am to 11 am. The briefer Car-Free Day which lasts from only 6 am to 9 am is held on every other Sunday. The event invites local pedestrians to do sports and exercise and have their activities on the streets that are normally full of cars and traffic. Along the road from the Senayan traffic circle on Jalan Sudirman, South Jakarta, to the "Selamat Datang" Monument at the Hotel Indonesia traffic circle on Jalan Thamrin, all the way north to the National Monument in Central Jakarta, cars are cleared out for pedestrians. Morning gymnastics, calisthenics and aerobic exercises, futsal games, jogging, bicycling, skateboarding, badminton, karate, on-street library, and musical performances take over the roads and the main parks in Jakarta.[224] Jakarta Marathon
Jakarta Marathon
is said to be the "biggest running event of Indonesia". It is recognised by AIMS and IAAF. First established in 2013 to promote Jakarta
Jakarta
as sports tourism city. In 2015 edition of marathon, more than 15,000 runners from 53 countries were participated.[225][226][227][228][229] Education[edit] See also: List of universities in Indonesia
Indonesia
and List of schools in Indonesia

Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia

Jakarta
Jakarta
is home to a number of universities, of which the University of Indonesia
Indonesia
(UI) is the largest and oldest tertiary-level educational institution in Indonesia. It is a public institution with campuses in Salemba (central Jakarta) and in Depok
Depok
to the south of Jakarta.[230] Aside from the University of Indonesia, the three other public universities in Jakarta
Jakarta
are: Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, the State University of Jakarta
Jakarta
(UNJ) and the University of Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jakarta
Jakarta
(UPN "Veteran" Jakarta). Some major private universities in Jakarta
Jakarta
are: Trisakti University, The Christian University of Indonesia, Mercu Buana University, Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
University, Atma Jaya Catholic
Catholic
University of Indonesia, Pelita Harapan University, Bina Nusantara University, Jayabaya University, and Pancasila University. STOVIA
STOVIA
(School tot Opleiding van Indische Artsen) was the first high school in Jakarta, established in 1851.[231] As the largest city and the capital, Jakarta
Jakarta
houses many students from around Indonesia, many of whom reside in dormitories or home-stay residences. For basic education, there are a variety of primary and secondary schools, tagged with public (national), private (national and bi-lingual national plus) and international schools. Four of the major international schools located in Jakarta
Jakarta
are the Gandhi Memorial International School, IPEKA International Christian School, Jakarta Intercultural School and the British School Jakarta. Other international schools include the Jakarta
Jakarta
International Korean School, Bina Bangsa School, Jakarta
Jakarta
International Multicultural School,[232] Australian International School,[233] New Zealand International School,[234] Singapore
Singapore
International School, and Sekolah Pelita Harapan.[235]

International relations[edit] See also: List of embassies in Jakarta

The Secretariat of ASEAN
ASEAN
at Jalan Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia

As the capital city of Indonesia, Jakarta
Jakarta
host numbers of embassies of foreign countries that has established diplomatic relations with Indonesia. Jakarta
Jakarta
also serves as the seat of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat; numbers of foreign countries has appointed their embassies also serving as the representative and mission for ASEAN, thus making Jakarta
Jakarta
as the diplomatic capital of ASEAN.[236] Jakarta
Jakarta
is also a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group. Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] See also: Sister cities of Jakarta Jakarta
Jakarta
signed sister city agreements with other cities, one of them is Casablanca, Morocco's largest city, that have signed sister city agreement on 21 September 1990. To promote friendship between two cities, Jalan Casablanca, a main avenue famous for its shopping and business centres in South Jakarta, was named after Jakarta's Moroccan sister city. Currently there is no street in Casablanca
Casablanca
named after Jakarta, however on the other hand in Rabat, Morocco's capital city, an avenue was named after Sukarno, Indonesia's first president, to commemorate his visit in 1960 also as a token of friendship.[237] Also within sister cities co-operation, Jakarta
Jakarta
has established partnership with Rotterdam
Rotterdam
of the Netherlands, especially on integrated urban water management, including capacity building and knowledge exchange.[238] This co-operation is mainly because Jakarta and Rotterdam
Rotterdam
are dealing with similar problems; both cities lies in low-lying flat plain prone of flooding. Plus some of their areas lies below sea level, making an urban drainage system involving canals, dams and pumps is vital for both city. Jakarta
Jakarta
seeks to learn from Rotterdam's expertise and experiences on water management.

Asia

Tokyo, Japan[239] Beijing, China[240][241] Shanghai, China[242] Seoul, South Korea[241][243][244][245] Pyongyang, North Korea[246] Manila, Philippines[247] Bangkok, Thailand[246] Hanoi, Vietnam[246] Islamabad, Pakistan[242][246] Yazd, Iran[242][248][better source needed] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia[242][246]

Europe

Rotterdam, Netherlands[238][246][249] Berlin, Germany[250][251] Moscow, Russia[242] Budapest, Hungary[242][252] Istanbul, Turkey[246]

Africa

Cairo, Egypt[242][246][253] Casablanca, Morocco[237][242][254]

America and Oceania

Los Angeles, United States[255][256] Sydney, Australia[242]

See also[edit]

Jabodetabek Provinces of Indonesia Monas Port of Tanjung Priok Betawi people

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Find more aboutJakartaat's sister projects

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Official website Jakarta
Jakarta
Official Travel Website

Links to related articles

v t e

Provinces of Indonesia

Capital: Jakarta

Sumatra

Aceh Bangka-Belitung Islands Bengkulu Jambi Lampung North Sumatra Riau Riau
Riau
Islands South Sumatra West Sumatra

Java

Banten Central Java East Java West Java Jakarta Yogyakarta

Kalimantan

Central Kalimantan East Kalimantan North Kalimantan South Kalimantan West Kalimantan

Lesser Sunda

Bali East Nusa Tenggara West Nusa Tenggara

Sulawesi

Central Sulawesi Gorontalo North Sulawesi Southeast Sulawesi South Sulawesi West Sulawesi

Maluku

Maluku North Maluku

Papua

Papua West Papua

Former

Timor Timur

Lists by

GRP per capita HDI ISO codes

v t e

Indonesian cities with a 200,000+ population

2,000,000 and more

Jakarta Surabaya Bekasi Bandung Medan

1,000,000-1,999,999

Semarang Palembang Makassar Tangerang Batam Depok South Tangerang Pekanbaru Bogor Bandar Lampung Padang

400,000-999,999

Malang Denpasar Samarinda Tasikmalaya Banjarmasin Serang Balikpapan Pontianak Cimahi Jambi Surakarta Manado Mataram

200,000-399,999

Yogyakarta Cilegon Palu Kupang Ambon Bengkulu Sukabumi Cirebon Kendari Pekalongan Kediri Jayapura Dumai Binjai Tegal Pematang Siantar Purwokerto Banda Aceh Palangka Raya Probolinggo Lubuklinggau Singkawang

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

World's twenty most populous metropolitan areas

   

1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Shanghai 3 Jakarta 4 Delhi 5 Seoul-Incheon

  6 Karachi   7 Guangzhou   8 Beijing   9 Shenzhen   7 Mexico
Mexico
City

11 São Paulo 12 Lagos 13 Mumbai 14 Cairo 15 New York

16 Osaka 17 Moscow 18 Wuhan 19 Chengdu 20 Dhaka

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City
City
(Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

v t e

Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 267149707 LCCN: n80073867 GND: 4012546-4 NDL: 0062

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