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Jain sculptures or Jain idols are the images depicting Tirthankaras (teaching gods). These images are worshiped by the followers of Jainism. The sculpture can depict any of the twenty-four tirthankaras with images depicting Parshvanatha, Rishabhanatha, or Mahāvīra being more popular. Jain sculptures are an example of Jain art.[1][2] There is a long history of construction of Jain sculptures. Early examples include Lohanipur Torsos which has been regarded to be from the Maurya period,[3] and images from the Kushan period from Mathura.[4]

Contents

1 Iconography 2 Examples 3 In Tamil Nadu 4 In museums 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Iconography[edit]

Image depicting Chandraprabha, the eight tirthankara of present half cycle of time

The Jain idols are males depicted in both sitting and standing postures.[5] The tīrthaṅkaras are represented either seated in yoga posture or standing in the Kayotsarga
Kayotsarga
posture.[6] Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
statues are usually depicted with a snake crown on head, Bahubali
Bahubali
statues are usually depicted covered with creepers.[7] However, there are a few differences in Digambara
Digambara
and Svetambara
Svetambara
depiction of idols.[5] Digambara
Digambara
images are naked without any beautification whereas Svetambara
Svetambara
ones are clothed and decorated with temporary ornaments.[5] Examples[edit] Giant rock-cut statues of Jain Tirthankaras are carved in the Gopachal Hill, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. [8][9] Charans are footprints exclusive to Jain temples. The charan of Tirthankara
Tirthankara
Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
are present at the Badrinath Temple. In Tamil Nadu[edit]

Sculpture depicting Tirthankara
Tirthankara
Parshvanatha, Thirakoil, Tamil Nadu

Jainism
Jainism
spread here and there all over Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
during Sangam Age. One of the Tamil literature, called Paripadal (பரிபாடல்), probably belongs to 3rd century, mentions that there were propelling statues sculptured in stone for different deities in the temple of God Murugan in Thirupparankundram. One among them was Jain statue. Others are Kaaman-Rathi (the deities of Love), Deity Indira (the king of so-called Heavenly people according to Indian mythology), Agaligai (wife of Saint Gaudham), and Buddha. Jain sculptures in Kalugumalai near Madurai belongs to one century latter is to be compared with Thirpparankunram Jain sculpture. In addition a propelling stone statue of a Jain monk mentioned in Tamil literature is also present. Cave inscriptions in Brahmi script of Chera kings in Pugalur probably one century earlier to that of the literature we have taken to our consideration, names some of the Jain Monks vs Yatrur Senkayapan, Pittan, Kotran. Pittan and Kotran are the chieftains of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
also mentioned in Tamil literature
Tamil literature
more or less to the same period. In museums[edit] Many Jain sculptures are kept in Government Museum, Chennai
Government Museum, Chennai
and Government Museum, Mathura.[10][11] The oldest Jain sculpture
Jain sculpture
in the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
in New York is of the Siddha
Siddha
Bahubali.[12] Gallery[edit]

Rock cut Tirthankara
Tirthankara
statues at Gopachal Hill, Gwalior

Converted image of Parshvanatha

17.4 m (57 ft) Gommateshwara statue
Gommateshwara statue
at Shravanabelagola, 10th century

33 m (108 ft) Statue of Ahimsa, Mangi-Tungi, Maharashtra, the largest Jain idol in world

26 m (85 ft) Megalithic statue of Lord Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
at Bawangaja

Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
statue at Gopachal Hill, Gwalior
Gwalior
Fort, 58.4 feet (17.8 m)

The 16 m (52 ft) statue of Neminath at Tirumalai, the tallest Jain sculpture
Jain sculpture
in Tamil Nadu

Shantinatha Statue at 9.8 m (32 ft) Shantinath Jinalaya, Shri Mahavirji

31 ft statue of Lord Vasupujya at Champapur, Bhagalpur

Munisuvrata statue at 8.23 m (27.0 ft) Shantinath Jain Teerth

18 feet idol of Parsvanatha in Parsvanatha Basadi at Shravanabelgola

See also[edit]

Akota Bronzes Chausa hoard Thirakoil Jain architecture Jain temple

Notes[edit]

^ "Jainism".  ^ Asia Society: The Collection In Context  ^ Indian Sculpture: Circa 500 B.C.-A.D. 700, Volume 1 of Indian Sculpture: A Catalogue of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art Collection, Pratapaditya Pal, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, University of California Press, 1986 p. 22 ^ Dalal, Roshen (18 April 2014). "The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths". Penguin UK. Retrieved 15 January 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ a b c Cort 2010. ^ Zimmer 1953, p. 209-210. ^ Pereira 1977, p. 9. ^ worldvisitguide.com  ^ Jain sculptures in Gwalior
Gwalior
- Abiyoyo  ^ "Government Museum Chennai". [dead link] ^ "Government Museum Chennai". [dead link] ^ "Jain Siddha
Siddha
Bahubali, Entwined with Forest Vines". The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 

References[edit]

Pereira, José (1977), Monolithic Jinas, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 0-8426-1027-8  Cort, John E. (2010) [1953], Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-538502-1  Zimmer, Heinrich (1953), Joseph Campbell, ed., Philosophies of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jain sculptures.

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