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JAIN COSMOLOGY is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe
Universe
(_loka_) and its constituents (such as living beings, matter, space, time etc.) according to Jainism
Jainism
. Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology
considers the universe, as an uncreated entity, existing since infinity, having neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom.

CONTENTS

* 1 Six eternal substances

* 2 Universe
Universe
and its structure

* 2.1 Three lokas * 2.2 Urdhva Loka, the upper world * 2.3 Madhya Loka, the middle world * 2.4 Adho Loka, the lower world

* 3 Time cycle * 4 Śalākāpuruṣas - The deeds of the 63 Illustrious Men * 5 See also

* 6 References

* 6.1 Notes * 6.2 Citations * 6.3 Sources

SIX ETERNAL SUBSTANCES

Main article: Dravya
Dravya
(Jainism) _ Chart showing the classification of dravya_ and _astikaya_

According to Jains, the Universe
Universe
is made up of six simple and eternal substances called _dravya_ classified as follows:

* _Jīva _ (Living Substances)

Jīva (Jainism)Jīva i.e. Souls - _Jīva_ exists as a reality, having a separate existence from the body that houses it. It is characterised by _chetana_ (consciousness) and _upayoga_ (knowledge and perception). Though the soul experiences both birth and death, it is neither really destroyed nor created. Decay and origin refer respectively to the disappearing of one state of soul and appearing of another state, these being merely the modes of the soul.

* _Ajīva _ (Non-Living Substances) * _ Pudgala
Pudgala
_ (Matter) - Matter is classified as solid, liquid, gaseous, energy, fine Karmic materials and extra-fine matter i.e. ultimate particles. _Paramāṇu_ or ultimate particle is the basic building block of all matter. The Paramāṇu and Pudgala
Pudgala
are permanent and indestructible. Matter combines and changes its modes but its basic qualities remain the same. According to Jainism, it cannot be created, nor destroyed. * _ Dharma
Dharma
-dravya_ (Principle of Motion) and * _ Adharma -dravya_ (Principle of Rest) - _Dharmastikāya_ and _Adharmastikāya_ are distinctly peculiar to Jaina system of thought depicting the principle of Motion and Rest. They are said to pervade the entire universe. _Dharma_ and _Adharma_ are by itself not motion or rest but mediate motion and rest in other bodies. Without Dharmastikāya motion is not possible and without Adharmastikāya rest is not possible in the universe. * _Ākāśa _ (Space) - Space is a substance that accommodates the living souls, the matter, the principle of motion, the principle of rest and time. It is all-pervading, infinite and made of infinite space-points.

* _Kāla _ (Time) - _Kāla_ is an eternal substance according to Jainism
Jainism
and all activities, changes or modifications can be achieved only through the progress of time. According to the Jain text, Dravyasaṃgraha :

Conventional time (_vyavahāra kāla_) is perceived by the senses through the transformations and modifications of substances. Real time (_niścaya kāla_), however, is the cause of imperceptible, minute changes (called _vartanā_) that go on incessantly in all substances. — _Dravyasaṃgraha_ (21)

UNIVERSE AND ITS STRUCTURE

Structure of Universe
Universe
according to the Jain scriptures.

The Jain doctrine postulates an eternal and ever-existing world which works on universal natural laws. The existence of a creator deity is overwhelmingly opposed in the Jain doctrine. Mahāpurāṇa , a Jain text authored by _Ācārya Jinasena _ is famous for this quote:

“ Some foolish men declare that a creator made the world. The doctrine that the world was created is ill advised and should be rejected. If God created the world, where was he before the creation? If you say he was transcendent then and needed no support, where is he now? How could God have made this world without any raw material? If you say that he made this first, and then the world, you are faced with an endless regression. ”

According to Jains, the universe has a firm and an unalterable shape which is measured in the Jain texts by means of a unit called _Rajju_ which is supposed to be very large. The Digambara
Digambara
sect of Jainism postulates that the universe is fourteen Rajju high and extends seven Rajjus from north to south. Its breadth is seven Rajjus at the bottom and decreases gradually till the middle where it is one Rajju. The width then increases gradually till it is five Rajju and again decreases till it is one Rajju. The apex of the universe is one Rajju long, one Rajju wide and eight Rajju high. The total space of the world is thus 343 cubic Rajju. The svetambara view differs slightly and postulates that there is constant increase and decrease in the breadth and the space is 239 cubic Rajju. Apart from the apex which is the abode of liberated beings, the universe is divided into three parts. The world is surrounded by three atmospheres: dense-water, dense-wind and thin-wind. It is then surrounded by infinitely large non-world which is absolutely empty.

The whole world is said to be filled with living beings. In all the three parts, there is the existence of very small living beings called nigoda. Nigoda are of two types: nitya-nigoda and Itara-nigoda. Nitya-nigoda are those which will reborn as nigoda throughout eternity where as Itara-nigoda will be reborn as other beings too. The mobile region of universe (Trasandi) is one Rajju wide, one Rajju broad and fourteen Rajju high. Within this, there are animals and plants everywhere where as Human
Human
beings are restricted to 2.5 continents of middle world. The beings inhabiting lower world are called Naraki (Hellish beings). Deva (roughly demi-gods) live in whole of the top and middle world and top three realms of lower world. Living beings are divided in fourteen classes (Jivasthana) : 1. fine beings with one sense. 2. Crude beings with one sense. 3. beings with two sense. 4. beings with three sense. 5. Beings with four sense. 6. beings with five sense without mind. 7. beings with five sense with a mind. These can be under-developed or developed which makes it a total of fourteen. Human
Human
beings get any form of existence and are the only ones which can attain salvation.

THREE LOKAS

Main article: Trilok (Jainism) _ Fourteen Rajaloka or Triloka. Shape of Universe
Universe
as per Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology
in form of a cosmic man. Miniature from 17th century, Saṁgrahaṇīratna_ by Śrīcandra, in Prakrit with a Gujarati commentary. Jain Śvetāmbara cosmological text with commentary and illustrations.

The early Jains contemplated the nature of the earth and universe and developed a detailed hypothesis on the various aspects of astronomy and cosmology. According to the Jain texts, the universe is divided into 3 parts:

* _Urdhva Loka_ – the realms of the gods or heavens * _Madhya Loka _ – the realms of the humans, animals and plants * _Adho Loka _ – the realms of the hellish beings or the infernal regions

The following Upanga āgamas describe the Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology
and geography in a great detail:

* Sūryaprajñapti – Treatise on Sun * Jambūdvīpaprajñapti - Treatise on the island of Roseapple tree; it contains a description of Jambūdvī and life biographies of Ṛṣabha and King Bharata * Candraprajñapti - Treatise on moon

Additionally, the following texts describe the Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology
and related topics in detail:

* Trilokasāra – Essence of the three worlds (heavens, middle level, hells) * Trilokaprajñapti – Treatise on the three worlds * Trilokadipikā – Illumination of the three worlds * Tattvārthasūtra - Description on nature of realities * Kṣetrasamasa – Summary of Jain geography * Bruhatsamgrahni – Treatise on Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology
and geography

URDHVA LOKA, THE UPPER WORLD

Upper World (Udharva loka) is divided into different abodes and are the realms of the heavenly beings (demi-gods) who are non-liberated souls.

Upper World is divided into sixteen Devalokas, nine Graiveyaka, nine Anudish and five Anuttar abodes. Sixteen Devaloka abodes are Saudharma, Aishana, Sanatkumara, Mahendra, Brahma, Brahmottara, Lantava, Kapishta, Shukra, Mahashukra, Shatara, Sahasrara, Anata, Pranata, Arana and Achyuta. Nine Graiveyak abodes are Sudarshan, Amogh, Suprabuddha, Yashodhar, Subhadra, Suvishal, Sumanas, Saumanas and Pritikar. Nine Anudish are Aditya, Archi, Archimalini, Vair, Vairochan, Saum, Saumrup, Ark and Sphatik. Five Anuttar are Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparajita and Sarvarthasiddhi.

The sixteen heavens in Devalokas are also called Kalpas and the rest are called Kalpatit. Those living in Kalpatit are called Ahamindra and are equal in grandeur. There is increase with regard to the lifetime, influence of power, happiness, lumination of body, purity in thought-colouration, capacity of the senses and range of clairvoyance in the Heavenly beings residing in the higher abodes. But there is decrease with regard to motion, stature, attachment and pride. The higher groups, dwelling in 9 Greveyak and 5 Anutar Viman. They are independent and dwelling in their own vehicles. The anuttara souls attain liberation within one or two lifetimes. The lower groups, organized like earthly kingdoms—rulers (Indra), counselors, guards, queens, followers, armies etc.

Above the Anutar vimans, at the apex of the universe, is the Siddhasila, the realms of the liberated souls also known as the Siddhas, the perfected omniscient and blissful beings, who are venerated by the Jains.

MADHYA LOKA, THE MIDDLE WORLD

Image depicting map of Jambudvipa
Jambudvipa
as per Jain Cosmology Early 19th-century painting depicting map of  2 1⁄2 continents Depiction of Mount Meru at Jambudweep , Hastinapur
Hastinapur

Madhya Loka, at the centre of the universe consists of 900 yojans above and 900 yojans below earth surface. It is inhabited by:

* _Jyotishka devas _ (luminous gods) - 790 to 900 yojans above earth * Humans , Tiryanch (Animals, birds, plants) on the surface * _Vyantar devas_ (Intermediary gods)- 100 yojan below the ground level

Madhyaloka consists of many continent-islands surrounded by oceans, first eight whose names are:

Continent/ Island Ocean

Jambūdvīpa Lavanoda (Salt - ocean)

Ghatki Khand Kaloda (Black sea)

Puskarvardvīpa Puskaroda (Lotus Ocean)

Varunvardvīpa Varunoda (Varun Ocean)

Kshirvardvīpa Kshiroda (Ocean of milk)

Ghrutvardvīpa Ghrutoda (Butter milk ocean)

Ikshuvardvīpa Iksuvaroda (Sugar Ocean)

Nandishwardvīpa Nandishwaroda

Mount Meru (also _Sumeru_) is at the centre of the world surrounded by Jambūdvīpa , in form of a circle forming a diameter of 100,000 yojans. There are two sets of sun, moon and stars revolving around Mount Meru; while one set works, the other set rests behind the Mount Meru. _ Work of Art showing maps and diagrams as per Jain Cosmography from 17th century CE Manuscript of 12th century Jain text Sankhitta Sangheyan_

Jambūdvīpa continent has 6 mighty mountains, dividing the continent into 7 zones (Ksetra). The names of these zones are:

* Bharat Kshetra * Mahavideh Kshetra * Airavat Kshetra * Ramyak * Hairanyvat Kshetra * Haimava Kshetra * Hari Kshetra

The three zones i.e. Bharat Kshetra, Mahavideh Kshetra and Airavat Kshetra are also known as Karma
Karma
bhoomi because practice of austerities and liberation is possible and the Tirthankaras preach the Jain doctrine. The other four zones, Ramyak, Hairanyvat Kshetra, Haimava Kshetra and Hari Kshetra are known as akarmabhoomi or bhogbhumi as humans live a sinless life of pleasure and no religion or liberation is possible.

_Nandishvara Dvipa_ is not the edge of cosmos, but it is beyond the reach of humans. Humans can reside only on _Jambudvipa_, _Dhatatikhanda Dvipa_, and the inner half of _Pushkara Dvipa_.

ADHO LOKA, THE LOWER WORLD

Main article: Naraka (Jainism) 17th century cloth painting depicting seven levels of Jain hell and various tortures suffered in them. Left panel depicts the demi-god and his animal vehicle presiding over the each hell.

The lower world consists of seven hells , which are inhabited by Bhavanpati demigods and the hellish beings. Hellish beings reside in the following hells -

* Ratna prabha-dharma. * Sharkara prabha-vansha. * Valuka prabha-megha. * Pank prabha-anjana. * Dhum prabha-arista. * Tamah prabha-maghavi. * Mahatamah prabha-maadhavi

TIME CYCLE

Division of time as envisaged by Jains

According to Jainism, time is beginningless and eternal. The _Kālacakra_, the cosmic wheel of time, rotates ceaselessly. The wheel of time is divided into two half-rotations, _Utsarpiṇī_ or ascending time cycle and _ Avasarpiṇī
Avasarpiṇī
_, the descending time cycle, occurring continuously after each other. _Utsarpiṇī_ is a period of progressive prosperity and happiness where the time spans and ages are at an increasing scale, while _Avsarpiṇī_ is a period of increasing sorrow and immorality with decline in timespans of the epochs. Each of this half time cycle consisting of innumerable period of time (measured in _sagaropama_ and _palyopama_ years) is further sub-divided into six _aras_ or epochs of unequal periods. Currently, the time cycle is in _avasarpiṇī_ or descending phase with the following epochs.

Name of the Ara Degree of happiness Duration of Ara Maximum height of people Maximum lifespan of people

Suṣama-suṣamā Utmost happiness and no sorrow 400 trillion sāgaropamas Six miles tall Three Palyopam years

Suṣamā Moderate happiness and no sorrow 300 trillion sāgaropamas Four miles tall Two Palyopam Years

Suṣama-duḥṣamā Happiness with very little sorrow 200 trillion sāgaropamas Two miles tall One Palyopam Years

Duḥṣama-suṣamā Happiness with little sorrow 100 trillion sāgaropamas 1500 meters 84 Lakh Purva

Duḥṣamā Sorrow with very little happiness 21,000 years 7 hatha 120 years

Duḥṣama- duḥṣamā Extreme sorrow and misery 21,000 years 1 hatha 20 years

In _utsarpiṇī_ the order of the eras is reversed. Starting from _duṣamā-duṣamā_, it ends with _suṣamā-suṣamā_ and thus this never ending cycle continues. Each of these aras progress into the next phase seamlessly without any apocalyptic consequences. The increase or decrease in the happiness, life spans and length of people and general moral conduct of the society changes in a phased and graded manner as the time passes. No divine or supernatural beings are credited or responsible with these spontaneous temporal changes, either in a creative or overseeing role, rather human beings and creatures are born under the impulse of their own _karmas _.

ŚALāKāPURUṣAS - THE DEEDS OF THE 63 ILLUSTRIOUS MEN

Main article: Salakapurusa

During each motion of the half-cycle of the wheel of time, 63 _Śalākāpuruṣa_ or 63 illustrious men, consisting of the 24 _Tīrthaṅkaras_ and their contemporaries regularly appear. The Jain universal or legendary history is basically a compilation of the deeds of these illustrious men. They are categorised as follows:

* 24 Tīrthaṅkaras – The 24 Tīrthaṅkaras or the ford makers appear in succession to activate the true religion and establish the community of ascetics and laymen. * 12 Chakravartins – The Chakravartīs are the universal monarchs who rule over the six continents. * 9 Balabhadras who lead an ideal Jain life. * 9 _ Narayana
Narayana
_ or _Vasudev _ (heroes) * 9 _Prati-Naryana _ or _ Prati-Vasudev _ (anti-heroes) – They are anti-heroes who are ultimately killed by the _Narayana_.

_Balabhadra_ and _Narayana_ are half brothers who jointly rule over three continents.

Besides these a few other important classes of 106 persons are recognized:-

* 9 Naradas * 11 Rudras * 24 Kamdevas * 24 Fathers of the Tirthankaras. * 24 Mothers of the Tirthankaras. * 14 _ Kulakara _ (patriarchs)

SEE ALSO

* God in Jainism
Jainism
* Jainism
Jainism
and non-creationism * History of Jainism
Jainism
* Saṃsāra (Jainism)

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ As per the Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology
_Sirsapahelika_ is the highest measurable number in Jainism
Jainism
which is 10^194 years. Higher than that is palyopama (pit measured years) which is explained by an analogy of a pit. Accordingly, a hollow pit of 8 x 8 x 8 miles tightly filled with hair particles of seven day old newly born. . 1 Particle emptied after every 100 years, the time taken to empty the whole pit = 1 palyopama. (1 palyopama = countless years.) Hence palyopama is at least 10^194 years. Sagrapoma is 10 quadrillion palyopama, that means a _Sagrapoma_ is more than 10^210 Years

CITATIONS

* ^ "This universe is neither created nor sustained by anyone; It is self sustaining, without any base or support" "Nishpaadito Na Kenaapi Na Dhritah Kenachichch Sah Swayamsiddho Niradhaaro Gagane Kimtvavasthitah" Yogaśāstra
Yogaśāstra
of Ācārya Hemacandra 4.106] Tr by Dr. A. S. Gopani * ^ See Hemacandras description of universe in Yogaśāstra "…Think of this loka as similar to man standing akimbo…"4.103-6 * ^ Ācārya Kundakunda, Pañcāstikāyasāra, Gatha 16 * ^ Ācārya Kundakunda, Pañcāstikāyasāra, Gatha 18 * ^ Jain 2013 , p. 74. * ^ _A_ _B_ Shah, Natubhai (1998). p. 25 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Schubring, Walther (1995), pp. 204–246 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Cort 2010 , p. 90. * ^ CIL, "Indian Cosmology Reflections in Religion and Metaphysics", _Ignca.nic.in_ * ^ http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~pluralsm/affiliates/jainism/workshop/Jain%20Geoghaph.PDF * ^ _Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal - Asiatic Society of Bengal_, 1834 * ^ von Glasenapp 1999 , p. 286. * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 12. * ^ Doniger 1999 , p. 551. * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 20. * ^ _A_ _B_ Jaini 1998 . * ^ von Glasenapp 1999 , pp. 271-272. * ^ von Glasenapp 1999 , p. 272. * ^ Dundas 2002 , p. 40. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Doniger 1999 , p. 550. * ^ Joseph, P. M. (1997), _ Jainism
Jainism
in South India_, p. 178, ISBN 9788185692234 * ^ Jain, Jagdish Chandra; Bhattacharyya, Narendra Nath (1994-01-01). _ Jainism
Jainism
and Prakrit in Ancient and Medieval India_. p. 146. ISBN 9788173040511 .

SOURCES

* Doniger, Wendy , ed. (1999), _Encyclopedia of World Religions_, Merriam-Webster , ISBN 0-87779-044-2 * Jain, Vijay K. (2013), _Ācārya Nemichandra\'s Dravyasaṃgraha_, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 9788190363952 , Non-copyright * Nayanar, Prof. A. Chakravarti (2005), _Pañcāstikāyasāra of Ācārya Kundakunda_, New Delhi: Today & Tomorrows Printer and Publisher, ISBN 81-7019-436-9 * von Glasenapp, Helmuth (1999), _Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation_ , Shridhar B. Shrotri (trans.), Delhi
Delhi
: Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 81-208-1376-6 * Jaini, Padmanabh S. (1998) , _The Jaina Path of Purification_, Delhi
Delhi
: Motilal Banarsidass , ISBN 81-208-1578-5 * Shah, Natubhai (1998), _Jainism: The World of Conquerors_, Volume I and II, Sussex: Sussex Academy Press, ISBN 1-898723-30-3 * Schubring, Walther (1995), "Cosmography", in (ed.) Wolfgang Beurlen, _The Doctrine of the Jainas_, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-0933-5 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link ) * Dundas, Paul (2002) , _The Jains_ (Second ed.), Routledge , ISBN 0-415-26605-X * Gopani, A. S.; Surendra Bothara ed. (1989), _Yogaśāstra (Sanskrit) of Ācārya Hemacandra_, Jaipur: Prakrit Bharti Academy CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Cort, John (2010) , _Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain History_, Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
, ISBN 978-0-19-538502-1

* v * t * e

_ Jainism
Jainism
topics

GODS

* Tirthankara
Tirthankara
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PHILOSOPHY

* Ethics

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* Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology

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Siddhashila
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* Karma
Karma

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* Dravya
Dravya

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Pudgala
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Dharma

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Samvara
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Ratnatraya
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BRANCHES

DIGAMBARA

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Balatkara Gana
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Kashtha Sangh

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Bispanthi
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Yapaniya

ŚVēTāMBARA

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Gaccha

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PRACTICES

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Namokar Mantra
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Bhaktamara Stotra

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ASCETICS

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Digambara
monk * Aryika * Kshullak
Kshullak
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Pattavali
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SCHOLARS

* Nalini Balbir * Colette Caillat * Chandabai * John E. Cort * Paul Dundas * Virchand Gandhi
Virchand Gandhi
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Champat Rai Jain
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Sarak
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JAINA

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INDIA

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JAINISM AND

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DYNASTIES AND EMPIRES

* Ikshvaku * Maurya * Kalinga * Kadamba * Ganga * Chalukya * Rashtrakuta * Hoysala * Pandayan

RELATED

* History

* Timeline

* Pañca-Parameṣṭhi * Pratima * Śalākāpuruṣa * Tirtha * Samavasarana
Samavasarana

* Jain calendar

* Samvatsari

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Panch Kalyanaka
* Statue of Ahimsa * Temple * Sculpture * Art * Law * Nigoda * Jain terms and concepts * Sexual differences

LISTS

* List of Jains
List of Jains
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List of Digambar Jain ascetics
* Topics List (index)

NAVBOXES

* Gods * Literature * Monks ">

* PORTAL * COMMONS * WIKIQUOTE * WIKISOURCE

* v * t * e

Indian philosophy

TOPICS

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ĀSTIKA

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Vaisheshika
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Yoga
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Pashupata Shaivism
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* Jain

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Madhyamaka
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TEXTS

* Abhinavabharati _ * _ Arthashastra _ * _ Bhagavad Gita _ * _ Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
_ * _Brahma Sutra_ * Buddhist texts * _ Dharmashastra
Dharmashastra
_ * Hindu texts * Jain Agamas
Jain Agamas
* _ Kamasutra _

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* All 108 texts * Principal

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Nyāya Sūtras
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Tattvacintāmaṇi
_

* Upanishads

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Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
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Vedas
* _ Yoga Sutras of Patanjali _ * _ Yoga Vasistha _ * More...

PHILOSOPHERS

* Avatsara * Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
* Gargi Vachaknavi * Patanjali
Patanjali
* Kanada * Kapila * Brihadratha Ikshvaku * Jaimini * Vyasa
Vyasa
* Chanakya * Akshapada Gotama
Akshapada Gotama
* Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
* Padmasambhava * Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
* Gaudapada * Adi Shankara * Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
* Dayananda Saraswati * Ramanuja
Ramanuja
* Vedanta Desika * Raikva * Sadananda * Sakayanya * Satyakama Jabala * Madhvacharya * Vidyaranya * More...

CONCEPTS

* Abhava * Abhasavada * Abheda * Adarsana
Adarsana
* Adrishta * Advaita * Aham * Aishvarya
Aishvarya
* Akrodha * Aksara * Anatta
Anatta
* Ananta * Anavastha * Anupalabdhi
Anupalabdhi
* Apauruṣheyā * Artha
Artha
* Asiddhatva * Asatkalpa * Ātman * Avyakta
Avyakta
* Brahman * Brahmi sthiti * Bhuman * Bhumika * Chaitanya * Chidabhasa * Cittabhumi
Cittabhumi
* Dāna
Dāna
* Devatas * Dharma
Dharma
* Dhi * Dravya
Dravya
* Dhrti * Ekagrata
Ekagrata
* Guṇa * Hitā * Idam * Ikshana * Ishvaratva * Jivatva * Kama
Kama
* Karma
Karma
* Kasaya * Kshetrajna * Lakshana
Lakshana
* Mithyatva * Mokṣa * Nididhyasana
Nididhyasana
* Nirvāṇa * Niyama * Padārtha * Paramatman * Paramananda * Parameshashakti
Parameshashakti
* Parinama-vada * Pradhana * Prajna * Prakṛti * Pratibimbavada
Pratibimbavada
* Pratītyasamutpāda * Puruṣa * Rājamaṇḍala * Ṛta * Sakshi * Samadhi
Samadhi
* Saṃsāra * Sankalpa * Satya
Satya
* Satkaryavada * Shabda Brahman * Sphoṭa * Sthiti
Sthiti
* Śūnyatā * Sutram * Svātantrya * Iccha-mrityu * Syādvāda * Taijasa
Taijasa
* Tajjalan * Tanmatra * Tyāga
Tyāga
* Uparati * Upekkhā * Utsaha
Utsaha
* Vivartavada * Viraj
Viraj
* Yamas * Yoga
Yoga
* More...

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