HOME
The Info List - Jain Agamas


--- Advertisement ---



Agamas are texts of Jainism
Jainism
based on the discourses of the tirthankara. The discourse delivered in a samavasarana (divine preaching hall) is called Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas.[1] The discourse is recorded by Ganadharas (chief disciples), and is composed of twelve angas (departments). It is generally represented by a tree with twelve branches.[2] This forms the basis of the Jaina Agamas or canons. These are believed to have originated from Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara.[3] The earliest versions of Jain
Jain
Agamas known were composed in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit. Agama is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word which signifies the 'coming' of a body of doctrine by means of transmission through a lineage of authoritative teachers.[4]

Contents

1 History 2 Angas 3 Jain
Jain
literature 4 Languages of Aagams 5 Importance 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Citations 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] Gautamasvami is said to have compiled the most sacred canonical scriptures comprising twelve parts, also referred to as eleven Angas and fourteen Pūrvas, since the twelfth Anga
Anga
comprises the fourteen Pūrvas. These scriptures are said to have contained the most comprehensive and accurate description of every branch of learning that one needs to know.[5] The knowledge contained in these scriptures was transmitted orally by the teachers to their disciple saints Digambara
Digambara
sect of Jainism
Jainism
maintains that the Agamas were lost during the same famine that the purvas were lost in.[6] According to the Digambaras, Āchārya Bhutabali
Bhutabali
was the last ascetic who had partial knowledge of the original canon. Later on, some learned Āchāryas started to restore, compile and put into written words the teachings of Lord Mahavira, that were the subject matter of Agamas.[7] Āchārya Dharasena, in first century CE, guided two Āchāryas, Āchārya Pushpadanta and Āchārya Bhutabali, to put these teachings in the written form. The two Āchāryas wrote, on palm leaves, Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama- among the oldest known Digambara
Digambara
Jaina texts. This was about 683 years after the nirvana of Mahavira. While some authors date the composition of Jain
Jain
Agamas starting from the 6th century BCE,[8] noted Indologist Hermann Jacobi holds that the composition of the Jaina siddhanta would fall somewhere about the end of the 4th or the beginning of the 3rd century BC.[9] The general consensus amongst western scholars, such as Ian Whicher and David Carpenter, is that the earliest portions of Jain
Jain
siddhanta were composed around the 4th or 3rd century BCE.[10][11] This may not be in agreement with Jain
Jain
tradition according to which the agamic literature and the Purvas
Purvas
were passed from one heads of the order to his disciples for around 170 years after the nirvana of Mahavira. However, with time, it became difficult to keep the entire Jain
Jain
literature committed to memory. In the 3rd century BCE, Chandragupta Maurya
Chandragupta Maurya
was the ruler of Magadha
Magadha
and Bhadrabahu, (the last knower of complete Jain agamas) was the head of Jain
Jain
community. Predicting a 12 year long famine, Bhadrabahu
Bhadrabahu
went south to Karnataka
Karnataka
with his adherents[12] and Sthulabhadra, another Jain
Jain
monk remained behind. During this time the knowledge of the doctrine was getting lost. A council was formed at Pataliputra
Pataliputra
where eleven scriptures called Angas were compiled and the remnant of fourteen purvas were written down in 12th Anga, Ditthivaya by the adherents of Sthulbhadra. Due to the twelve years of famine it was extremely difficult for the Jain
Jain
ascetics to preserve the entire canonical literature. The Purvas
Purvas
or the ancient texts were already forgotten and lost after the famine. According to Svetambara tradition, the agamas were collected on the basis of collective memory of the ascetics in the first council of Pataliputra
Pataliputra
under the stewardship of Sthulibhadra in around to 463–367 BC.[13] In 453 or 466 CE that the Vallabhi
Vallabhi
council of the Svetambara
Svetambara
Jain monks recompiled the Agamas and recorded them as written manuscripts under the leadership of Acharya Shraman Devardhigani along with other 500 Jain
Jain
scholars. The existing Svetambara
Svetambara
texts are based on the Vallabhi
Vallabhi
council texts. Digambaras reject the authority of the Agamas compiled at Valabhi.[14] Angas[edit]

Table showing Anga
Anga
scriptures

The knowledge of Shruta-Jnana, may be of things which are contained in the Angas (Limbs or sacred Jain
Jain
books) or of things outside the Angas.[15] The Agamas were composed of the following forty-six texts:[14]

Twelve Angās

Ācāranga sūtra Sūtrakrtanga Sthānānga Samavāyānga Vyākhyāprajñapti
Vyākhyāprajñapti
or Bhagavati sūtra Jnātrdhārmakathāh Upāsakadaśāh Antakrddaaśāh Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh Praśnavyākaranani Vipākaśruta Drstivāda (now extinct)

Six Chedasūtras (Texts relating to the conduct and behaviour of monks and nuns)

Ācāradaśāh Brhatkalpa Vyavahāra Niśītha Mahāniśītha Jītakalpa

Four Mūlasūtras (Scriptures which provide a base in the earlier stages of the monkhood)

Daśavaikālika Uttarādhyayana Āvaśyaka Pindaniryukyti

Ten Prakīrnaka sūtras (Texts on Independent or miscellaneous subjects)

Catuhśarana Āturapratyākhyanā Bhaktaparijñā Samstāraka Tandulavaicarika Candravedhyāka Devendrastava Ganividyā Mahāpratyākhyanā Vīrastava

Two Cūlikasūtras (The scriptures which further enhance or decorate the meaning of Angas)

Nandī-sūtra Anuyogadvāra-sūtra

Jain
Jain
literature[edit] Main article: Jain
Jain
literature The digambaras maintain that original agamas were lost and knowledge of only one anga is available. Digambaras group texts into four literary categories called 'exposition' (anuyoga).[16] The 'first' (prathma) exposition contains Digambara
Digambara
versions of the Universal History; the 'calculation' (karana) exposition contains works on cosmology; the 'behaviour' (charana) exposition includes texts about proper behaviour for monks and lay people.[16] Languages of Aagams[edit] Main article: Languages of Jain
Jain
literature The Jain literature
Jain literature
includes both religious texts and books on generally secular topics such as sciences, history, and grammar. The Jains have used several languages at different times and in different regions of India. The earliest versions of Jain
Jain
Agamas known were written in Ardhamagadhi Prakrit
Prakrit
language.[14][17][18][19]

Prakrit

Prakrit
Prakrit
literature includes the Aagams, Aagam-tulya texts, and Siddhanta texts. The dialect used to compose many of these texts is referred to as Jain
Jain
Prakrit. Composition in Prakrits ceased around the 10th century AD.

Tamil

Some of the early Tamil classics such as Valayapathi, Silappatikaram and Civaka Chintamani are Jain
Jain
or Jain-affiliated works.

Importance[edit] For Jains, their scriptures represent the literal words of Mahāvīra and the other fordmakers only to the extent that the Agama is a series of beginning-less, endless and fixed truths, a tradition without any origin, human or divine, which in this world age has been channelled through Sudharma, the last of Mahavira's disciples to survive.[20] Gallery[edit]

Stela depicting Jinvani
Jinvani
(Śhrut Jnāna)

Sacred Jain
Jain
Books in a Temple Library

Folio from a Kalpa Sūtra
Kalpa Sūtra
(Book of Sacred Precepts), c. AD 1400

Shrut tradition as per Digambaras

See also[edit]

Puruşārthasiddhyupāya List of Jain
Jain
texts Silappatikaram

Citations[edit]

^ Champat Rai Jain
Jain
1929, p. 135. ^ Champat Rai Jain
Jain
1929, p. 136. ^ Natubhai Shah 2004, p. 12. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 60. ^ Vijay K. Jain
Jain
2012, p. xi. ^ Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2016, p. 444. ^ Vijay K. Jain
Jain
2012, p. xii. ^ Nagendra Kr. Singh. (2001). Encyclopedia of Jainism
Jainism
(Edited by Nagendra Kr. Singh). New Delhi: Anmol Publications. ISBN 81-261-0691-3 page 4308 ^ Jacobi, Hermann (1884). (ed.) F. Max Müller, ed. The Ācāranga Sūtra. Sacred Books of the East vol.22, Part 1. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-7007-1538-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) p. xliii ^ Yoga: The Indian Tradition. Edited by Ian Whicher and David Carpenter. London: Routledgecurzon, 2003. ISBN 0-7007-1288-7 page 64 ^ C. Chappie (1993) Nonviolence to Animals, Earth and Self in Asian Traditions. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1497-3 page 5 ^ Melton & Baumann 2010, p. 1553. ^ Jacobi, Hermann (1884). (ed.) F. Max Müller, ed. The Ācāranga Sūtra. Sacred Books of the East vol.22, Part 1. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-7007-1538-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) p. xlii ^ a b c Upinder Singh
Upinder Singh
2016, p. 26. ^ Jaini 1927, p. 12. ^ a b Dundas 2002, p. 80. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 60-63. ^ Cort 2010, pp. 100-101. ^ Cort 1998, p. 6. ^ Dundas 2002, p. 61.

References[edit]

Cort, John E., ed. (1998), Open Boundaries: Jain
Jain
Communities and Cultures in Indian History, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-3785-X  Cort, John E. (2010) [1953], Framing the Jina: Narratives of Icons and Idols in Jain
Jain
History, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-538502-1  Dundas, Paul (2002) [1992], The Jains (Second ed.), London
London
and New York: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-26605-X  Jain, Champat Rai (1929), Risabha Deva - The Founder of Jainism, Allahabad: The Indian Press Limited, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Jain, Vijay K. (2011), Acharya Umasvami's Tattvarthsutra (1st ed.), Uttarakhand: Vikalp Printers, ISBN 81-903639-2-1, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Jain, Vijay K. (2012), Acharya Amritchandra's Purushartha Siddhyupaya: Realization of the Pure Self, With Hindi and English Translation, Vikalp Printers, ISBN 978-81-903639-4-5, This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.  Jaini, Jagmandar Lal (1927), Gommatsara Jiva-kanda  Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin, eds. (2010), Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, One: A-B (Second ed.), ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3  Shah, Natubhai (2004) [First published in 1998], Jainism: The World of Conquerors, I, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1938-1  Singh, Upinder (2016), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson Education, ISBN 978-93-325-6996-6 

Further reading[edit]

Stevenson, John (1848), The Kalpa Sutra and Nava Tatva (tr. from Magadhi), Bernard Quaritch, London  Edward Thomas (1877), Jainism, London, Trübner & co.  Hermann Jacobi (1884), Jaina Sutras Part I (Akaranga Sutra & Kalpa Sutra), Oxford, The Clarendon press  Hermann Jacobi (1884), Jaina Sutras Part II (Uttarâdhyayana Sutra & Sutrakritanga
Sutrakritanga
Sutra), Oxford, The Clarendon press  Sinclair Stevenson (1915), The Heart of Jainism, H. Milford: Oxford University Press  M. S. Ramaswami Ayyangar; B. Seshagiri Rao (1922), Studies in South Indian Jainism, Premier Press, Madras 

External links[edit]

www.AtmaDharma.com/jainbooks.html Original Jain
Jain
Scriptures (Shastras) with Translations into modern languages such as English, Hindi and Gujarati. Literature such as Kundkund Acharya's Samaysaar, Niyamsaar, Pravachansaar, Panchastikay, Ashtphaud and hundreds of others all in downloadable PDF format. Jain
Jain
Agams Clay Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Library publishes classical Indian literature, including a number of works of Jain
Jain
Literature, with facing-page text and translation. Also offers searchable corpus and downloadable materials.

v t e

Jain
Jain
literature

Fourteen Purvas
Purvas
(The Prior Knowledge – considered totally lost)

Digambara
Digambara
Canonical Texts

Āagam

Shatkhandagama Kasayapahuda

Prathamānuyoga

Mahapurana

Ādi purāṇa Uttarapurāṇa

Harivamsa Purana

Carnānuyoga

Mulachara Trivarnācāra Tattvartha Sutra
Tattvartha Sutra
(Note1) Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra Puruşārthasiddhyupāya

Karnánuyoga

Gommatsāra Sūryaprajñapti Jayadhavalātikā Tiloya Panatti Lokavibhaga

Dravyānuyoga

Niyamasara Pancastikayasara Pravachanasara Samayasāra Aptamimamsa Dravyasamgraha Jnanarnava

Commentary

Sarvārthasiddhi
Sarvārthasiddhi
(commentary on Tattvārthasūtra)

Others

Siribhoovalaya Uvasagharam Stotra Bhaktamara Stotra

Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
Canonical Texts

Angāgama

Acharanga Sutra Sutrakritanga Sthananga Sutra Samavayanga Sutra Vyākhyāprajñapti Jnatrdharmakathah Upasakadasah Antakrddaasah Anuttaraupapātikadaśāh Prasnavyakaranani Vipakasruta Drstivada
Drstivada
(now extinct)

Upanga āgamas

Aupapatika Rājapraśnīya Jīvājīvābhigama Prajñāpana Sūryaprajñapti Jambūdvīpaprajñapti Candraprajñapti Nirayārvalī Kalpāvatamsikāh Puspikāh Puspacūlikāh Vrasnidaśāh

Chedasūtra

Ācāradaśāh Brhatkalpa Vyavahāra Nishitha Mahāniśītha Jītakalpa Kalpa Sūtra

Mūlasūtra

Daśavaikālika Uttaradhyayana Āvaśyaka Pindaniryukyti

Prakīrnaka sūtra

Catuhśarana Āturapratyākhyanā Bhaktaparijñā Samstāraka Tandulavaicarika Candravedhyāka Devendrastava Ganividyā Mahāpratyākhyanā Vīrastava

Cūlikasūtra

Nandī-sūtra Anuyogadvāra-sūtra

Tattvartha Sutra
Tattvartha Sutra
is accepted by both Digambara
Digambara
and Śvetāmbara as their texts although Śvetāmbaras do not include it under canonical texts.

v t e

Jainism
Jainism
topics

Gods

Tirthankara Ganadhara Arihant

Philosophy

Ethics

Ahimsa

Epistemology

Kevala Jñāna

Jaina logic

Anekāntavāda

Jain
Jain
cosmology

Siddhashila Naraka Heavenly beings

Karma

Types Causes

Gunasthana Dravya

Jīva Ajiva

Pudgala Dharma

Tattva

Asrava Bandha Samvara Nirjara Mokṣa

Death Saṃsāra Ratnatraya Kashaya

Branches

Digambara

Mula Sangha

Balatkara Gana Kashtha Sangha

Taran Panth Bispanthi Terapanth Yapaniya Kanji Panth

Śvētāmbara

Murtipujaka

Gaccha

Kharatara Tapa Tristutik

Sthānakavāsī Terapanth

Practices

Sallekhana Meditation

Sāmāyika

Monasticism Vegetarianism Fasting Rituals Festivals

Paryushana Kshamavani Mahamastakabhisheka

Upadhan Tapas Pratikramana

Literature

Agama

Shatkhandagama Kasayapahuda

Mantra

Namokar Mantra Bhaktamara Stotra

Tattvartha Sutra Samayasāra Aptamimamsa Kalpa Sūtra

Symbols

Jain
Jain
flag Siddhachakra Ashtamangala

Shrivatsa Nandavarta

Auspicious dreams Swastika

Ascetics

Digambara
Digambara
monk Aryika Kshullak Pattavali Acharya

Scholars

Nalini Balbir Colette Caillat Chandabai John E. Cort Paul Dundas Virchand Gandhi Hermann Jacobi Champat Rai Jain Padmanabh Jaini Jeffery D. Long Hampa Nagarajaiah Claudia Pastorino Bal Patil Jinendra Varni

Community

Śrāvaka Sarak Tamil Organisations

Digambar Jain
Jain
Mahasabha Vishwa Jain
Jain
Sangathan JAINA

Jainism
Jainism
in

India

Bundelkhand Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Karnataka

North

Kerala Maharashtra

Mumbai

Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh

Overseas

Canada Europe United States Japan Singapore Hong Kong Pakistan Belgium Africa Southeast Asia Australia

Jainism
Jainism
and

Buddhism Hinduism Islam Sikhism Non-creationism

Dynasties and empires

Ikshvaku Maurya Kalinga Kadamba Ganga Chalukya Rashtrakuta Hoysala Pandayan

Related

History

Timeline

Pañca-Parameṣṭhi Pratima Śalākāpuruṣa Tirtha Samavasarana Jain
Jain
calendar

Samvatsari

Panch Kalyanaka Statue of Ahimsa Temple Sculpture Art Law Nigoda Jain
Jain
terms and concepts Sexual differences

Lists

List of Jains List of Jain
Jain
temples List of Jain
Jain
ascetics List of Digambar Jain
Jain
ascetics Topics List (index)

Navboxes

Gods Literature Monks & nuns Scholars Temples

America Bengal

  Portal   Commons   Wikiquote

.