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Mirza Nur-ud-din Beig Mohammad Khan Salim, known by his imperial name Jahangir
Jahangir
(31 August 1569 – 28 October 1627),[3] was the fourth Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627. His imperial name (in Persian, means 'conqueror of the world', 'world-conqueror' or 'world-seizer' (Jahan: world; gir: the root of the Persian verb gereftan: to seize, to grab). The tale of his relationship with the Mughal courtesan, Anarkali, has been widely adapted into the literature, art and cinema of India.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Reign

2.1 Foreign relations

3 Marriage

3.1 Nur Jahan

4 Conquests 5 Death 6 Religion 7 Art 8 Criticism 9 In media 10 Works online 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

Early life[edit]

Prince Salim, the future Jahangir

Prince Salim, later Jahangir, was born on August 31, 1569, in Fatehpur Sikri, to Akbar
Akbar
and Jodha Bai.[4][5] Akbar’s previous children had died in infancy and he had sought the help of holy men to produce a son. Salim was named for one such man, Sheikh Salim, though Akbar always called him Sheikhu Baba.[4] Prince Salim forcefully succeeded to the throne on Thursday, November 3, 1605, eight days after his father's death emerging victorious in the vicious struggle for succession between the five prominent and legitimate sons. Salim ascended to the throne with the title of Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir
Jahangir
Badshah Ghazi and thus began his 22-year reign at the age of 36. Jahangir
Jahangir
soon after had to fend off his own son, Prince Khusrau Mirza, when the latter attempted to claim the throne based on Akbar's will to become his next heirs. Khusrau Mirza was defeated in 1606 and confined in the fort of Agra. As punishment Khusrau Mirza
Khusrau Mirza
was handed over to his younger brother and was partially blinded and killed.[6] Jahangir
Jahangir
considered his third son Prince Khurram
Prince Khurram
(future Shah
Shah
Jahan), his favourite. In 1622, Khurram murdered his blinded elder brother Khusrau Mirza
Khusrau Mirza
in order to smooth his own path to the throne.[7] Rana of Mewar
Mewar
and Prince Khurram
Prince Khurram
had a standoff that resulted in a treaty acceptable to both parties. Khurram was kept busy with several campaigns in Bengal
Bengal
and Kashmir. Jahangir
Jahangir
claimed the victories of Khurram – Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
as his own. Reign[edit]

Celebrations at the accession of Jahangir
Jahangir
in 1600, when Akbar
Akbar
was away from the capital on an expedition, Salim organised a coup and declared himself Emperor. Akbar
Akbar
had to hastily return to Agra
Agra
and restore order.

An aesthete, Jahangir
Jahangir
decided to start his reign with a grand display of "Justice", as he saw it.[citation needed] To this end, he enacted Twelve Decrees that are remarkable for their liberalism and foresight. During his reign, there was a significant increase in the size of the Mughal Empire, half a dozen rebellions were crushed, prisoners of war were released and the work of his father, Akbar, continued to flourish. Much like his father, Jahangir
Jahangir
was dedicated to the expansion of Mughal held territory through conquest. During this regime he would target the peoples of Assam near the eastern frontier and bring a series of territories controlled by independent rajas in the Himalayan foothills from Kashmir
Kashmir
to Bengal. Jahangir
Jahangir
would challenge[citation needed] the hegemonic claim over what became later Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by the Safavid
Safavid
rulers with an eye on Kabul, Peshawar
Peshawar
and Kandahar, which were important centres of the central Asian trade system that northern India
India
operated within.[citation needed] In 1622, Jahangir
Jahangir
sent his son Prince Khurram
Prince Khurram
against the combined forces of Ahmednagar, Bijapur
Bijapur
and Golconda. After his victory Khurram turned against his father and make a bid for power. As with the insurrection of his eldest son [Khusrau Mirza], Jahangir
Jahangir
was able to defeat the challenge from within his family and retain power.[8] Jahangir promised to protect Islam and granted general amnesty to his opponents. He was also notable for his patronage of the arts, especially of painting. During his reign the distinctive style of Mughal painting
Mughal painting
expanded and blossomed. Jahangir
Jahangir
supported a flourishing culture of court painters.

Jahangir
Jahangir
holding a portrait of his father Akbar

Furthermore, Jahangir
Jahangir
preserved the Mughal tradition of a highly centralised form of government. Jahangir
Jahangir
made the precepts of Sunni Islam the cornerstone of his state policies. A faithful Muslim, as evidenced by his memoirs, he expressed his gratitude to Allah for his many victories. Jahangir, as a devout Muslim, did not let his personal beliefs dictate his state policies. Sovereignty, according to Jahangir, was a "gift of God" not necessarily given to enforce God's law but rather to "ensure the contentment of the world." In civil cases, Islamic law applied to Muslims, Hindu law applied to Hindus, while criminal law was the same for both Muslims
Muslims
and Hindus. In matters like marriage and inheritance, both communities had their own laws that Jahangir
Jahangir
respected. Thus Jahangir
Jahangir
was able to deliver justice to people in accordance of their beliefs and also keep his hold on empire by unified criminal law. In the Mughal state, therefore, defiance of imperial authority, whether coming from a prince or anyone else aspiring to political power, or a Muslim or a Hindu, was crushed in the name of law and order. Foreign relations[edit]

Shah
Shah
Abbas I receiving Khan Alam, ambassador from Jahangir
Jahangir
in 1617

In 1623, the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Jahangir, sent his Tahwildar, Khan Alam, to Safavid
Safavid
Persia, accompanied by 800 Sepoys, scribes and scholars along with ten Howdahs well decorated in gold and silver, in order to negotiate peace with Abbas I of Persia
Persia
after a brief conflict in the region around Kandahar.[citation needed] Khan Alam soon returned with valuable gifts and groups of Mir Shikar(Hunt Masters) from both Safavid
Safavid
Persia
Persia
and even the Khanates of Central Asia.[citation needed] In 1626, Jahangir
Jahangir
began to contemplate an alliance between the Ottomans, Mughals
Mughals
and Uzbeks
Uzbeks
against the Safavids, who had defeated the Mughals
Mughals
at Kandahar. He even wrote a letter to the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV. Jahangir's ambition did not materialise, however, due to his death in 1627. Marriage[edit]

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Salim was made a Mansabdar of ten thousand (Das-Hazari), the highest military rank of the empire, after the emperor. He independently commanded a regiment in the Kabul
Kabul
campaign of 1581, when he was barely twelve. His Mansab was raised to Twelve Thousand, in 1585, at the time of his betrothal to his cousin Rajkumari Manbhawati Bai, daughter of Bhagwant Das
Bhagwant Das
of Amer. Bhagwant Das, was the son of Raja Bihari Mal and the brother of Akbar's Hindu wife and Salim's mother - Jodha Bai]].

Emperor Jahangir
Jahangir
weighing his son Prince Khurram(the future Shah Jahan) on a weighing scale by artist Manohar(AD 1615)

The marriage with Manbhawati Bai
Manbhawati Bai
took place on February 13, 1585. Jahangir
Jahangir
named her Shah
Shah
Begum, and gave birth to Khusrau Mirza. Thereafter, Salim married, in quick succession, a number of accomplished girls from the aristocratic Mughal and Rajput
Rajput
families. One of his early favourite wives was a Rajput
Rajput
Princess, Jagat Gosain Begum. Jahangir
Jahangir
named her Taj Bibi Bilqis Makani
Taj Bibi Bilqis Makani
and she gave birth to Prince Khurram, the future Shah
Shah
Jahan, Jahangir's successor to the throne. On July 7, 1586 he married a daughter of Raja Rai Singh, Maharaja of Bikaner. In July 1586, he married Malika Shikar Begum, daughter of Sultan
Sultan
Abu Said Khan Jagatai, Sultan
Sultan
of Kashghar. In 1586, he married Sahib-i-Jamal Begum, daughter of Khwaja Hassan, of Herat, a cousin of Zain Khan Koka. In 1587, he married Malika Jahan Begum, daughter of Bhim Singh, Maharaja of Jaisalmer. He also married a daughter of Raja Darya Malbhas. In October 1590, he married Zohra Begum, daughter of Mirza Sanjar Hazara. In 1591, he married Karamnasi Begum, daughter of Raja Kesho Das Rathore, of Mertia. On January 11, 1592, he married Kanwal Rani, daughter of Ali Sher Khan, by his wife, Gul Khatun. In October 1592, he married a daughter of Husain Chak, of Kashmir. In January/March 1593, he married Nur un-nisa Begum, daughter of Ibrahim Husain Mirza, by his wife, Gulrukh Begum, daughter of Kamran Mirza. In September 1593, he married a daughter of Ali Khan Faruqi, Raja of Khandesh. He also married a daughter of Abdullah Khan Baluch. On June 28, 1596, he married Khas Mahal Begum, daughter of Zain Khan Koka, sometime Subadar of Kabul
Kabul
and Lahore. In 1608, he married Saliha Banu Begum, daughter of Qasim Khan, a senior member of the Imperial Household. On June 17, 1608, he married Koka Kumari Begum, eldest daughter of Jagat Singh, Yuvraj of Amber. Jahangir
Jahangir
married the extremely beautiful and intelligent Mehr-un-Nisaa (better known by her subsequent title of Nur Jahan) on May 25, 1611. She was the widow of Sher Afgan. Mehr-un-Nisaa became his indisputable chief consort and favourite wife immediately after their marriage. She was witty, intelligent and beautiful, which was what attracted Jahangir
Jahangir
to her. Before being awarded the title of Nur Jahan('Light of the World'), she was called Nur Mahal('Light of the Palace'). Her abilities are said to range from fashion designing to hunting. There is also a myth that she had once killed four tigers with six bullets. Nur Jahan[edit]

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Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
and Jahangir

Mehr-Un-Nisa, or Nur Jahan, occupies an important place in the history of Jahangir. She was the widow of a rebel officer, Sher Afgan, whose actual name was Ali Quli Beg Ist'ajlu. He had earned the title "Sher Afgan" (Tiger tosser) from Emperor Akbar
Akbar
after throwing off a tiger that had leaped to attack Akbar
Akbar
on the top of an elephant in a royal hunt at Bengal
Bengal
and then stabbing the fallen tiger to death. Akbar
Akbar
was greatly affected by the bravery of the young Turkish bodyguard accompanying him and awarded him the captaincy of the Imperial Guard at Bengal. He was killed in rebellion, after learning of Jahangir's orders to have him slain to possess his beautiful wife, as Jahangir yearned for her much earlier than her wedding. The governor of Bengal was instructed secretly by Jahangir
Jahangir
in his quest and was also the emperor's foster brother and Sheikh Salim's grandson and was consequently slain by the guards of the Governor. The widowed Mehr-Un-Nisa was brought to Agra
Agra
along with her nine-year-old daughter and placed in—or refused to be placed in—the Royal harem in 1607. Jahangir
Jahangir
married her in 1611 and gave her the title of Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
or "Light of the World". It was rumoured that Jahangir
Jahangir
had a hand in the death of her first husband, albeit there is no recorded evidence to prove that he was guilty of that crime; in fact most travellers' reports say that he met her after her husband's death. (See Ellison biography for a full discussion.)

Heavy rupee of Jahangir

The loss of Kandahar
Kandahar
was due to Prince Khurram's refusal to obey her orders. When the Persians besieged Kandahar, Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
was at the helm of affairs. She ordered Prince Khurram
Prince Khurram
to march for Kandahar, but the latter refused to do so. There is no doubt that the refusal of the prince was due to her behaviour towards him, as she was favouring her son-in-law, Shahryar, at the expense of Khurram. Khurram suspected that in his absence, Shahryar might be given promotion and that he might die on the battlefield. This fear forced Khurram to rebel against his father rather than fight against the Persians, and thereby Kandahar
Kandahar
was lost. Under Jahangir, the empire continued to be a war state attuned to conquest and expansion. Jahangir's most irksome foe was the Rana of Mewar, Amar Singh, who finally capitulated in 1613 to Khurram's forces. In the northeast, the Mughals
Mughals
clashed with the Ahoms of Assam, whose guerilla tactics gave the Mughals
Mughals
a hard time. In Northern India, Jahangir's forces under Khurram defeated their other principal adversary, the Raja of Kangra, in 1615; in the Deccan, his victories further consolidated the empire. But in 1620, Jahangir
Jahangir
fell sick, and so ensued the familiar quest for power. Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
married her daughter to Shahryar, Jahangir's youngest son from his other queen, in the hope of having a living male heir to the throne when Jahangir
Jahangir
died. Conquests[edit] In the year 1594, Jahangir
Jahangir
was dispatched by his father, the Mughal Emperor Akbar, alongside Abul Hasan Asaf Khan, also known as Mirza Jaafar Beg son of Mirza Ghias Beg Isfahani and brother of Nur Jehan, and Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, to defeat the renegade Vir Singh Deo
Vir Singh Deo
of Bundela
Bundela
and capture the city of Orchha, which was considered the centre of the revolt. Jahangir
Jahangir
arrived with a force of 12,000 after many ferocious encounters and finally subdued the Bundela
Bundela
and ordered Vir Singh Deo
Vir Singh Deo
to surrender. After tremendous casualties and the start of negotiations between the two, Vir Singh Deo
Vir Singh Deo
handed over 5000 Bundela
Bundela
infantry and 1000 cavalry, but he feared Mughal retaliation and remained a fugitive until his death. The victorious Jahangir, only 16 years of age, ordered the completion of the Jahangir Mahal
Jahangir Mahal
a famous Mughal citadel in Orchha
Orchha
to commemorate and honour his victory.

Jahangir
Jahangir
with falcon on horseback

Jahangir
Jahangir
then gathered his forces under the command of Ali Kuli Khan and fought Lakshmi Narayan of Koch Bihar. Lakshmi Narayan then accepted the Mughals
Mughals
as his suzerains he was given the title Nazir and later established a garrison at Atharokotha. In 1613,[9] the Portuguese seized the Mughal ship Rahimi, which had set out from Surat
Surat
on its way with a large cargo of 100,000 rupees and Pilgrims, who were on their way to Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
in order to attend the annual Hajj. The Rahimi was owned by Mariam-uz-Zamani, mother of Jahangir
Jahangir
and Akbar's Rajput
Rajput
wife. She was referred to as Queen mother of Hindustan
Hindustan
during his reign. Rahimi was the largest Indian ship sailing in the Red Sea
Red Sea
and was known to the Europeans as the "great pilgrimage ship". When the Portuguese officially refused to return the ship and the passengers, the outcry at the Mughal court was unusually severe. The outrage was compounded by the fact that the owner and the patron of the ship was none other than the revered mother of the current emperor. Jahangir
Jahangir
himself was outraged and ordered the seizure of the Portuguese town Daman. He ordered the apprehension of all Portuguese within the Mughal Empire; he further confiscated churches that belonged to the Jesuits. This episode is considered to be an example of the struggle for wealth that would later ensue and lead to colonisation of the Indian sub-continent. Jahangir
Jahangir
was responsible for ending a century long struggle with the state of Mewar. The campaign against the Rajputs was pushed so extensively that they were made to submit with great loss of life and property. Jahangir
Jahangir
posted Islam Khan I
Islam Khan I
to subdue Musa Khan, an Afghan rebel in Bengal, in 1608. Jahangir
Jahangir
also thought of capturing Kangra Fort, which Akbar
Akbar
had failed to do in 1615. Consequently, a siege was laid and the fort was taken in 1620, which "resulted in the submission of the Raja of Chamba who was the greatest of all the rajas in the region." The district of Kistwar, in the state of Kashmir, was also conquered. Death[edit]

The Tomb of Jahangir
Tomb of Jahangir
in Shahdara, Lahore

Jahangir
Jahangir
was trying to restore his health by visiting Kashmir
Kashmir
and Kabul. He went from Kabul
Kabul
to Kashmir
Kashmir
but decided to return to Lahore on account of a severe cold. Jahangir
Jahangir
died on the way back from Kashmir
Kashmir
near Sarai Saadabad in 1627. To preserve his body, the entrails were removed and buried in the Baghsar Fort, Kashmir. The body was then transferred to Lahore
Lahore
to be buried in Shahdara Bagh, a suburb of Lahore, Punjab. He was succeeded by his third son, Prince Khurram, who took the title of Shah Jahan. Jahangir's elegant mausoleum is located in the Shahdara locale of Lahore
Lahore
and is a popular tourist attraction. Religion[edit]

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Sir Thomas Roe
Thomas Roe
was England's first ambassador to the Mughal court. Relations with England turned tense in 1617 when Roe warned the Jahangir
Jahangir
that if the young and charismatic Prince Shah
Shah
Jahan, newly instated as the Subedar
Subedar
of Gujarat, had turned the English out of the province, "then he must expect we would do our justice upon the seas". Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
chose to seal an official Firman
Firman
allowing the English to trade in Gujarat
Gujarat
in the year 1618.

Portrait of Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Jahangir's invocation of a Dua
Dua
prayer

Many contemporary chroniclers were not sure quite how to describe Jahangir's personal belief structure. Roe labelled him an atheist, and although most others shied away from that term, they did not feel as though they could call him an orthodox Sunni. Roe believed Jahangir's religion to be of his own making, "for he envies [the Prophet] Mohammed, and wisely sees no reason why he should not bee as great a prophet as he and therefore professed himself so... he hath found many disciples that flatter or follow him."[citation needed] At this time, one of those disciples happened to be the current English ambassador, though his initiation into Jahangir's inner circle was devoid of religious significance for Roe, as he did not understand the full extent of what he was doing: Jahangir
Jahangir
hung "a picture of him self set in gold hanging at a wire gold chain" round Roe's neck. Roe thought it "an especial favour, for that all the great men that wear the Kings image (which none may do but to whom it is given) receive no other than a medal of gold as big as six pence."[citation needed] Had Roe intentionally converted, it would have caused quite a scandal in London. But since there was no intent, there was no resultant problem. Such disciples were an elite group of imperial servants, with one of them being promoted to Chief Justice. However, it is not clear that any of those who became disciples renounced their previous religion, so it is probable to see this as a way in which the emperor strengthened the bond between himself and his nobles. Despite Roe's somewhat casual use of the term 'atheist', he could not quite put his finger on Jahangir's real beliefs. Roe lamented that the emperor was either "the most impossible man in the world to be converted, or the most easy; for he loves to hear, and hath so little religion yet, that he can well abide to have any derided."[citation needed]

A well-decorated manuscript of the Quran, made during the reign of the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Jahangir

This should not imply that the multi-confessional state appealed to all, or that all Muslims
Muslims
were happy with the situation in India. In a book written on statecraft for Jahangir, the author advised him to direct "all his energies to understanding the counsel of the sages and to comprehending the intimations of the 'ulama." At the start of his regime many staunch Sunnis were hopeful, because he seemed less tolerant to other faiths than his father had been. At the time of his accession and the elimination of Abu'l Fazl, his father's chief minister and architect of his eclectic religious stance, a powerful group of orthodox noblemen had gained increased power in the Mughal court. Jahangir
Jahangir
did not always benevolently regard some Hindu customs and rituals. On visiting a Hindu temple, he found a statue of a man with a pig's head (more than likely actually a boar's head, a representation of Varaha), one of the idols in the Hindu religion, so he "ordered them to break that hideous form and throw it in the tank." If the Tuzuk is reliable on this subject (and there is no reason to suspect that it is not), then this was an isolated case. J.F. Richards argues that " Jahangir
Jahangir
seems to have been persistently hostile to popularly venerated religious figures", which is debatable. A Muslim saint, Hazrat Mujadid Alif Sani Imam e Rabbani Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi Al-Farooqi, who had gained large number of followers through his spiritual preaching, was imprisoned in Gwalior Fort.[citation needed]

A manuscript depicting the Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Jahangir
Jahangir
and the Safavid Shah
Shah
Abbas I, and the qualities of Mughal- Safavid
Safavid
relations.

Most notorious was the execution of the Sikh Guru Arjan Dev
Guru Arjan Dev
Ji, whom Jahangir
Jahangir
had got killed in prison. His lands were confiscated and his sons imprisoned as Jahangir
Jahangir
suspected him of helping Khusrau's rebellion.[10] It is unclear whether Jahangir
Jahangir
even understood what a Sikh was, referring to Guru Arjan as a Hindu, who had "captured many of the simple-hearted of the Hindus and even of the ignorant and foolish followers of Islam, by his ways and manners... for three or four generations (of spiritual successors) they had kept this shop warm." The trigger for Guru Arjan's execution was his support for Jahangir's rebel son Khusrau Mirza, yet it is clear from Jahangir's own memoirs that he disliked Guru Arjan before then: "many times it occurred to me to put a stop to this vain affair or bring him into the assembly of the people of Islam." Muqarrab Khan sent to Jahangir
Jahangir
"a European curtain (tapestry) the like of which in beauty no other work of the Frank [European] painters has ever been seen." One of his audience halls was "adorned with European screens." Christian themes attracted Jahangir, and even merited a mention in the Tuzuk. One of his slaves gave him a piece of ivory into which had been carved four scenes. In the last scene "there is a tree, below which the figure of the revered (hazrat) Jesus is shown. One person has placed his head at Jesus' feet, and an old man is conversing with Jesus and four others are standing by." Though Jahangir
Jahangir
believed it to be the work of the slave who presented it to him, Sayyid Ahmad and Henry Beveridge suggest that it was of European origin and possibly showed the Transfiguration. Wherever it came from, and whatever it represented, it was clear that a European style had come to influence Mughal art, otherwise the slave would not have claimed it as his own design, nor would he have been believed by Jahangir. Art[edit]

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Jahangir
Jahangir
was fascinated with art and architecture. Jahangir
Jahangir
himself is far from modest in his autobiography when he states his prowess at being able to determine the artist of any portrait by simply looking at a painting. He also preserved paintings of Emperor Akbar's period. An excellent example of this is the painting of Musician Naubat Khan, son in law of legendary Tansen. It was the work of Ustad Mansur. As he said:

...my liking for painting and my practice in judging it have arrived at such point when any work is brought before me, either of deceased artists or of those of the present day, without the names being told me, I say on the spur of the moment that is the work of such and such a man. And if there be a picture containing many portraits and each face is the work of a different master, I can discover which face is the work of each of them. If any other person has put in the eye and eyebrow of a face, I can perceive whose work the original face is and who has painted the eye and eyebrow.

Jahangir's Jade hookah, National Museum, New Delhi

Jahangir
Jahangir
took his connoisseurship of art very seriously. Paintings created under his reign were closely catalogued, dated and even signed, providing scholars with fairly accurate ideas as to when and in what context many of the pieces were created, in addition to their aesthetic qualities. The Jesuits had brought with them various books, engravings, and paintings and, when they saw the delight Akbar
Akbar
held for them, sent for more and more of the same to be given to the Mughals, as they felt they were on the "verge of conversion", a notion which proved to be very false. Instead, both Akbar
Akbar
and Jahangir
Jahangir
studied this artwork very closely and replicated and adapted it, adopting much of the early iconographic features and later the pictorial realism for which Renaissance
Renaissance
art was known. Jahangir
Jahangir
was notable for his pride in the ability of his court painters. A classic example of this is described in Sir Thomas Roe's diaries, in which the Emperor had his painters copy a European miniature several times creating a total of five miniatures. Jahangir
Jahangir
then challenged Roe to pick out the original from the copies, a feat Sir Thomas Roe
Thomas Roe
could not do, to the delight of Jahangir.[citation needed] Jahangir
Jahangir
was also revolutionary in his adaptation of European styles. A collection at the British Museum
British Museum
in London contains seventy-four drawings of Indian portraits dating from the time of Jahangir, including a portrait of the emperor himself. These portraits are a unique example of art during Jahangir's reign because before and for sometime after, faces were not drawn full, head-on and including the shoulders as well as the head as these drawings are. Criticism[edit] Jahangir
Jahangir
is widely considered to have been a weak and incapable ruler.[11][12][13][14] Orientalist Henry Beveridge (editor of the Tuzk-e-Jahangiri) compares Jahangir
Jahangir
to the Roman emperor Claudius, for both were "weak men... in their wrong places as rulers... [and had] Jahangir
Jahangir
been head of a Natural History Museum,... [he] would have been [a] better and happier man."[15] Sir William Hawkins who visited Jahangir's court in 1609, said: "In such short that what this man's father, called Ecber Padasha [Padshah Akbar], got of the Deccans, this king, Selim Sha [Jahangir] beginneth to lose."[15] Italian writer and traveller, Niccolao Manucci, who worked under Jahangir's grandson, Dara Shikoh, began his discussion about Jahangir
Jahangir
by saying: "It is a truth tested by experience that sons dissipate what their fathers gained in the sweat of their brow."[15] According to John F. Richards, Jahangir's frequent withdrawal to a private sphere of life was partly reflective of his indolence, brought on by his addiction to a considerable daily dosage of wine and opium.[16] In media[edit]

Jahangir
Jahangir
and Anarkali

In the 1939 Hindi film Pukar, Jehangir was portrayed by Chandra Mohan.[17] In the 1953 Hindi film Anarkali, he was portrayed by Pradeep Kumar.[18] In the 1955 Telugu film Anarkali,he was portrayed by ANR In the 1960 Hindi film Mughal-e-Azam, he was portrayed by Dilip Kumar.[19] Jalal Agha
Jalal Agha
also played the younger Jahangir
Jahangir
at the start of the film.[19] In the 1966 Malyalam film Anarkali
Anarkali
(1966 film), he was portrayed by Prem Nazir.[20] In the 1979 Telugu film Akbar
Akbar
Salim Anarkali,he was portrayed by Balakrishna In the 1988 Shyam Benegal's TV Series Bharat Ek Khoj, he was portrayed by Vijay Arora In the 2000 TV series Noorjahan, he was portrayed by Milnd Soman.[21] In the 2013 Ekta Kapoor's TV Series Jodha Akbar, he was portrayed by Ravi Bhatia. Ayaan Zubair Rahmani also played young Salim initially. In the 2014 Indu Sudaresan's TV Series Siyaasat, he was portrayed by Karanvir Sharma and Later Sudhanshu Pandey.[22]

Works online[edit]

Emperor of Hindustan, Jahangir
Jahangir
(1829). Memoirs of the Emperor Jahangueir. Translated by Price, David. London: J. Murray.  Elliot, Henry Miers (1875). Wakiʼat-i Jahangiri. Lahore: Sheikh Mubarak Ali. 

See also[edit]

Jahangirnama Hiran Minar Tomb of Jahangir Sheikhupur, Badaun Shahjahan

References[edit]

^ Andrew J. Newman, Twelver Shiism: Unity and Diversity in the Life of Islam 632 to 1722 (Edinburgh University Press, 2013), online version: p. 48: " Jahangir
Jahangir
[was] ... a Sunni." ^ John F. Richards, The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
(Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 103 ^ https://global.britannica.com/biography/Jahangir ^ a b Jahangir
Jahangir
(1909–1914). The Tūzuk-i-Jahangīrī Or Memoirs Of Jahāngīr. Translated by Alexander Rogers; Henry Beveridge. London: Royal Asiatic Society. p. 1. Retrieved 2017-11-19. CS1 maint: Date format (link) ^ " Jahangir
Jahangir
Biography". thefamouspeople.com. Archived from the original on 2017-11-19. Retrieved 2017-11-19.  ^ "The Internationalization of Portuguese Historiography". www.brown.edu. Retrieved 2017-10-23.  ^ Ellison Banks Findly (25 March 1993). Nur Jahan: Empress of Mughal India. Oxford University Press. pp. 170–172. ISBN 978-0-19-536060-8.  ^ https://www.britannica.com/biography/Jahangir ^ From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India, p.37, Orient Blackswan, Śekhara Bandyopādhyāẏa ^ Wynbrandt, James (2009). A Brief History of Pakistan. Infobase Publishing. pp. 83–84. ISBN 978-0-8160-6184-6.  ^ Lach, Donald F.; Kley, Edwin J. Van (1998). Asia in the Making of Europe Vol. III, Bk. 2: A Century of Advance, South Asia (Pbk. ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 629. ISBN 9780226467672.  ^ Flores, Jorge (2015). The Mughal Padshah: A Jesuit
Jesuit
Treatise on Emperor Jahangir’s Court and Household. BRILL. p. 9. ISBN 9789004307537.  ^ Robinson, Annemarie Schimmel ; translated by Corinne Attwood ; edited by Burzine K. Waghmar ; with a foreword by Francis (2005). The empire of the Great Mughals : history, art and culture (Revised ed.). Lahore: Sang-E-Meel Pub. p. 45. ISBN 9781861891853.  ^ Hansen, Valerie; Curtis, Ken (2013). Voyages in World History, Volume 1 to 1600. Cengage Learning. p. 446. ISBN 1285415124.  ^ a b c Findly, Ellison Banks (1993). Nur Jahan, empress of Mughal India. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 311. ISBN 9780195360608.  ^ Richards, John F (2008). The New Cambridge History of India: Mughal Empire. Delhi: Cambridge University Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-81-85618-49-4.  ^ Bajaj, J. K. (2014). On & Behind the Indian Cinema. Diamond Pocket Books Pvt Ltd. p. 2020. ISBN 9789350836217.  ^ U, Saiam Z. (2012). Houseful The Golden Years of Hindi Cinema. Om Books International. ISBN 9789380070254.  ^ a b "Mughal-E-Azam: Lesser known facts". The Times of India. Retrieved 2016-07-12.  ^ Vijaykumar, B. (2010-05-31). " Anarkali
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1966". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2016-07-12.  ^ Vetticad, Anna M. M. (27 September 1999). "Model Milind Soman
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Further reading[edit]

Andrea, Alfred J.; Overfield, James H. (2005). The Human Record: Sources of Global History. Vol. 2: Since 1500 (Fifth ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-37041-2.  Alvi, Sajida S. (1989). "Religion and State during the Reign of Mughal Emperor Jahǎngǐr (1605–27): Nonjuristical Perspectives". Studia Islamica (9): 95–119. doi:10.2307/1596069. JSTOR 1596069.  Findly, Ellison B. (April–June 1987). "Jahāngīr's Vow of Non-Violence". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 107 (2): 245–256. doi:10.2307/602833. JSTOR 602833.  Lefèvre, Corinne (2007). "Recovering a Missing Voice from Mughal India: The Imperial Discourse of Jahāngīr (R. 1605–1627) in his Memoirs". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 50 (4): 452–489. doi:10.1163/156852007783245034. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jahangir.

Jehangir and Shah
Shah
Jehan The World Conqueror: Jahangir Jains and the Mughals

Jahangir Timurid Dynasty Born: 20 September 1569 Died: 8 November 1627

Regnal titles

Preceded by Akbar Mughal Emperor 1605–1627 Succeeded by Shah
Shah
Jahan

v t e

Mughal Empire

Emperors

Babur Humayun Akbar Jahangir Shah
Shah
Jahan Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
(Alamgir) Muhammad Azam Shah Bahadur Shah
Shah
I Jahandar Shah Farrukhsiyar Rafi ud-Darajat Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
II Muhammad Shah Ahmad Shah
Shah
Bahadur Alamgir II Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III Shah
Shah
Alam II Akbar
Akbar
II Bahadur Shah
Shah
II

Battles and conflicts

Battle of Panipat (1526) Gujarat
Gujarat
conquest Battle of Khanwa Battle of Ghaghra Siege of Sambhal Battle of Panipat (1556) Battle of Thanesar Siege of Chittorgarh Siege of Ranthambore Battle of Tukaroi Battle of Raj Mahal Battle of Haldighati Battle of Bhuchar Mori Siege of Kandahar Mughal– Safavid
Safavid
War (1622–23) Siege of Orchha Mughal– Safavid
Safavid
War (1649–53) Battle of Samugarh Battle of Khajwa Suppression of Tilpat rebellion Ahom–Mughal conflicts Siege of Purandhar Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War Mughal–Maratha Wars

Siege of Bijapur Siege of Jinji

Child's War Siege of Golconda Battle of Karnal Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Buxar Siege of Delhi

Architecture

Taj Mahal Gardens of Babur Fatehpur Sikri

Tomb of Salim Chishti

Humayun's Tomb Red Fort Lahore
Lahore
Fort Jahangir
Jahangir
Mahal Lalbagh Fort Akbar's Tomb Agra
Agra
Fort Chawk Mosque Shalimar Gardens Achabal Gardens Jahangir's Tomb Bibi Ka Maqbara Badshahi Mosque Shahi Bridge Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Mosque, Thatta Sheesh Mahal Sunehri Masjid Tipu Sultan
Sultan
Mosque Wazir Khan Mosque more

Adversaries

Ibrahim Lodi Rana Sanga Sher Shah
Shah
Suri Hemu Maharana Pratap Malik Ambar Gokula Pratapaditya Shivaji Lachit Borphukan Khushal Khattak Sir Josiah Child Guru Gobind Singh Henry Every Bajirao I Nader Shah Hector Munro

Provinces

Bengal
Bengal
Subah Gujarat
Gujarat
Subah

See also

Art Cuisine Culture Flag Gardens Language Military Painting Persians Tribe Weapons Timurid dynasty

family tree

Successor states

Maratha Empire Rajput
Rajput
states Jats Sikh Empire Nawabs of Bengal Awadh Nizam of Hyderabad Carnatic Kingdom of Mysore Rohilkhand

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 38320916 LCCN: n84143316 ISNI: 0000 0001 2100 7277 GND: 103399526 SUDOC: 028932609 BNF: cb136220088 (data) ULAN: 500257015 SN

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