Jahandar Shah
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Mirza Muhammad Mu'izz-ud-Din ( fa, ;10 May 1661 – 11 February 1713), more commonly known as Jahandar Shah ( fa, ), was a
Mughal Emperor The Mughal emperors (or Moghul) built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. The Mughals began to rule parts of India from 1526, and ...
who ruled for a brief period in 1712–1713. His full title was ''Shahanshah-i-Ghazi Abu'l Fath Mu'izz-ud-Din Muhammad Jahandar Shah Sahib-i-Qiran Padshah-i-Jahan (Khuld Aramgah)''.


Early life

Prince Jahandar Shah was born in Deccan Subah to the later Emperor
Bahadur Shah I Bahadur Shah ( fa, —) (14 October 1643 – 27 February 1712), also known as Muhammad Mu'azzam ( fa, ) and Shah Alam ( fa, ), was the eighth Mughal emperor of India, ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712. In his youth, he consp ...

Bahadur Shah I
. His mother was
Nizam Bai Nizam Bai (1643 – 1692) was a wife of the seventh Mughal Emperors, Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah I. Though she never reigned as empress, having died several years before her husband ascended the throne, her son eventually succeeded as the Emperor ...
, the daughter of Fatehyawar Jang, a noble from Hyderabad. Jahandar Shah was appointed as Vizier of Balkh in 1671 by his grandfather, Aurangzeb. When their grandfather died on 27 February 1712, he and his brother, Azim-ush-Shan, both declared themselves emperor and battled for succession. Azim-ush-Shan, Azim-us-Shan was killed on 17 March 1712, after which Jahandar Shah ruled for an additional eleven months. Before ascending the throne, Jahandar Shah sailed around the Indian Ocean and was a very prosperous trader. He was also appointed Subedar of Sindh. He fathered three sons, including Alamgir II, Aziz-ud-Din, who reigned as Mughal Empire, Mughal emperor between 1754 and 1759.


Reign

Jahandar Shah led a frivolous life, and his court was often enlivened by dancing and entertainment. He chose a favourite wife, Imtiaz Mahal, Lal Kunwar, who was a mere Nautch, dancing girl before her elevation to the position of Queen Consort. Together they shocked the Mughal Empire and were even opposed by Aurangzeb's surviving daughter, Zeenat-un-Nissa. His authority was rejected by the third Nawab of the Carnatic, Muhammed Saadatullah Khan I, who killed Desingh, De Singh of Orchha, primarily due to the Nawab's belief that he was the righteous commander of the Gingee Fort. Khan began a smear campaign referring to Jahandar Shah as an usurper to the Mughal Empire, Mughal throne. To further strengthen his authority, Jahandar Shah sent gifts to the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Sultan Ahmad III.


Marriages

Jahandar Shah's first wife was the daughter of Mirza Mukarram Khan Safavi. The marriage took place on 13 October 1676. After her death he married her niece, Sayyid-un-nissa Begum, the daughter of Mirza Rustam. The marriage took place on 30 August 1684. Qazi Abu Sa'id united them in the presence of Emperor Aurangzeb, and Prince Muhammad Muazzam (future
Bahadur Shah I Bahadur Shah ( fa, —) (14 October 1643 – 27 February 1712), also known as Muhammad Mu'azzam ( fa, ) and Shah Alam ( fa, ), was the eighth Mughal emperor of India, ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712. In his youth, he consp ...

Bahadur Shah I
). The marriage was consummated on 18 September. Sayyid-un-nissa Begum was presented with jewels worth 67,000 rupees. The celebrations were supervised by Princess Zeenat-un-Nissa, Zinat-un-nissa Begum. His third wife was Anup Bai. She was the mother of Prince Muhammad Aziz-ud-din Mirza, born on 6 June 1699. She died at Delhi on 17 April 1735, nineteen years before her son's accession to the throne as Emperor Alamgir II. His fourth wife was Lal Kunwar, the daughter of Khasusiyat Khan. Jahandar Shah was very fond of her, and after his accession to the throne, he gave her the title Imtiyaz Mahal.


Death

He was defeated in the battle at Agra on 10 January 1713 by Farrukhsiyar, his nephew and the second son of Azim-ush-Shan, with the support of the Syed Brothers, Sayyid Brothers. He fled to Delhi where he was captured and handed over to the new Emperor, who confined him along with Lal Kunwar. He lived in confinement for a month, until 11 February 1713, when professional stranglers were sent to murder him.


Coins

Jahandar Shah reintroduced couplets and issued coins in gold, silver, and copper. Two couplets i.e. Abu al-Fateh and Sahab Qiran were used. Copper coins were issued in both weight standard i.e. 20 grams and 14 grams. Jahandar Shah, Silver Rupee, Khujista Bunyaad, AH1124 Ry.Ahd, Abu al-Fateh couplet.jpg, Silver Rupee of Abu al-Fateh couplet, Khujista Bunyaad, AH1124 Ry.Ahd Jahandar Shah, Rupee, Itawa, AH1124 Ry.Ahd, Sahab Qiran couplet.jpg, Silver Rupee of Sahab Qiran couplet, Itawa, AH1124 Ry.Ahd Jahandar Shah, AE Paisa, Surat, 20.2 grams.jpg, Copper paisa of 20.21 grams from Surat mint Jahandar Shah, AE Paisa, Surat, 13.85 grams.jpg, Copper paisa of 13.85 grams from Surat mint


Notes


References

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External links


Coin Gallery
{{DEFAULTSORT:Jahandar Shah Mughal emperors 1661 births, Shah, Jahandar 1713 deaths, Shah, Jahandar Murdered Indian monarchs 18th-century murdered monarchs