Mirza Mu'izz-ud-Din Beig Mohammed Khan (10 May 1661 – 12 February
1713), more commonly known as Jahandar Shah, was a
Mughal Emperor who ruled for a brief period in 1712–1713. His full
title was Shahanshah-i-Ghazi Abu'l Fath Mu'izz-ud-Din Muhammad
Jahandar Shah Sahib-i-Quran Padshah-i-Jahan (Khuld Aramgah).[citation
needed] Sailendra Sen describes him as "a worthless debauch [who]
became emperor after liquidating his three brothers".
1 Early life
8 External links
Jahandar Shah was born in Deccan Subah, to Emperor Bahadur Shah
I and Nizam Bai, the daughter of Mirza Raja Jai Singh. He was
appointed as Vizier of
Balkh in 1671 by his grandfather, Aurangzeb.
When their father died on 27 February 1712, he and his brother,
Azim-ush-Shan, both declared themselves emperor and battled for
succession. Azim-us-Shan was killed on 17 March 1712, after which
Jahandar Shah ruled for an additional eleven months. Before ascending
Jahandar Shah sailed around the
Indian Ocean and was a
very prosperous trader. He was also appointed
Subedar of Sindh. He
fathered three sons, including Aziz-ud-Din, who reigned as Mughal
emperor between 1754 and 1759.
Mughal Army commander Abdus Samad Khan Bahadur being received by
Jahandar Shah led a frivolous life, and his court was often enlivened
by dancing and entertainment. He chose a favourite wife, Lal Kunwar,
who was a mere dancing girl before her elevation to the position of
Queen Consort. Together they shocked the
Mughal Empire and were even
opposed by Aurangzeb's surviving daughter, Zinat-un-Nissa.
His authority was rejected by the third
Nawab of the Carnatic,
Muhammed Saadatullah Khan I, who killed De Singh of Orchha, primarily
due to the Nawab's belief that he was the righteous commander of the
Gingee Fort. Khan began a smear campaign referring to
Jahandar Shah as
an usurper to the Mughal throne. To further strengthen his authority,
Jahandar Shah sent gifts to the Ottoman
Sultan Ahmad III.
Jahandar Shah's first wife was the daughter of Mirza Mukarram Khan
Safavi. The marriage took place on 13 October 1676. After her death
he married her niece, Sayyid-un-nissa Begum, the daughter of Mirza
Rustam. The marriage took place on 30 August 1684. Qazi Abu Sa'id
united them in the presence of Emperor Aurangzeb, and Prince Muhammad
Muazzam (future Bahadur Shah I). The marriage was consummated on 18
September. Sayyid-un-nissa Begum was presented with jewels worth
67,000 rupees. The celebrations were supervised by Princess
His third wife was Anup Bai who held the title of Muazzamabadi
Mahal. She was the mother of Prince Muhammad Aziz-ud-din Mirza,
born on 6 June 1699. She died at
Delhi on 17 April 1735, nineteen
years before her son's accession to the throne as Emperor Alamgir II.
His fourth wife was
Lal Kunwar Begum, the daughter of Khasusiyat
Jahandar Shah was very fond of her, and after his accession
to the throne, he gave her the title Imtiyaz Mahal.
Silver coin issued from Shahjahanabad, during the reign of Jahandar
He was defeated in the battle at
Agra on 10 January 1713 by
Farrukhsiyar, his nephew and the second son of Azim-ush-Shan, with the
support of the Sayyid Brothers. He fled to
Delhi where he was captured
and handed over to the new Emperor, who confined him along with Lal
Kunwar. He lived in confinement for a month, until 11 February 1713,
when professional stranglers were sent to murder him.
Jahandar Shah reintroduced couplets and issued coins in gold, silver,
and copper. Two couplets i.e. Abu al-Fateh and Sahab Qiran were used.
Copper coins were issued in both weight standard i.e. 20 grams and 14
Silver Rupee of Abu al-Fateh couplet, Khujista Bunyaad, AH1124 Ry.Ahd
Silver Rupee of Sahab Qiran couplet, Itawa, AH1124 Ry.Ahd
Copper paisa of 20.21 grams from Surat mint
Copper paisa of 13.85 grams from Surat mint
^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus
Books. p. 193. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
^ Farooqi, Naimur Rahman (1989-01-01). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a
study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India and
the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli.
^ Sarkar 1947, p. 93.
^ a b c Irvine, p. 242.
^ Sarkar 1947, p. 151.
^ Sarkar 1947, p. 152.
^ Indian History Congress. Session, Amiya Kumar Bagchi, Indian History
Congress, Institute of Development Studies, Kolkata (2005). Webs of
history: information, communication, and technology from early to
post-colonial India. Indian History Congress. p. 160.
ISBN 978-8-173-04613-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors
^ Irvine, p. 180.
Sarkar, Jadunath (1947). Maasir-i-Alamgiri: A History of Emperor
Aurangzib-Alamgir (reign 1658-1707 AD) of Saqi Mustad Khan. Royal
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta.
Irvine, William. The Later Mughals. Low Price Publications.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jahandar Shah.
Bahadur Shah I
Muhammad Azam Shah
Bahadur Shah I
Shah Jahan II
Ahmad Shah Bahadur
Shah Jahan III
Shah Alam II
Bahadur Shah II
Battle of Panipat (1526)
Battle of Khanwa
Battle of Ghaghra
Siege of Sambhal
Battle of Panipat (1556)
Battle of Thanesar
Siege of Chittorgarh
Siege of Ranthambore
Battle of Tukaroi
Battle of Raj Mahal
Battle of Haldighati
Battle of Bhuchar Mori
Siege of Kandahar
Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23)
Siege of Orchha
Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53)
Battle of Samugarh
Battle of Khajwa
Suppression of Tilpat rebellion
Siege of Purandhar
Siege of Bijapur
Siege of Jinji
Siege of Golconda
Battle of Karnal
Third Battle of Panipat
Battle of Buxar
Siege of Delhi
Gardens of Babur
Tomb of Salim Chishti
Bibi Ka Maqbara
Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta
Wazir Khan Mosque
Sher Shah Suri
Sir Josiah Child
Guru Gobind Singh
Nawabs of Bengal
Nizam of Hyderabad