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JAGADDALA MAHAVIHARA (fl. late 11th century - mid-12th century) was a Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery and seat of learning in Varendra
Varendra
, a geographical unit in present north Bengal
Bengal
in Bangladesh. It was founded by the later kings of the Pāla dynasty , probably Ramapala (c. 1077-1120), most likely at a site near the present village of Jagdal in Dhamoirhat Upazila in the north-west Bangladesh
Bangladesh
on the border with India, near Paharapur. Some texts also spell the name JAGGADALA. Jagaddala

CONTENTS

* 1 Location

* 2 History

* 2.1 Founding * 2.2 Decline and end

* 3 Excavation and UNESCO status * 4 Notes * 5 See also

LOCATION

Little is known about Jagaddala compared with the other mahaviharas of the era. For many years, its site was could not be ascertained. A.K.M. Zakaria inspected five likely locations, all called Jagdal or Jagadal, in the Rajshahi -Malda region: in Panchagarh ; in Haripur Upazila of Thakurgaon ; in Bochaganj Upazila in Dinajpur ; in Dhamoirhat Upazila of Naogaon ; Bamangola block of Malda , India
India
. Of these, significant ancient ruins were present only near the Jagdal in Naogaon district. Excavations under the aegis of Unesco
Unesco
over the past decade have established the site as a Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery.

HISTORY

FOUNDING

A large number of monasteries or viharas were established in ancient Bengal
Bengal
and Magadha
Magadha
during the four centuries of Pala rule in North-eastern India
India
(756-1174 AD). Dharmapala (781-821) is said to have founded 50 viharas himself, including Vikramashila
Vikramashila
, the premier university of the era. Jaggadala was founded toward the end of the Pāla dynasty, most likely by Rāmapāla (c. 1077-1120). According to Tibetan sources, five great Mahaviharas stood out: Vikramashila
Vikramashila
; Nalanda
Nalanda
, past its prime but still illustrious, Somapura
Somapura
, Odantapurā , and Jagaddala. The five monasteries formed a network; "all of them were under state supervision" and their existed "a system of co-ordination among them ... it seems from the evidence that the different seats of Buddhist
Buddhist
learning that functioned in eastern India under the Pāla were regarded together as forming a network, an interlinked group of institutions," and it was common for great scholars to move easily from position to position among them.

Jagaddala specialized in Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism. A large number of texts that would later appear in the Kanjur and Tengjur were known to have been composed or copied at Jagadala. It is likely that the earliest dated anthology of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
verse, the Subhāṣitaratnakoṣa, was compiled by Vidyākara at Jaggadala toward the end of the 11th century or the beginning of the 12th.

DECLINE AND END

Śakyaśrībhadra, a Kashmiri scholar who was the last abbot of Nalanda
Nalanda
Mahavihara and instrumental in transmitting Buddhism
Buddhism
to Tibet , is said to have fled to Tibet
Tibet
in 1204 from Jagaddala when Muslim incursions seemed imminent. Historian Sukumar Dutt tentatively placed the final destruction of Jagadala to 1207; in any case it seems to have been the last mahavihara to be overrun.

EXCAVATION AND UNESCO STATUS

In 1999 Jaggadala was submitted as tentative site for inclusion on the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. UNESCO reports that excavation has revealed "an extensive mound, 105 metres long by 85 metres, which represents the archaeological remains of a Buddhist monastery . . . finds have included terracotta plaques, ornamental bricks, nails, a gold ingot and three stone images of deities.

NOTES

* ^ A B Buddhist
Buddhist
Monks And Monasteries Of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture. by Dutt, Sukumar. George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London 1962. pg 377 * ^ A B UNESCO World Heritage website * ^ A B http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Jagaddala_Mahavihara * ^ Vajrayoginī: Her Visualizations, Rituals border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Bangladesh
Bangladesh
portal

* v * t * e

Ancient Dharmic centres of higher learning

EARLY CENTRES OF LEARNING

* TAXILA * NALANDA * SOMAPURA * VIKRAMASHILA

FURTHER CENTRES OF LEARNING

* Bikrampur Vihara
Vihara
* Jagaddala Mahavihara * Kanchipuram * Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics * Manyakheta * Nagarjunakonda * Odantapuri * Pandit Vihara
Vihara
* Ratnagiri * Shalban Vihara
Vihara
* Sharada Peeth * Sunethradevi Pirivena * Vallabhi * Varanasi
Varanasi
* Vidyalankara Pirivena * Vidyodaya Pirivena * Vikramashila
Vikramashila

* v * t * e

Places in Bengal
Bengal
that no longer exist

* Betor
Betor
* Bikrampur (Bikrampur Vihara) * Chaityabhumi (Pandit Vihara) * Chandraketugarh
Chandraketugarh
* Devkot * Dihar * Gaur (Lakhsmanabati) * Gobindapur * Kalikata * Karnasubarna
Karnasubarna
* Mahasthangarh
Mahasthangarh
* Mainamati
Mainamati
(Shalban Vihara
Vihara
) * Moghalmari * Paharpur ( Somapura
Somapura
Mahavihara) (Halud Vihara
Vihara
) * Pandu Rajar Dhibi
Pandu Rajar Dhibi
* Pandua * Saptagram * Sonargaon
Sonargaon
* Sutanuti
Sutanuti
* Tamralipta
Tamralipta
* Varendra
Varendra
(Jagaddala Mahavihara) * Wari-Bateshwar

* v * t * e

Buddhism
Buddhism
topics

* Glossary * Index * Outline

FOUNDATIONS

* Three Jewels

* Buddha * Dharma
Dharma
* Sangha
Sangha

* Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
* Noble Eightfold Path * Nirvana
Nirvana
* Middle Way
Middle Way

THE BUDDHA

* Tathāgata * Birthday * Four sights * Physical characteristics * Footprint * Relics * Iconography in Laos and Thailand * Films * Miracles

* Family

* Suddhodāna (father) * Māyā (mother) * Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother) * Yasodhara (wife) * Rāhula (son) * Ānanda (cousin) * Devadatta (cousin)

* Places where the Buddha stayed * Buddha in world religions

KEY CONCEPTS

* Avidyā (Ignorance) * Bardo
Bardo
* Bodhicitta
Bodhicitta
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddha-nature
Buddha-nature
* Dhamma theory * Dharma
Dharma
* Enlightenment * Five hindrances
Five hindrances
* Indriya * Karma * Kleshas * Mind Stream
Mind Stream
* Parinirvana
Parinirvana
* Pratītyasamutpāda
Pratītyasamutpāda
* Rebirth * Saṃsāra * Saṅkhāra * Skandha * Śūnyatā
Śūnyatā
* Taṇhā
Taṇhā
(Craving) * Tathātā * Ten Fetters

* Three marks of existence
Three marks of existence

* Impermanence * Dukkha
Dukkha
* Anatta
Anatta

* Two truths doctrine
Two truths doctrine

COSMOLOGY

* Ten spiritual realms
Ten spiritual realms

* Six realms

* Deva (Buddhism)
Deva (Buddhism)
* Human realm * Asura realm * Hungry Ghost realm * Animal realm * Hell

* Three planes of existence

PRACTICES

* Bhavana
Bhavana
* Bodhipakkhiyādhammā

* Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara

* Mettā * Karuṇā
Karuṇā
* Mudita
Mudita
* Upekkha

* Dāna * Devotion * Dhyāna * Faith * Five Strengths
Five Strengths
* Iddhipada

* Meditation

* Mantras * Kammaṭṭhāna
Kammaṭṭhāna
* Recollection * Smarana * Anapanasati
Anapanasati
* Samatha
Samatha
* Vipassanā ( Vipassana movement
Vipassana movement
) * Shikantaza * Zazen
Zazen
* Kōan
Kōan
* Mandala
Mandala
* Tonglen * Tantra
Tantra
* Tertön
Tertön
* Terma

* Merit

* Mindfulness

* Satipatthana

* Nekkhamma * Pāramitā
Pāramitā
* Paritta
Paritta

* Puja

* Offerings * Prostration * Chanting

* Refuge

* Satya

* Sacca

* Seven Factors of Enlightenment
Seven Factors of Enlightenment

* Sati * Dhamma vicaya
Dhamma vicaya
* Pīti * Passaddhi

* Śīla

* Five Precepts * Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
vow * Prātimokṣa
Prātimokṣa

* Threefold Training
Threefold Training

* Śīla * Samadhi
Samadhi
* Prajñā

* Vīrya

* Four Right Exertions

NIRVANA

* Bodhi
Bodhi
* Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* Buddhahood
Buddhahood
* Pratyekabuddha

* Four stages of enlightenment

* Sotāpanna
Sotāpanna
* Sakadagami
Sakadagami
* Anāgāmi
Anāgāmi
* Arhat
Arhat

MONASTICISM

* Bhikkhu
Bhikkhu
* Bhikkhuni
Bhikkhuni
* Śrāmaṇera * Śrāmaṇerī * Anagarika
Anagarika
* Ajahn * Sayadaw * Zen master
Zen master
* Rōshi * Lama
Lama
* Rinpoche
Rinpoche
* Geshe
Geshe
* Tulku
Tulku
* Householder * Upāsaka and Upāsikā

* Śrāvaka

* The ten principal disciples
The ten principal disciples

* Shaolin Monastery
Shaolin Monastery

MAJOR FIGURES

* Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
* Kaundinya
Kaundinya
* Assaji
Assaji
* Sāriputta * Mahamoggallāna * Mulian * Ānanda * Mahākassapa * Anuruddha
Anuruddha
* Mahākaccana * Nanda * Subhuti
Subhuti
* Punna * Upali * Mahapajapati Gotamī * Khema
Khema
* Uppalavanna * Asita
Asita
* Channa * Yasa
Yasa
* Buddhaghoṣa * Nagasena * Angulimala * Bodhidharma
Bodhidharma
* Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
* Asanga
Asanga
* Vasubandhu * Atiśa
Atiśa
* Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
* Nichiren
Nichiren
* Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
* Emperor Wen of Sui
Emperor Wen of Sui
* Dalai Lama
Lama
* Panchen Lama
Lama
* Karmapa
Karmapa
* Shamarpa
Shamarpa
* Naropa
Naropa
* Xuanzang
Xuanzang
* Zhiyi
Zhiyi

TEXTS

* Tripiṭaka
Tripiṭaka
* Madhyamakālaṃkāra * Mahayana sutras
Mahayana sutras
* Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
* Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
canon * Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
canon

BRANCHES

* Theravada
Theravada

* Mahayana
Mahayana

* Chan Buddhism
Buddhism

* Zen
Zen
* Seon * Thiền

* Pure Land * Tiantai
Tiantai
* Nichiren
Nichiren
* Madhyamaka * Yogachara
Yogachara

* Navayana

* Vajrayana
Vajrayana

* Tibetan * Shingon * Dzogchen
Dzogchen

* Early Buddhist
Buddhist
schools * Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Buddhism
* Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna

COUNTRIES

* Afghanistan * Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Bhutan * Cambodia * China * India
India
* Indonesia * Japan * Korea * Laos * Malaysia * Maldives * Mongolia * Myanmar * Nepal * Pakistan * Philippines

* Russia

* Kalmykia * Buryatia

* Singapore * Sri Lanka * Taiwan * Thailand * Tibet
Tibet
* Vietnam

* Middle East

* Iran

* Western countries

* Argentina * Australia * Brazil * France * United Kingdom * United States * Venezuela

HISTORY

* Timeline * Ashoka
Ashoka
* Buddhist
Buddhist
councils

* History of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India
India

* Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India
India

* Great Anti- Buddhist
Buddhist
Persecution * Greco- Buddhism
Buddhism
* Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Roman world * Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
* Persecution of Buddhists * Banishment of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks from Nepal * Buddhist
Buddhist
crisis * Sinhalese Buddhist
Buddhist
nationalism * Buddhist
Buddhist
modernism * Vipassana movement
Vipassana movement
* 969 Movement
969 Movement
* Women in Buddhism
Buddhism

PHILOSOPHY

* Abhidharma
Abhidharma
* Atomism * Buddhology
Buddhology
* Creator * Economics * Eight Consciousnesses
Eight Consciousnesses
* Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
* Eschatology * Ethics * Evolution * Humanism * Logic * Reality * Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
* Socialism * The unanswered questions

CULTURE

* Architecture

* Temple * Vihara
Vihara
* Wat
Wat
* Stupa
Stupa
* Pagoda
Pagoda
* Candi * Dzong architecture
Dzong architecture
* Japanese Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture * Korean Buddhist
Buddhist
temples * Thai temple art and architecture * Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture

* Art

* Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist

* Bodhi
Bodhi
Tree * Budai
Budai
* Buddharupa
Buddharupa
* Calendar * Cuisine * Funeral

* Holidays

* Vesak
Vesak
* Uposatha
Uposatha
* Magha Puja * Asalha Puja * Vassa
Vassa

* Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Bodhi
* Kasaya * Mahabodhi Temple
Mahabodhi Temple

* Mantra
Mantra

* Om mani padme hum
Om mani padme hum

* Mudra
Mudra
* Music

* Pilgrimage

* Lumbini
Lumbini
* Maya Devi Temple * Bodh Gaya
Bodh Gaya
* Sarnath
Sarnath
* Kushinagar
Kushinagar

* Poetry * Prayer beads * Prayer wheel

* Symbolism

* Dharmachakra
Dharmachakra
* Flag * Bhavacakra
Bhavacakra
* Swastika
Swastika
* Thangka
Thangka

* Temple of the Tooth
Temple of the Tooth
* Vegetarianism

MISCELLANEOUS

* Abhijñā * Amitābha
Amitābha

* Avalokiteśvara

* Guanyin
Guanyin

* Brahmā * Dhammapada
Dhammapada
* Dharma