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JAGADDALA MAHAVIHARA (fl. late 11th century - mid-12th century) was a Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery and seat of learning in Varendra , a geographical unit in present north Bengal
Bengal
in Bangladesh. It was founded by the later kings of the Pāla dynasty , probably Ramapala (c. 1077-1120), most likely at a site near the present village of Jagdal in Dhamoirhat Upazila in the north-west Bangladesh on the border with India, near Paharapur. Some texts also spell the name JAGGADALA. Jagaddala

CONTENTS

* 1 Location

* 2 History

* 2.1 Founding * 2.2 Decline and end

* 3 Excavation and UNESCO status * 4 Notes * 5 See also

LOCATION

Little is known about Jagaddala compared with the other mahaviharas of the era. For many years, its site was could not be ascertained. A.K.M. Zakaria inspected five likely locations, all called Jagdal or Jagadal, in the Rajshahi -Malda region: in Panchagarh ; in Haripur Upazila of Thakurgaon ; in Bochaganj Upazila in Dinajpur ; in Dhamoirhat Upazila of Naogaon
Naogaon
; Bamangola block of Malda , India
India
. Of these, significant ancient ruins were present only near the Jagdal in Naogaon
Naogaon
district. Excavations under the aegis of Unesco
Unesco
over the past decade have established the site as a Buddhist
Buddhist
monastery.

HISTORY

FOUNDING

A large number of monasteries or viharas were established in ancient Bengal
Bengal
and Magadha
Magadha
during the four centuries of Pala rule in North-eastern India
India
(756-1174 AD). Dharmapala
Dharmapala
(781-821) is said to have founded 50 viharas himself, including Vikramashila , the premier university of the era. Jaggadala was founded toward the end of the Pāla dynasty, most likely by Rāmapāla (c. 1077-1120). According to Tibetan sources, five great Mahaviharas stood out: Vikramashila ; Nalanda
Nalanda
, past its prime but still illustrious, Somapura , Odantapurā , and Jagaddala. The five monasteries formed a network; "all of them were under state supervision" and their existed "a system of co-ordination among them ... it seems from the evidence that the different seats of Buddhist
Buddhist
learning that functioned in eastern India under the Pāla were regarded together as forming a network, an interlinked group of institutions," and it was common for great scholars to move easily from position to position among them.

Jagaddala specialized in Vajrayana Buddhism. A large number of texts that would later appear in the Kanjur and Tengjur were known to have been composed or copied at Jagadala. It is likely that the earliest dated anthology of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
verse, the Subhāṣitaratnakoṣa, was compiled by Vidyākara at Jaggadala toward the end of the 11th century or the beginning of the 12th.

DECLINE AND END

Śakyaśrībhadra, a Kashmiri scholar who was the last abbot of Nalanda
Nalanda
Mahavihara and instrumental in transmitting Buddhism to Tibet , is said to have fled to Tibet
Tibet
in 1204 from Jagaddala when Muslim incursions seemed imminent. Historian Sukumar Dutt tentatively placed the final destruction of Jagadala to 1207; in any case it seems to have been the last mahavihara to be overrun.

EXCAVATION AND UNESCO STATUS

In 1999 Jaggadala was submitted as tentative site for inclusion on the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. UNESCO reports that excavation has revealed "an extensive mound, 105 metres long by 85 metres, which represents the archaeological remains of a Buddhist monastery . . . finds have included terracotta plaques, ornamental bricks, nails, a gold ingot and three stone images of deities.

NOTES

* ^ A B Buddhist
Buddhist
Monks And Monasteries Of India: Their History And Contribution To Indian Culture. by Dutt, Sukumar. George Allen and Unwin Ltd, London 1962. pg 377 * ^ A B UNESCO World Heritage website * ^ A B http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Jagaddala_Mahavihara * ^ Vajrayoginī: Her Visualizations, Rituals border:solid #aaa 1px">

* India
India
portal

* Ancient universities of India
India

* v * t * e

Ancient Dharmic centres of higher learning

EARLY CENTRES OF LEARNING

* TAXILA * NALANDA * SOMAPURA * VIKRAMASHILA

FURTHER CENTRES OF LEARNING

* Bikrampur Vihara
Vihara
* Jagaddala Mahavihara * Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram
* Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics * Manyakheta * Nagarjunakonda
Nagarjunakonda
* Odantapuri * Pandit Vihara
Vihara
* Ratnagiri * Shalban Vihara
Vihara
* Sharada Peeth * Sunethradevi Pirivena * Vallabhi * Varanasi
Varanasi
* Vidyalankara Pirivena * Vidyodaya Pirivena * Vikramashila

* v * t * e

Places in Bengal
Bengal
that no longer exist

* Betor * Bikrampur (Bikrampur Vihara) * Chaityabhumi (Pandit Vihara) * Chandraketugarh * Devkot
Devkot
* Dihar * Gaur (Lakhsmanabati) * Gobindapur * Kalikata * Karnasubarna
Karnasubarna
* Mahasthangarh * Mainamati
Mainamati
(Shalban Vihara
Vihara
) * Moghalmari * Paharpur ( Somapura Mahavihara) (Halud Vihara
Vihara
) * Pandu Rajar Dhibi * Pandua * Saptagram
Saptagram
* Sonargaon
Sonargaon
* Sutanuti * Tamralipta * Varendra (Jagaddala Mahavihara) * Wari-Bateshwar

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(son) * Ānanda (cousin) * Devadatta (cousin)

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* Avidyā (Ignorance) * Bardo
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* Threefold Training

* Śīla * Samadhi * Prajñā

* Vīrya

* Four Right Exertions

NIRVANA

* Bodhi * Bodhisattva * Buddhahood * Pratyekabuddha
Pratyekabuddha

* Four stages of enlightenment

* Sotāpanna
Sotāpanna
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MONASTICISM

* Bhikkhu * Bhikkhuni * Śrāmaṇera * Śrāmaṇerī * Anagarika
Anagarika
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* Śrāvaka

* The ten principal disciples

* Shaolin Monastery

MAJOR FIGURES

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Khema
* Uppalavanna * Asita * Channa * Yasa * Buddhaghoṣa * Nagasena * Angulimala * Bodhidharma * Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
* Asanga * Vasubandhu * Atiśa
Atiśa
* Padmasambhava * Nichiren * Songtsen Gampo
Songtsen Gampo
* Emperor Wen of Sui * Dalai Lama * Panchen Lama * Karmapa
Karmapa
* Shamarpa * Naropa
Naropa
* Xuanzang * Zhiyi
Zhiyi

TEXTS

* Tripiṭaka
Tripiṭaka
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Madhyamakālaṃkāra
* Mahayana sutras * Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
* Chinese Buddhist
Buddhist
canon * Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
canon

BRANCHES

* Theravada

* Mahayana

* Chan Buddhism

* Zen
Zen
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* Navayana

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Buddhist
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COUNTRIES

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India
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Tibet
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HISTORY

* Timeline * Ashoka * Buddhist
Buddhist
councils

* History of Buddhism in India
India

* Decline of Buddhism in India
India

* Great Anti- Buddhist
Buddhist
Persecution * Greco- Buddhism * Buddhism and the Roman world * Buddhism in the West * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism * Persecution of Buddhists * Banishment of Buddhist
Buddhist
monks from Nepal * Buddhist
Buddhist
crisis * Sinhalese Buddhist
Buddhist
nationalism * Buddhist
Buddhist
modernism * Vipassana movement
Vipassana movement
* 969 Movement * Women in Buddhism

PHILOSOPHY

* Abhidharma * Atomism * Buddhology * Creator * Economics * Eight Consciousnesses * Engaged Buddhism * Eschatology * Ethics * Evolution * Humanism * Logic * Reality * Secular Buddhism * Socialism * The unanswered questions

CULTURE

* Architecture

* Temple * Vihara
Vihara
* Wat
Wat
* Stupa * Pagoda
Pagoda
* Candi * Dzong architecture
Dzong architecture
* Japanese Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture * Korean Buddhist
Buddhist
temples * Thai temple art and architecture * Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
architecture

* Art

* Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist

* Bodhi Tree * Budai
Budai
* Buddharupa * Calendar * Cuisine * Funeral

* Holidays

* Vesak * Uposatha * Magha Puja * Asalha Puja * Vassa

* Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi * Kasaya * Mahabodhi Temple

* Mantra
Mantra

* Om mani padme hum
Om mani padme hum

* Mudra * Music

* Pilgrimage

* Lumbini
Lumbini
* Maya Devi Temple * Bodh Gaya * Sarnath
Sarnath
* Kushinagar

* Poetry * Prayer beads * Prayer wheel

* Symbolism

* Dharmachakra
Dharmachakra
* Flag * Bhavacakra
Bhavacakra
* Swastika
Swastika
* Thangka

* Temple of the Tooth * Vegetarianism

MISCELLANEOUS

* Abhijñā * Amitābha
Amitābha

* Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara

* Guanyin
Guanyin

* Brahmā * Dhammapada * Dharma
Dharma
talk * Hinayana * Kalpa * Koliya * Lineage * Maitreya
Maitreya
* Māra * Ṛddhi

* Sacred languages

* Pali
Pali
* Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* Siddhi * Sutra * Vinaya

COMPARISON

* Bahá\'í Faith

* Christianity

* Influences * Comparison

* East Asian religions * Gnosticism * Hinduism * Jainism * Judaism * Psychology * Science * Theosophy * Violence * Western philosophy

LISTS

* Bodhisattvas * Books

* Buddhas

* named

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* Category
Category
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Portal

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