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disputed Twelvers — Musa al-Kadhim Isma‘ilis — Isma‘il ibn Ja‘far Aftahis — Abdullah al-Aftah Shumattiyyah - Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq Ali
Ali
al-Uraidhi ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq

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Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram Hamīdah al-Barbariyyah[4]

Children

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Musa al-Kadhim Isma'il ibn Jafar Abdullah al-Aftah Ishaq ʿ Ali
Ali
al-Uraidhi Al-Abbas Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Dibaj Fātimah Umm Farwah Asmaa

Parent(s) Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Farwah bint al-Qasim

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Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (Arabic: جعفر بن محمد الصادق‎‎; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi
Hanafi
and Maliki
Maliki
schools of Sunni jurisprudence.[5] He was a descendant of Ali
Ali
on the side of his father, Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir, and of Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr
on the side of his mother, Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim. Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr
Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr
was raised by Ali, but was not his son.[6] Ali
Ali
used to say: " Muhammad
Muhammad
Ibn Abu Bakr is my son but from Abu Bakr's lineage".[7] Al-Sadiq is the 6th imam and recognized by all Shia
Shia
sects as an Imam, and is revered in traditional Sunnism
Sunnism
as a transmitter of Hadith, prominent jurist,[2] and mystic. Al-Sadiq was born in either 700 or 702 CE. He inherited the position of imam from his father in his mid-thirties. As imam, al-Sadiq stayed out of the political conflicts that embroiled the region, evading the many requests for support that he received from rebels. He was the victim of some harassment by the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs, and was eventually, according to most Shia
Shia
Muslims, poisoned at the orders of the Caliph al-Mansur. He was a significant figure in the formulation of Shia
Shia
doctrine. The traditions recorded from al-Sadiq are said to be more numerous than all hadiths recorded from all other Shia
Shia
imams combined.[8] As the founder of "Ja'fari jurisprudence", al-Sadiq also elaborated the doctrine of Nass (divinely inspired designation of each imam by the previous imam), and Ismah
Ismah
(the infallibility of the imams), as well as that of Taqiyyah.[9][10] The question of succession after al-Sadiq's death was the cause of division among Shias who considered his eldest son, Isma'il (who had died before his father) to be the next imam, and those who believed his third son Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
was the imam. The first group became known as the Ismailis and the second, larger, group was named Ja'fari or the Twelvers.[11][12]

Contents

1 Birth and early life 2 Imamate

2.1 Under the Umayyad
Umayyad
rulers 2.2 Under the Abbasid
Abbasid
rulers

3 Family life 4 Death 5 Succession 6 Religious views

6.1 Ja'fari school of law 6.2 Theology 6.3 Tafsir 6.4 Doctrine of Taqiyyah 6.5 Works

7 Selected quotations 8 His descendants according to Ismā'īlī Imāmah
Imāmah
doctrine 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Birth and early life[edit] Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
was born in Medina
Medina
either in 80/699–700 or 83/703–704. On his father's side he was a great-great grandson of Ali, the first Shia
Shia
imam. His mother, Farwah bint al-Qasim
Farwah bint al-Qasim
was a great-granddaughter of Abu Bakr. Al-Sadiq was the first of the Shia imams to be descended from both Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
the first ruler of the Rashidun Caliphate, and Ali, the first Shia
Shia
imam. However, Muhammad Ibn Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
believed that previous caliphs through taking over Muslims' monarchy had overridden Ali's right to rule while no one else was more worthy of the governing title than Ali
Ali
was. Also about Osman, He was convinced that he had weaseled out of God's commandments and the prophet's tradition.[13][14][15] During the first fourteen years of his life he lived alongside his grandfather Zayn al-Abedin, and witnessed the latter's withdrawal from politics. He also noted the respect that the famous jurists of Medina
Medina
held toward Zayn al-Abedin in spite of his few followers.[16][17] In his mother's house al-Sadiq also interacted with his grandfather Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr, who was respected by the people of Medina
Medina
as a famous traditionalist. During this period, Umayyad
Umayyad
power was at its climax, and the childhood of al-Sadiq was coincided with the growing interest of the people of Medina
Medina
in prophetic science and interpretations of the Quran.[17] Imamate[edit] See also: Imamah ( Shia
Shia
doctrine) Al-Sadiq was thirty four or thirty seven when he inherited the position of Imamah or imamate from his father Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir. He held the imamate for 28 years, longer than any other Shia
Shia
imam.[17] His Imamate was a crucial period in Islamic history for both political and doctrinal areas. Prior to al-Sadiq, the majority of Shias had preferred the revolutionary politics of Zaid (al-Sadiq's uncle) to the mystical quietism of al-Sadiq's father and grandfather.[2][17] Zaid had claimed that the position of an imam was conditional on his appearing publicly to claim his rights.[18][19] Al-Sadiq, on the other hand, elaborated the doctrine of Imamate, which says "Imamate is not a matter of human choice or self-assertion," but that each imam possesses a unique Ilm (knowledge) which qualifies him for the position. This knowledge was passed down from the prophet Muhammad through the line of Ali's immediate descendants. The doctrine of Nass or "divinely inspired designation of each imam by the previous imam", therefore, was completed by al-Sadiq.[a] In spite of being designated as the imam, al-Sadiq would hold, he would not lay claim to the Caliphate.[12][19] Under the Umayyad
Umayyad
rulers[edit] Al-Sadiq's Imamate extended over the latter half of the Umayyad Caliphate, which was marked by many revolts (mostly by Shia movements), and eventually the violent overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
by the Abbasids, decedents of Muhammad's uncle, Abbas. Al-Sadiq maintained his predecessors' policy of quietism, and played no part in the numerous rebellions. He stayed out of the uprising of Zaydits who gathered around al-Sadiq's uncle, Zayd, who had the support Mu'tazilites and the traditionalists of Medina
Medina
and Kufa.[17] Al-Sadiq also did not support the rebellion led by his cousin, Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya who was inspired by Kaysanites.[17] Al-Sadiq played no part in the Abbassid rebellion against the Umayyads.[2] His response to a message requesting help from Abu Muslim, the Khorasani leader of the uprising against Umayyads, became famous. al-Sadiq asked for a lamp and burned Abu Muslim's letter, saying to the envoy who brought it, "Tell your master what you have seen."[18] In burning Abû Muslim's letter he had also said, "This man is not one of my men, this time is not mine."[20] Al-Sadiq also evaded other requests for assistance to other claims to the throne, without advancing his own claims. He had said that even though he, as the designated imam, was the true leader of the Ummah, he would not press his claim to the caliphate.[12] Under the Abbasid
Abbasid
rulers[edit] The end of the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty and beginning of the Abbasid
Abbasid
was a period during which central authority was weak, allowing al-Sadiq to teach freely in a school which trained about four thousands students. Among these were Abū Ḥanīfa
Abū Ḥanīfa
and Malik ibn Anas, founder of two major Sunni
Sunni
schools of law, the Hanafiyah and the Malikiyah.[21][22][23] Wasil ibn Ata, founder of Mu`tazila
Mu`tazila
school, was also among his pupils. After the Abbasid
Abbasid
revolution had overthrown the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliphate, it turned against Shia
Shia
groups who had previously been its allies against the Umayyads. The new Abbasid
Abbasid
rulers, who had risen to power on the basis of their descent from Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, were suspicious of al-Sadiq, because Shias had always believed that leadership of the Ummah
Ummah
was a position issued by divine order, and which was given to each imam by the previous imam. In addition, al-Sadiq had a large following, both among scholars and among those who believed him to be the imam.[11] During rule of Al-Mansur, al-Sadiq was summoned to Baghdad
Baghdad
along with some other prominent men from Medina
Medina
in order for the Caliph to keep a close watch on them. al-Sadiq, however, asked the Caliph to excuse him from going there by reciting a hadith which said that "the man who goes away to make a living will achieve his purpose, but he who sticks to his family will prolong his life."[18] al-Mansur reportedly accepted his request. After the defeat and death of his cousin Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya in 762, however, al-Sadiq thought it advisable to obey al-Mansur's summons. After a short stay in Baghdad, however, he convinced the Caliph that he was not a threat, and was allowed to return to Medina.[2][9] Toward the end of his life, he was subject to some harassment by the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs. The governor of Medina
Medina
was instructed by the Caliph to burn down his house, an event which reportedly did al-Sadiq no harm.[b][18] To cut his ties with his followers, al-Sadiq was also watched closely and occasionally imprisoned.[11] Family life[edit] Al-Sadiq married Fatimah Al-Hasan, a descendant of Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali, with whom he had two sons, Isma'il ibn Jafar
Isma'il ibn Jafar
(the Ismaili sixth Imām) and Abdullah al-Aftah. Following his wife's death, al-Sadiq purchased a Berbery or Andalusian slave named Hamidah Khātūn (Arabic: حميدة خاتون‎), freed her, trained her as an Islamic scholar, and then married her. She bore him two more sons; Musa al-Kadhim
Musa al-Kadhim
(the seventh Twelver
Twelver
imam), and Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Dibaj. She was revered by the Shias, especially by women, for her wisdom. She was known as Hamidah the Pure. Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
used to send women to learn the tenets of Islam from her, said that "Hamidah is pure from every impurity like the ingot of pure gold."[24] Imam Ja‘far also had a son called 'Is-haq', who reportedly married Sayyidah Nafisah bint Al-Hasan. Nafisah was a descendant of Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali, and teacher of Sunni
Sunni
Imam Ash-Shafi‘i.[25][26][27] Death[edit]

The historical tomb of Al-Baqi'
Al-Baqi'
was destroyed in 1926. Ja'far al-Sadiq was one of four Shia
Shia
imams buried here.

Al-Sadiq was arrested several times by Umayyad
Umayyad
and Abbasid
Abbasid
caliphs Hisham, Saffah, and Mansur. According to some sources[c] he was poisoned through at the behest of Mansur in 148/765 at the age of 64 or 65, leading to uncertainty about the future of the Imamate.[2][8] He was buried in Medina, in the famous Jannatul Baqee
Jannatul Baqee
cemetery, and his tomb was a place of pilgrimage until 1926. The Wahhabis conquered Medina
Medina
for the second time in 1925, and razed many tombs to the ground, with the exception of Muhammad's tomb.[28] According to Tabatabai upon hearing the news of al-Sadiq's death, Mansur wanted to put an end to the Imamate. Mansur reportedly wrote to the governor of Medina, commanding him to read the imam's testament, and to behead the person named in it as the future imam. However, the governor found that al-Sadiq had chosen four people rather than one: Mansur himself, the governor, the imam's oldest son Abdullah al-Aftah, and Musa al-Kazim, his younger son.[8] Succession[edit] The Shia
Shia
group had begun to split during the lifetime of al-Sadiq, when his eldest son Isma'il ibn Jafar
Isma'il ibn Jafar
predeceased him. His death occurred in the presence of many witnesses.[8] After the death of Ja'far al-Sadiq, his following fractured further, with the larger group, who came to be known as the Twelvers, following his younger son Musa al-Kadhim. Another group believed instead that Isma'il had been designated as the next imam, and that since he had predeceased his father, the imamate had passed to Isma'il's son Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismail and his descendants. This latter group became known as the Isma'ilis. Some Isma'ilis believe that Isma'il had not actually died, but would reappear as Mahdi, the rejuvenator of Islam in the Shia
Shia
doctrine. Still other groups accepted either Abdullah al-Aftah or Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
(Al-Dibaj), both sons of the Ja'far al-Sadiq, as the imam. A final group believed that al-Sadiq had been the last imam, and that the lineage had not continued. After the death of Musa al-Kazim, the majority of his followers recognized his son Ali
Ali
al-Ridha as the eighth imam, while others believed that al-Kazim had been the last imam. This latter group became known as the Waqifiyah. No major divisions occurred in Shiaism from the eighth to the twelfth imam, whom the majority of the Shia
Shia
(Twelvers) considered to be Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi. Among the sects which separated from the majority, only Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah
and Ismaili
Ismaili
continue to exist today.[2][8][9][11][12][19][29] Religious views[edit] Al-Sadiq religious views are recorded as authority in the writing of number of contradictory positions. The use of his name as an authority within the Sufi, scientific, Sunni
Sunni
legal, Ismaili
Ismaili
and extremist writings shows his importance as a figure within the development of early Muslim thought.[30] According to Ya'qubi it was customary for anyone who wanted to relate a tradition from him to say "the Learned One informed us". Malik ibn Anas, when quoting anything from al-Sadiq, would say "The Thiqa (truthful) Ja'far b. Muhammad
Muhammad
himself told me that…" the same is reported from Abu Hanifa.[11][17] The works attributed to him may be of dubious authenticity, but they do establish his name at least as indicating a mastery of learning generally, and the Islamic sciences in particular.[30] Though most groups wished to recruit al-Sadiq's legacy for their own cause, the most extensive source for his teachings is to be found within the imami Shia
Shia
tradition. For Twelver
Twelver
Shias Ja'far al-Ṣadiq is the sixth imam who established the Shiism as serious intellectual force in the late Umayyad
Umayyad
and early Abbasid
Abbasid
periods.[30] According to Tabatabai the number of traditions left behind by al-Sadiq and his father were more than all the hadiths recorded from Muhammad
Muhammad
and all the other Shia imams combined.[8] Shia
Shia
thought starting with Sayyid Haydar Amuli, and leading to Safavid philosophers like Mir Damad, Mulla Sadra
Mulla Sadra
and Qazi Sa’id Qumi continuing to the present day is based on Shia
Shia
imam's tradition specially al-Sadiq.[10] Ja'fari school of law[edit] Shia
Shia
jurisprudence became known as Ja'fari jurisprudence
Ja'fari jurisprudence
after Ja'far al-Sadiq, whose legal dicta were the most important source of Shia law. Like Sunni
Sunni
law, Ja'fari jurisprudence
Ja'fari jurisprudence
is based on the Quran
Quran
and the Hadith, and also based on the consensus (Ijma). Unlike the Sunnis, Shias give more weight to reasoning ('Aql), while Sunnis only allow for a kind of analogical reasoning (Qiyas).[19][30][31] Al-Sadiq is presented as one who denounces personal opinion (Raʾy) and analogical reasoning (qiās) of his contemporaries arguing that God’s law is occasional and unpredictable, and that the servants' duty is not to embark on reasoning in order to discover the law, but to submit to the inscrutable will of God as revealed by the imam.[30] In his book Maqbula Omar ibn Ḥanẓala (who was a disciple of al-Sadiq) asks the imam how legal disputes within the community should be solved, and whether one should take such cases to the ruler (Sultan) and his judges. Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
replies in the negative saying that those who take their disputes to the rulers and their judges get only soḥt (unlawful decision). Instead al-Sadiq recommends an unofficial system of justice for the community, and that the disputants should turn to "those who relate our [i.e., the imams'] Hadiths". The reason for this is that the imams have "made such a one a judge (ḥākem) over you."[30] Theology[edit] Ja'far al-Sadiq's view on theology is transmitted through Mufazzel who recorded his own questions and al-Sadiq's answers in a book known as Ketab al-Tawhid in which al-Sadiq gives proofs as the unity of God. This book is considered identical to the Ketāb al-ehlilaja which is a reply to Mufazzel's request from al-Sadiq for a refutation of those who deny God. Hesham ibn Ḥakam (d. 179/796) is another famous student of the imam who proposed a number of doctrines that later became orthodox Shia
Shia
theology, including the rational necessity of the divinely guided imam in every age to teach and lead God's community.[30] Al-Sadiq is attributed with the statement: "Whoever claims that God has ordered evil, has lied about God. Whoever claims that both good and evil are attributed to him, has lied about God". This view which is accordance with that of Mu'tazilite doctrine seems to absolve God from the responsibility for evil in the world. Al-Sadiq says that God does not "order created beings to do something without providing for them a means of not doing it, though they do not do it, or not do it without God's permission". Al-Sadiq expressed a moderate view between compulsion (Jabr), and giving the choice to man (Tafviz), stating that God decreed some things absolutely, but left some others to human agency. This assertion was widely adopted afterwards and was called "al-amr bayn al-amrayn" which meant" neither predestination nor delegation but a position between the two."[9][18] Al-Ṣadiq's view therefore is recorded as supporting either position as it is reported in an exchange between him and an unknown interlocutor. The interlocutor asks if God forces his servants to do evil or whether he has delegated power to them. Al-Sadiq's answers negatively to both questions. When asked "What then?" he replies, "The blessings of your Lord are between these two".[30] Tafsir[edit] The works attributed to Jafar al-Sadiq in Tafsir
Tafsir
(Quranic exegesis) are mostly described as the Sufi-mystical works such as "Tafsir al-Qorʾān", "Manāfeʿ ṣowar al-Qorʾān" and "ḴawāsÂs al-Qorʾān al-aʿẓam". The attribution of these works to al-Sadiq, however, is suspected. In his books Ḥaqāʾeq al-tafsir and Ziādāt Ḥaqāʾeq al-tafsir, ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Solami cites al-Ṣadiq as one of his major (if not the major) source of knowledge concerning the meaning of Quranic verses.[30] "Ketāb al-jafr", an early mystical commentary on the Quran
Quran
(Tafsir), is also attributed to al-Sadiq.[11][30] According to Ibn Khaldun, it was originally written on the skin of a young bull, allowing the imam to reveal the hidden meaning of the Quran.[32] al-Sadiq is said to have proposed a fourfold model of Quran
Quran
interpretation. He said that "The Book of God comprises four things: the statement set down , the implied purport, the hidden meanings, relating to the supra-sensible world, and the exalted spiritual doctrines." He said that the plain meanings were for the common people; the hidden meanings for the elite; the implied meanings for the "friends of god;" and the "exalted spiritual doctrines" were the "province of the prophets."[29] He stated that Hadith, or traditional sayings of the Prophet, should be rejected if they contradicted the Quran.[9] Doctrine of Taqiyyah[edit] See also: Taqiyyah Al-Sadiq adopted Taqiyyah
Taqiyyah
as a defensive tool against the violence and threats that were directed against him and the Shias.[2][19] Taqiyya was a form of religious dissimulation,[33] or a legal dispensation whereby a believing individual can deny their faith while they are in fear or at risk of significant persecution.[34] In other words, Taqiyya says that it is acceptable to hide one's true opinions if by revealing them, one puts oneself or others in danger.[11] The doctrine was developed by al-Sadiq, and served to protect the Shias when Al-Mansur, the Abbasid
Abbasid
caliph, conducted a brutal and oppressive campaign against Alids
Alids
and their supporters.[33] According to Moezzi, in the early sources Taqiyya means "the keeping or safeguarding of the secrets of the Imams' teaching." "Divergence of traditions" is, therefore, sometimes justified by Shia
Shia
imams as a result of the need for using Taqiyya. "He who is certain that we [the imams] proclaim only the truth (Al-Haqq), may he be satisfied with our teaching," asserts al-Sadiq; "and if he hears us say something contradictory to what he heard earlier, he should know that we are acting only in his own interest."[20] Practicing Taqiyya also had an esoteric significance for those who believed that their teachings should not be comprehensible to ordinary Ulama, and so hid their more profound teachings.[12] Works[edit] According to Haywood half a dozen religious works bear al-Sadiq's name as author, though none of them can be firmly described as being written by al-Ṣadiq. It is probable that al-Sadiq was an author who left the writing to his students. The alchemist, Geber, for example, suggested that some of his works are "little more than records of Jaʿfar's teaching or summaries of hundreds of monographs written by him."[9][18][19][32] Ja'far Al-Sadiq is also cited in a wide range of historical sources, including al-Tabari, al-Yaqubi and Al-Masudi. Al-Dhahabi recognizes his contribution to Sunni
Sunni
tradition and Isma'ili scholars such as Qadi al-Nu'man[35] recorded his traditions in their work.[36] Ketāb al-jafr is a commentary on the Quran
Quran
which, according to Ibn Khaldun, was first written on the skin of a young bull, which allowed al-Sadiq to reveal the hidden meaning of the Quran.[32] Various versions of his will, and a number of collections of legal dicta, are attributed to him as well. There are many reports attributed to him in the early Shia
Shia
Hadith
Hadith
collections such as Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni's Kitab al-Kafi, where they are featured as central sources of Imami doctrine.[2] "Al-haft wa'l-aẓella" and "Ketāb al-ṣerāṭ" which are containing "secret revelations" to Mofażżal are also attributed to al-Sadiq, and had an important role in the elaboration of the esoteric doctrine of the Nosayris, for whom al-Ṣadiq is an influential figure.[2] Selected quotations[edit]

This article contains too many or too-lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. Please help improve the article by presenting facts as a neutrally-worded summary with appropriate citations. Consider transferring direct quotations to Wikiquote. (October 2017)

"The most perfect of men in intellect is the best of them in ethics."[37] "Whoever attacks a matter without knowledge cuts off his own nose."[37] "To forbid generosity is mistrust in Allah."[37] "Three (things) with which Allah does not increase the Muslim person but glory: To forgive him who wrongs him; to give him who deprives him, to visit him who abandons him."[37] "(Religious) scholars are the trustees of prophets unless they come to the doors of supreme rulers."[37] "The richest riche is he who is not captive for greed."[37] "Nothing is better than silence, no enemy is more harmful than ignorance, and no illness is more dangerous than telling lies."[37] "Verily, envy eats belief as fire eats wood."[37] "Three (things) cause affection: Religion, modesty, and generosity … three (things) cause hatred: hypocrisy, self-admiration, and oppression."[37] "Charity is the Zakat
Zakat
(alms) of blessings, intercession is the Zakat of dignity, illnesses are the Zakat
Zakat
of bodies, forgiveness is the Zakat
Zakat
of victory, and the thing whose Zakat
Zakat
is paid is safe from taking (by Allah)."[37] "If the ill- natured (person) knows that he tortures himself, he will be tolerant in his manners."[37] "He who answers all that he is asked, surely is mad."[37] "Whomsoever God removes from the degradation of sin to the exaltation of piety, he it is whom God makes rich without property and noble without the help of family."[18] "Whoever fears God, God makes all things fear him; and whoever does not fear God, God makes him fear all things."[18] "Allah Almighty has said: people are dear to me like family. Therefore, the best of them is the one who is nicer to others and does his best to resolve their needs."[38] "One of the deeds Allah Almighty appreciates the most is making his pious servants happy. This can be done through fulfilling their hunger, sweeping away their sorrows, or paying off their debts."[39]

His descendants according to Ismā'īlī Imāmah
Imāmah
doctrine[edit] See also: Imāmah
Imāmah
and Imamah ( Ismaili
Ismaili
doctrine)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jāʿfar al-Sādiq (Imamāh‘Shi'ā)

 

Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Aftāh (Aftāhīyyah)

 

Ismā‘il (Ismā‘il’īyyah)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad

 

Muhammed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Wafi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

At-Tāqī

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ar-Rāḍī

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mahdi
Mahdi
Billāh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fatimids
Fatimids
(Ismailism)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Qā'im

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Mansur

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Mu'izz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Aziz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Hakim

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Az-Zahir

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Mustansir

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nizār al-Muṣṭafá (Nizārīyyah)

 

Muhammed

 

Al-Mustā‘lī (Mustā‘līyyah)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Āmīr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alamut
Alamut
Castle (Hassasins)

 

Al-Hāfeez (Ḥāfīzīyyah)

 

 

Aṭ-Ṭāyyīb (Ṭāyyībīyyah)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-Zāfīr

 

Yūssuf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nizārī Imāmah

 

 

Al-Fā'īz

 

 

Taiyabi Dā'ĩs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Al-'Āḍīd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nizārī Ismāilism

 

 

 

 

 

Dawoodi Dā'ĩs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See also[edit]

Shia Islam
Shia Islam
portal Islam portal

Imamah ( Shia
Shia
doctrine) Imamate ( Twelver
Twelver
doctrine) Qasim ibn Hasan Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah List of extinct Shia
Shia
sects Musa al-Kadhim Isma'il ibn Jafar

Notes[edit]

^ Sunni
Sunni
sources, however, claim that doctrines such as the Imamate were formulated many years after al-Sadiq and wrongly ascribed to him.[19] ^ The Shias consider this event as a miraculous escape from the fire by their Imam, who is said "boldly stamped on the flames, exclaiming "I am of the sons of Isma'il. I am a son of Ibrahim, the Friend of God," whom the Quran
Quran
represents as having escaped the fire in safety. Quran, 21:69 ^ al-Fusul al-muhimmah, p.212; Dala’il al-imamah, p.lll: Ithbat al-wasiyah, p.142.

References[edit]

^ Gleaves, Robert. "JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ i. Life". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2015.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) According to Gleaves, most sources give 702 as the year of his birth, but there are some which give 699 and others which give 705. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gleaves, Robert. "JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ i. Life". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2015.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ a b c A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 123. ISBN 964-438-127-0.  ^ A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 131. ISBN 964-438-127-0.  ^ Dissent on Core Beliefs: Religious and Secular Perspectives, Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 142  ^ علامه مجلسی. بحارالانوار. 47. p. 5.  ^ ابن ابی الحدید. شرح نهج البلاغه. 6. p. 53.  ^ a b c d e f Tabatabai, Sayyid Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn (1997). Shi'ite Islam. Translated by Seyyed Hossein Nasr. SUNY press. pp. 68–69,179–181. ISBN 0-87395-272-3.  ^ a b c d e f Haywood, John A. "Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2015.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ a b Tabåatabåa'åi, Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn (1981). A Shi'ite Anthology. Selected and with a Foreword by Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn Tabataba'i; Translated with Explanatory Notes by William Chittick; Under the Direction of and with an Introduction by Hossein Nasr. State University of New York Press. pp. 9–11, 42–43. ISBN 9780585078182.  ^ a b c d e f g Campo, Juan E. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam (Encyclopedia of World Religions). USA: Facts on File. pp. 386, 652, 677. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1.  ^ a b c d e Armstrong, Karen (2002). Islam, A Short History. Modern Library; Rev Upd Su edition. pp. 56–57, 66. ISBN 978-0812966183.  ^ شیخ مفید. الجمل والنصرة سید العترة فی حرب البصرة. قم: دفتر تبلیغات اسلامی. p. 162.  ^ ابن ابی الحدید. شرح نهج البلاغه. 2. p. 92.  ^ بلاذری, احمد بن یحیی. انساب الاشراف. 2. مؤسسه الاعلمی ‌‌للمطبوعات. p. 394.  ^ Lalani, Arzina R. (March 9, 2001). Early Shi'i Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Baqir. I. B. Tauris. p. 31,78. ISBN 978-1860644344.  ^ a b c d e f g Jafri, Syed Husain Mohammad (2002). The Origins and Early Development of Shi’a Islam; Chapter 10. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195793871.  ^ a b c d e f g h Donaldson, Dwight M. (1933). The Shi'ite Religion: A History of Islam in Persia and Irak. BURLEIGH PRESS. pp. 115,130–141.  ^ a b c d e f g Martin, Richard C. (2003). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World, A-Z. Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 369, 625. ISBN 978-0028656038.  ^ a b Moezzi, Mohammad Ali
Ali
Amir (1994). The Divine Guide in Early Shi'ism : The Sources of Esotericism in Islam. State University of New York Press. pp. 64–65,139. ISBN 9780585069722.  ^ Phyllis G. Jestice, Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1, p 415. ISBN 1576073556 ^ Ludwig W. Adamec, Historical Dictionary of Islam, p 12. ISBN 0810863030 ^ Umar F. Abd-Allah, Mālik and Medina: Islamic Legal Reasoning in the Formative Period, p 44. ISBN 9004247882 ^ Rizvi, Sayyid Saeed Akhtar (1988). Slavery, from Islamic & Christian perspectives (2nd (rev.) ed., 1988. ed.). Richmond, B.C.: Vancouver Islamic Educational Foundation. ISBN 0-920675-07-7.  ^ "Nafisa at-Tahira". www.sunnah.org.  ^ Zayn Kassam and Bridget Blomfield "Remembering Fatima and Zaynab: Gender in Perspective", in "The Shi'i World", edited by Farhad Daftory. I.B Tauris Press 2015 ^ Aliyah, Zainab. "Great Women in Islamic History: A Forgotten Legacy". Young Muslim Digest. Retrieved 18 February 2015.  ^ Adamec, Ludwig W. (2002). The A to Z of Islam. Scarecrow Press; Revised edition. p. 53. ISBN 978-0810845053.  ^ a b Corbin, Henry (2001). The History of Islamic Philosophy. Translated by Liadain Sherrard with the assistance of Philip Sherrard. London and New York: Kegan Paul International. p. 6,31.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gleaves, Robert. "JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ ii. Teachings". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2015.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Sharif, Mian Mohammad (1966). History of Muslim Philosophy, Vol 2. Germany: Allgauer Heimatverlag GmbH. pp. 906–907.  ^ a b c De Smet, Daniel. "Ja'far al-Ṣadiq iv. And Esoteric sciences". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2015.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ a b Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam. Yale University Press. pp. 39, 183. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5.  ^ Stewart, Devin, "Islam in Spain after the Reconquista", Teaching Materials, The Hagop Kevorkian Center for Near Eastern Studies at New York University, retrieved 6 August 2012  ^ Madelung, W., The Sources of Ismāīlī Law, The University of Chicago Press, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan., 1976), pp. 29-40 ^ Meri, Josef W. "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia". Routledge, NY. 2005, p 409 ISBN 978-0-415-96690-0 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l al-Husayn al-Muzaffar, Mohammed (1998). Imam Al-Sadiq. Translated by Jasim al-Rasheed. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. pp. 165–166, 230–247. ISBN 964-438-011-8.  ^ Muhammadi Reishahri, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2010). Mizan al-Hikmah. 2. Qum: Dar al-Hadith. p. 433.  ^ Muhammadi Reishahri, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2010). Mizan al-Hikmah. 2. Qum: Dar al-Hadith. p. 435. 

Further reading[edit]

Muhammed Al-Husain Al-Mudaffar, Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. Sayyid Mahdi
Mahdi
as-Sadr, THE AHLUL-BAYT Ethical Role-Models. Mohammad Hussein il Adeeb, The Brief History of the Fourteen Infallibales. Fahd, Toufic (1968), "Ğa'far aṣ-Ṣâdiq et la Tradition Scientifique Arabe [Ja'far aṣ-Ṣâdiq and the Arabic Scientific Tradition]", in Fahd, Toufic, Le Shî'isme Imâmite. Colloque de Strasbourg (6–9 mai 1968) (in French), Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, pp. 131–142 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote
Wikiquote
has quotations related to: Ja'far al-Sadiq

" Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
(Encyclopædia Iranica)".  Ja'far ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
(Encyclopædia Britannica) Imam al-Sadiq by Shaykh Mohammed al-Husayn al-Muzaffar Tawheed al-Mufadhdhal – as dictated by Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq to Al-Mufadhdhal

Ja'far al-Sadiq of the Ahl al-Bayt Banu Hashim Clan of the Quraysh Born: 17 Rabī‘ al-Awwal 83 AH ≈ 24 April 702 CE Died: 15th Shawwāl 148 AH ≈ 8 December 765 CE

Shia Islam
Shia Islam
titles

Preceded by Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir 6th Imam of Shia
Shia
Islam 743–765 Succeeded by Musa al-Kadhim Twelver
Twelver
successor

Succeeded by Isma'il ibn Jafar Ismaili
Ismaili
successor

Succeeded by Abdullah al-Aftah Fathite
Fathite
successor

v t e

Shia
Shia
Imams

Twelver

Ali Hasan ibn Ali Husayn Ibn Ali Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Ja'far al-Sadiq Musa al-Kadhim Ali
Ali
al-Ridha Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Jawad Ali
Ali
al-Hadi Hasan al-Askari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi

Tayyibi

Ali
Ali
("Asās" or "Wāsih" of Nabi Muhammad)

Hasan Husayn al-Sajjad al-Baqir Jafar al-Sādiq Ismā'il Muhammad Abadullāh (Wāfi Ahmad) Ahmad (Tāqi Muhammad) Husayn (Rādhi Abdullāh) Abdullah al-Mahdi Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Qā'im Ismāʿīl al-Mansur Ma'ādd al-Mu'izz Nizār al-Aziz Mansur al-Hākim Ali
Ali
az-Zāhir Ma'ādd al-Mustansir Ahmad al-Mustāʿli Mansur al-Amir Abu'l-Qāsim at-Tāyyib

Nizari

Ali Husayn ibn Ali Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Ja'far al-Sadiq Isma'il ibn Jafar Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma'il Ahmad al-Wafi Muhammad
Muhammad
at-Taqi Abdullah ar-Radi Abdullah al- Mahdi
Mahdi
Billah al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah al-Mansur Billah Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah Al-Aziz Billah Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah Ali
Ali
az-Zahir al-Mustansir Billah Nizar al-Hādī al-Mutadī al-Qāhir Hassan II Nur al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
II Jalaluddin Hasan ‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Muḥammad III Rukn al-Din Khurshah Shamsu-d-Dīn Muḥammad Qāsim Shāh Islām Shāh Muḥammad ibn Islām Shāh al-Mustanṣir billāh II ʿAbdu s-Salām Shāh Gharīb Mīrzā Abū Dharr ʻAlī Murād Mīrzā Dhū-l-Fiqār ʻAlī Nūru d-Dīn ʻAlī Khalīlullāh II ʻAlī Nizār II as-Sayyid ʻAlī Ḥasan ʻAlī Qāsim ʻAlī Abū-l-Hasan ʻAlī Shāh Khalīlullāh III Aga Khan
Aga Khan
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Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni
Sunni
books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
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al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

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Abdal – Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia
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Islam

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List of extinct Shia
Shia
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Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
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Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
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Ghulat

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Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

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Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

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Haruriyyah

v t e

Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam

Alchemists

7th century

Khālid ibn Yazīd

8th century

Harbi al-Himyari Ja'far al-Sadiq

9th century

Jābir ibn Hayyān Al-Kindi Abbas ibn Firnas Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri Ziryab Dhul-Nun al-Misri

10th century

Ibn Wahshiyya Muhammed ibn Umail al-Tamimi Al-Zahrawi Al-Razi Al-Farabi Ibn al-Nadim Al-Majriti Abu Mansur Muwaffaq

11th century

Ibn al-Wafid Al-Bīrūnī Avicenna Al-Khwarizmi al-Khati Miskawayh Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis Ahmad ibn 'Imad al-Din

12th century

Al-Khazini Artephius Al-Tughrai Al-Nabarawi Abu'l Hasan ibn Arfa Ra'a Al-Jawbari Abu al-Salt

13th century

Ibn al-Baitar Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati Al-Kātibī Attar of Nishapur Al-Simawi Hasan al-Rammah Mansur al-Kamili

14th century

Ibn Rassam Al-Jaldaki Abul Ashba ibn Tammam

Concepts

Takwin Philosopher's stone Al-iksīr Alembic Athanor

Works

Kitab al-Kimya Kitab al-Sab'een

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100648969 LCCN: n84033098 ISNI: 0000 0001 1453 4634 GND: 118680900 SELIBR: 105531 SUDOC: 137254059 BNF: cb13769773b (da

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