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JACQUES SANTER (born 18 May 1937) is a Luxembourg
Luxembourg
politician who served as the 9th President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
from 1995 to 1999. He served as Finance Minister
Finance Minister
of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
from 1979 until 1989, and the 22nd Prime Minister of Luxembourg from 1984 to 1995, as a member of the Christian Social People\'s Party , which has been the leading party in the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
government since 1979. As Prime Minister of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
he also led the negotiations on the Single European Act , which effectively set aside the 20-year-old Luxembourg Compromise .

CONTENTS

* 1 Career

* 1.1 Presidency of the European Commission
European Commission
* 1.2 Later career

* 2 Honours * 3 See also * 4 References

CAREER

He graduated in 1959 from the Paris Institute of Political Studies , and received his doctorate in law in 1961. From 1972 to 1974 he was a junior minister in the government. From 1979 to 1984 he was Minister of Finance, Minister for Work and Minister for Social Security, under Pierre Werner , in the coalition government between the Christian Social People\'s Party (CSV) and the liberal Democratic Party .

After the general election of 1984 , Pierre Werner retired as Prime Minister and from political life in general, and Santer became the new Prime Minister. He and the CSV now formed a new coalition with the Luxembourg
Luxembourg
Socialist Workers\' Party (LSAP), which had come out of the elections as the second-largest party in the legislature, beating the Democratic Party into third place; the CSV remained the largest party. This CSV / LSAP coalition was to last until 1999.

On 10 November 1990 an article appeared in the newspaper vum Lëtzebuerger Vollek, which translates into "Five years of state secret - The bombing NATO
NATO
terror commando" that caused a parliament inquiry in which Santer was forced to reveal the existence of a stay-behind army in Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and being politically responsible to call for its dissolution. The organisation was active since its creation by the then prime minister Pierre Werner in 1959 and was organised by the secret service of Luxembourg, the Service de Renseignement de l\'Etat (SREL) and coordinated by the NATO
NATO
. On 17 December 1990 he told the constitutional committee the organisation had never more than 12 members and was only foreseen to handle intelligence operations, as well as escape and evasion manoeuvers. There were weapons caches established in 1973, but direct access would not have been granted, according to Santer. On 14 October 1990 the remaining members of the organisation were informed and requested to return their radio communication equipment.

PRESIDENCY OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION

Santer became the ninth President of the European Commission
President of the European Commission
in 1995 as a compromise choice between the United Kingdom and a Franco-German alliance, after the Franco-German
Franco-German
nominee Jean-Luc Dehaene was vetoed by British prime minister John Major
John Major
. Santer selection was barely ratified by a European Parliament
European Parliament
upset with the process for which Commission presidents are selected.

In the same year, 1995, Santer became the first recipient of the Vision for Europe Award .

Allegations of corruption concerning individual EU-commissioners led to an investigation into administrative failings (incompetence and malpractice) by an independent group of experts . Despite clearing most commissioners, the report stated that they had not found a single person showing the slightest sense of responsibility. Because the implicated commissioners refused to resign and because the President of the European Commission
European Commission
did not have the power to dismiss individual commissioners, Santer and his entire commission resigned on 15 March 1999, the very day of the report's publication (see Santer Commission: Resignation ).

LATER CAREER

From 1999 until 2004, Santer was a member of the European Parliament . He also was on General Mediterranean Holdings ' board, a financial holding owned by Anglo-Iraqi Nadhmi Auchi .

He is currently President of Group Europe, a member section of the Union of European Federalists
Union of European Federalists
. He also sits on the board of directors of RTL Group , an international TV broadcasting and production company.

On Monday 23 January 2012, Jacques Santer
Jacques Santer
was appointed to head the board of the Special
Special
Purpose Investment Vehicle (SPIV), which is designed to boost the firepower of the European Financial Stability Facility , the eurozone rescue fund.

In May 2013, Santer became Honorary Member of SME Europe , the official pro-business organisation of the European People\'s Party .

HONOURS

* Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun
Order of the Rising Sun
(2015) * Golden Medal for Merit to Culture – Gloria Artis (2008)

SEE ALSO

* List of Prime Ministers of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
* Santer-Poos Ministry I * Santer-Poos Ministry II * Santer-Poos Ministry III * Santer Commission
Santer Commission

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D Thewes, Guy. "Les gouvernements du Grand-Duché depuis 1848." Service information et presse. Luxembourg: Imprimerie Centrale, 2011. * ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20140201191218/http://www.revue.lu/dossier-bommeleeer/verbrechen-im-namen-des-staates/. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. Missing or empty title= (help ) * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-02-06. , retrieved 9 May 2013 (German) * ^ "Luxemburgs Schattenkämpfer: Der Santer-Bericht zu "Stay behind"". Luxemburger Wort (in German). 25 March 2012. * ^ "Europe\'s presidential race: the form", The Economist, 11 June 1998, retrieved 16 September 2009 * ^ McCormick, John (2004), The European Union: Politics and Policies * ^ " Union of European Federalists
Union of European Federalists
(UEF): Groupe Europe". www.federalists.eu. Retrieved 2015-12-07. * ^ "EU draws fire over Santer return to EU post". Reuters UK. 24 January 2012.

POLITICAL OFFICES

Preceded by Jacques Poos
Jacques Poos
MINISTER FOR FINANCES 1979–1989 Succeeded by Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker

Preceded by Pierre Werner PRIME MINISTER OF LUXEMBOURG 1984–1995 Succeeded by Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker

Preceded by Jacques Delors
Jacques Delors
PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION 1995–1999 Succeeded by Manuel Marín
Manuel Marín

PARTY POLITICAL OFFICES

Preceded by Nicolas Mosar PRESIDENT OF THE CSV 1974–1982 Succeeded by Jean Spautz

* v * t * e

Prime Ministers of Luxembourg
Luxembourg

* Gaspard-Théodore-Ignace de la Fontaine * Jean-Jacques Willmar * Charles-Mathias Simons * Baron de Tornaco * Emmanuel Servais * Baron de Blochausen * Édouard Thilges * Paul Eyschen
Paul Eyschen
* Mathias Mongenast * Hubert Loutsch * Victor Thorn * Léon Kauffman * Émile Reuter * Pierre Prüm * Joseph Bech * Pierre Dupong * Joseph Bech * Pierre Frieden * Pierre Werner * Gaston Thorn
Gaston Thorn
* Pierre Werner * Jacques Santer * Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker
* Xavier Bettel

* v * t * e

Presidents of the European Council
European Council

President-in-Office (1975–2009)

* Liam Cosgrave * Aldo Moro
Aldo Moro
* Gaston Thorn
Gaston Thorn
* Joop den Uyl
Joop den Uyl
* James Callaghan
James Callaghan
* Leo Tindemans * Anker Jørgensen
Anker Jørgensen
* Helmut Schmidt * Valéry Giscard d\'Estaing * Jack Lynch * Francesco Cossiga * Charles Haughey * Pierre Werner * Dries van Agt
Dries van Agt
* Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
* Wilfried Martens * Anker Jørgensen
Anker Jørgensen
* Poul Schlüter
Poul Schlüter
* Helmut Kohl
Helmut Kohl
* Andreas Papandreou
Andreas Papandreou
* François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
* Garret FitzGerald * Bettino Craxi
Bettino Craxi
* Jacques Santer * Ruud Lubbers
Ruud Lubbers
* Wilfried Martens * Felipe González
Felipe González
* François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
* Giulio Andreotti * Ruud Lubbers
Ruud Lubbers
* Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
* John Major
John Major
* Poul Nyrup Rasmussen * Jean-Luc Dehaene * Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
* Felipe González
Felipe González
* Lamberto Dini * Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
* John Bruton * Wim Kok * Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker
* Tony Blair
Tony Blair
* Viktor Klima * Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
* Paavo Lipponen
Paavo Lipponen
* António Guterres
António Guterres
* Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
* Göran Persson
Göran Persson
* Guy Verhofstadt
Guy Verhofstadt
* José María Aznar
José María Aznar
López * Anders Fogh Rasmussen * Costas Simitis
Costas Simitis
* Silvio Berlusconi
Silvio Berlusconi
* Bertie Ahern * Jan Peter Balkenende * Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker
* Tony Blair
Tony Blair
* Wolfgang Schüssel
Wolfgang Schüssel
* Matti Vanhanen
Matti Vanhanen
* Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
* José Sócrates
José Sócrates
* Janez Janša * Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
* Mirek Topolánek * Jan Fischer * Fredrik Reinfeldt
Fredrik Reinfeldt

Permanent President (since 2009)

* Herman Van Rompuy
Herman Van Rompuy
* Donald Tusk

* v * t * e

Presidents of the European Commission
European Commission

HIGH AUTHORITY OF THE COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY (1952–1967)

* Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
(1952–55 ) * René Mayer (1955–58 ) * Paul Finet (1958–59 ) * Piero Malvestiti (1959–63 ) * Rinaldo Del Bo (1963–67 ) * Acting: Albert Coppé (1967 )

COMMISSION OF THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMUNITY (1958–1967)

* Louis Armand (1958–59 ) * Étienne Hirsch (1959–62 ) * Pierre Chatenet (1962–67 )

COMMISSION OF THE ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (1958–1967)

* Walter Hallstein
Walter Hallstein
(1958–67 )

COMMISSION OF THE COMMUNITIES (1967–2009)

* Jean Rey (1967–70 ) * Franco Maria Malfatti (1970–72 ) * Sicco Mansholt (1972–73 ) * François-Xavier Ortoli
François-Xavier Ortoli
(1973–77 ) * Roy Jenkins
Roy Jenkins
(1977–81 ) * Gaston Thorn
Gaston Thorn
(1981–85 ) * Jacques Delors
Jacques Delors
(1985–95 ) * Jacques Santer
Jacques Santer
(1995–99 ) * Acting: Manuel Marín
Manuel Marín
(1999 ) * Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
(1999–2004 ) * José Manuel Barroso
José Manuel Barroso
(2004–9 )

COMMISSION (2009–PRESENT)

* José Manuel Barroso
José Manuel Barroso
(2009–14 ) * Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker
(2014–present )

* Commission President * President of the European Council
President of the European Council
* Council Presidency * President of the European Parliament
European Parliament

* v * t * e

European People\'s Party (EPP)

Parliamentary group: European People\'s Party Group

PARTIES

MEMBER PARTIES (EU )

* ÖVP * cdH * CDborder-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* VMRO - DPMNE/ВМРО - ДПМНЕ * H * SNS * CVP-PDC-PPD-PCD

OBSERVER PARTIES

* PD * HHK/ՀՀԿ * OEK/ՕԵԿ * Heritage/Ժառանգություն * BNF/БНФ * AHP/АГП * HDZ BiH * PDP * SDA * HDZ 1990 * KD * ENM/ენმ * LDK * SVP * PATT * PLDM * KrF * PDCS * VMSZ * Batkivshchyna/Батьківщина * NRU/НРУ * UDAR/УДАР

PARTY PRESIDENTS

* Leo Tindemans * Piet Bukman * Jacques Santer * Wilfried Martens * Joseph Daul
Joseph Daul

European Parliament Group Presidents

* Maan Sassen * Pierre Wigny
Pierre Wigny
* Alain Poher * Joseph Illerhaus * Hans Lücker * Alfred Bertrand * Egon Klepsch * Paolo Barbi * Egon Klepsch * Leo Tindemans * Wilfried Martens * Hans-Gert Pöttering * Joseph Daul
Joseph Daul
* Manfred Weber
Manfred Weber
* SEE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT

EUROPEAN COMMISSIONERS

* José Manuel Barroso
José Manuel Barroso
(President) * Andris Piebalgs
Andris Piebalgs
(Development) * Jyrki Katainen (Economic and Monetary Affairs and the Euro) * Michel Barnier (Internal Market and Services) * Algirdas Šemeta (Taxation and Customs Union, Audit and Anti-Fraud) * Tonio Borg (Health and Consumer Policy) * Jacek Dominik (Financial Programming and the Budget) * Kristalina Georgieva
Kristalina Georgieva
(International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response) * Günther Oettinger (Energy) * Johannes Hahn
Johannes Hahn
(Regional Policy) * Connie Hedegaard
Connie Hedegaard
(Climate Action) * Dacian Cioloș
Dacian Cioloș
(Agriculture and Rural Development) * SEE BARROSO II COMMISSION

Heads of government at the European Council
European Council

* Nicos Anastasiades (Cyprus) * Alexander Stubb
Alexander Stubb
(Finland) * Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(Germany) * Antonis Samaras (Greece) * Viktor Orbán
Viktor Orbán
(Hungary) * Enda Kenny
Enda Kenny
(Ireland) * Laimdota Straujuma (Latvia) * Pedro Passos Coelho
Pedro Passos Coelho
(Portugal) * Traian Băsescu
Traian Băsescu
(Romania) * Mariano Rajoy
Mariano Rajoy
(Spain) * SEE EUROPEAN COUNCIL

Eurofoundation : Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies

MEMBERSHIP OF GOVERNMENT MINISTRIES OF LUXEMBOURG

* v * t * e

Werner-Schaus II (1969 – 1974)

* PIERRE WERNER * EUGèNE SCHAUS

* Jean-Pierre Büchler * Jean Dupong
Jean Dupong
* Madeleine Frieden-Kinnen (1969–72) * Émile Krieps (1971–4) * Marcel Mart * Camille Ney (1971–4) * Jacques Santer
Jacques Santer
(1972–4) * Gaston Thorn
Gaston Thorn

* v * t * e

Werner-Thorn (1979 – 1980)

* PIERRE WERNER * GASTON THORN

* Josy Barthel * Fernand Boden * Paul Helminger * René Konen * Émile Krieps * Ernest Mühlen
Ernest Mühlen
* Camille Ney * Jacques Santer * Jean Spautz (March – November 1980) * Jean Wolter (1979 – March 1980)

* v * t * e

Werner-Flesch (1980 – 1984)

* PIERRE WERNER * COLETTE FLESCH

* Josy Barthel * Fernand Boden * Paul Helminger * Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker
(1982–4) * René Konen * Émile Krieps * Ernest Mühlen
Ernest Mühlen
* Camille Ney (1980–2) * Jacques Santer * Jean Spautz

* v * t * e

Santer-Poos I (1984 – 1989)

* JACQUES SANTER * JACQUES POOS

* Bernard Berg * Fernand Boden * Marc Fischbach * Robert Goebbels * Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker
* Robert Krieps * Johny Lahure * Marcel Schlechter * Jean Spautz * René Steichen

* v * t * e

Santer-Poos II (1989 – 1994)

* JACQUES SANTER * JACQUES POOS

* Fernand Boden * Jean Spautz * Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker
* Marc Fischbach * Johny Lahure * Robert Goebbels * Alex Bodry * Marie-Josée Jacobs (1992–4) * Mady Delvaux-Stehres * René Steichen (1989–92) * Georges Wohlfart

* v * t * e

Santer-Poos III (1994 – 1995)

* JACQUES SANTER * JACQUES POOS

* Fernand Boden * Jean Spautz * Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker
* Marc Fischbach * Johny Lahure * Robert Goebbels * Alex Bodry * Marie-Josée Jacobs * Mady Delvaux-Stehres * Georges Wohlfart

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AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 114830175 * LCCN : no91021397 * ISNI : 0000 0001 1033 1565 * GND : 119255839 * SUDOC : 035462647 * BNF : cb12520832j (data) * BIBSYS
BIBSYS
: 98022635

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