HOME
The Info List - Jacques Maritain


--- Advertisement ---



Catholicism portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal

v t e

Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
(French: [maʁitɛ̃]; 18 November 1882 – 28 April 1973) was a French Catholic
Catholic
philosopher. Raised Protestant, he was agnostic before converting to Catholicism in 1906. An author of more than 60 books, he helped to revive Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
for modern times, and was influential in the development and drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
presented his "Message to Men of Thought and of Science" at the close of Vatican II to Maritain, his long-time friend and mentor. The same pope had seriously considered making him a lay Cardinal, but Maritain rejected it.[1] Maritain's interest and works spanned many aspects of philosophy, including aesthetics, political theory, philosophy of science, metaphysics, the nature of education, liturgy and ecclesiology.

Contents

1 Life 2 Work 3 Metaphysics
Metaphysics
and epistemology 4 Ethics 5 Political theory

5.1 Criticism

6 Sayings 7 Writings

7.1 Significant works in English 7.2 Other works in English 7.3 Original works in French

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Life[edit] Maritain was born in Paris, the son of Paul Maritain, who was a lawyer, and his wife Geneviève Favre, the daughter of Jules Favre, and was reared in a liberal Protestant
Protestant
milieu. He was sent to the Lycée Henri-IV. Later, he attended the Sorbonne, studying the natural sciences: chemistry, biology and physics. At the Sorbonne, he met Raïssa Oumançoff, a Russian Jewish émigré. They married in 1904. A noted poet and mystic, she participated as his intellectual partner in his search for truth. Raissa's sister, Vera Oumançoff, lived with Jacques and Raissa for almost all their married life. At the Sorbonne, Jacques and Raïssa soon became disenchanted with scientism, which could not, in their view, address the larger existential issues of life. In 1901, in light of this disillusionment, they made a pact to commit suicide together if they could not discover some deeper meaning to life within a year. They were spared from following through on this because, at the urging of Charles Péguy, they attended the lectures of Henri Bergson
Henri Bergson
at the Collège de France. Bergson's critique of scientism dissolved their intellectual despair and instilled in them "the sense of the absolute." Then, through the influence of Léon Bloy, they converted to the Roman Catholic
Catholic
faith in 1906.[2] In the fall of 1907 the Maritains moved to Heidelberg, where Jacques studied biology under Hans Driesch. Hans Driesch’s theory of neo-vitalism attracted Jacques because of its affinity with Henri Bergson. During this time, Raïssa fell ill, and during her convalescence, their spiritual advisor, a Dominican friar
Dominican friar
named Fr. Humbert Clérissac, introduced her to the writings of Thomas Aquinas. She read them with enthusiasm and, in turn, exhorted her husband to examine the saint’s writings. In Thomas, Maritain found a number of insights and ideas that he had believed all along. He wrote:

"Thenceforth, in affirming to myself, without chicanery or diminution, the authentic value of the reality of our human instruments of knowledge, I was already a Thomist without knowing it...When several months later I came to the Summa Theologiae, I would construct no impediment to its luminous flood."

From the Angelic Doctor (the honorary title of Aquinas), he was led to "The Philosopher", as Aquinas called Aristotle. Still later, to further his intellectual development, he read the neo-scholastics. Beginning in 1912, Maritain taught at the Collège Stanislas. He later moved to the Institut Catholique de Paris. For the 1916–1917 academic year, he taught at the Petit Séminaire de Versailles. In 1930 Maritain and Étienne Gilson
Étienne Gilson
received honorary doctorates in philosophy from the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.[3] In 1933, he gave his first lectures in North America in Toronto
Toronto
at the Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. He also taught at Columbia University; at the Committee on Social Thought, University of Chicago; at the University of Notre Dame, and at Princeton University. From 1945 to 1948, he was the French ambassador to the Holy See. Afterwards, he returned to Princeton University
Princeton University
where he achieved the "Elysian status" (as he put it) of a professor emeritus in 1956. Raissa Maritain died in 1960. After her death, Jacques published her journal under the title "Raissa's Journal." For several years Maritain was an honorary chairman of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, appearing as a keynote speaker at its 1960 conference in Berlin.[4] From 1961, Maritain lived with the Little Brothers of Jesus in Toulouse, France. He had an influence on the order since its foundation in 1933. He became a Little Brother in 1970. Jacques and Raïssa Maritain are buried in the cemetery of Kolbsheim, a little French village in Alsace
Alsace
where he had spent many summers at the estate of his friends, Antoinette and Alexander Grunelius.[5] A cause for beatification of him and his wife Raissa is being planned.[6] Work[edit] The foundation of Maritain's thought is Aristotle, Aquinas, and the Thomistic commentators, especially John of St. Thomas. He is eclectic in his use of these sources. Maritain's philosophy is based on evidence accrued by the senses and acquired by an understanding of first principles. Maritain defended philosophy as a science against those who would degrade it and promoted philosophy as the "queen of sciences". In 1910, Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
completed his first contribution to modern philosophy, a 28-page article titled, "Reason and Modern Science" published in Revue de Philosophie (June issue). In it, he warned that science was becoming a divinity, its methodology usurping the role of reason and philosophy. Science was supplanting the humanities in importance.[7] In 1917, a committee of French bishops commissioned Jacques to write a series of textbooks to be used in Catholic
Catholic
colleges and seminaries. He wrote and completed only one of these projects, titled Elements de Philosophie (Introduction of Philosophy) in 1920. It has been a standard text ever since in many Catholic
Catholic
seminaries. He wrote in his introduction:

If the philosophy of Aristotle, as revived and enriched by Thomas Aquinas and his school, may rightly be called the Christian philosophy, both because the church is never weary of putting it forward as the only true philosophy and because it harmonizes perfectly with the truths of faith, nevertheless it is proposed here for the reader's acceptance not because it is Christian, but because it is demonstrably true. This agreement between a philosophic system founded by a pagan and the dogmas of revelation is no doubt an external sign, an extra-philosophic guarantee of its truth; but from its own rational evidence, that it derives its authority as a philosophy

During the Second World War, Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
protested the policies of the Vichy
Vichy
government while teaching at the Pontifical Institute for Medieval Studies in Canada. "Moving to New York, Maritain became deeply involved in rescue activities, seeking to bring persecuted and threatened academics, many of them Jews, to America. He was instrumental in founding the École Libre des Hautes Études, a kind of university in exile that was, at the same time, the center of Gaullist resistance in the United States". After the war, in a papal audience on 16 July 1946, he tried unsuccessfully to have Pope Pius XII officially denounce anti-semitism.[8] Many of his American papers are held by the University of Notre Dame, which established The Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
Center in 1957. The Cercle d'Etudes Jacques & Raïssa Maritain is an association founded by the philosopher himself in 1962 in Kolbsheim
Kolbsheim
(near Strasbourg, France), where the couple is also buried. The purpose of these centers is to encourage study and research of Maritain’s thought and expand upon them. It is also absorbed in translating and editing his writings. Metaphysics
Metaphysics
and epistemology[edit] Maritain's philosophy is based on the view that metaphysics is prior to epistemology. Being is first apprehended implicitly in sense experience, and is known in two ways. First, being is known reflexively by abstraction from sense experience. One experiences a particular being, e.g. a cup, a dog, etc. and through reflexion ("bending back") on the judgement, e.g. "this is a dog", one recognizes that the object in question is an existent. Second, in light of attaining being reflexively through apprehension of sense experience one may arrive at what Maritain calls "an Intuition of Being". For Maritain this is the point of departure for metaphysics; without the intuition of being one cannot be a metaphysician at all. The intuition of being involves rising to the apprehension of ens secundum quod est ens (being insofar as it is a being). In Existence and the Existent he explains:

"It is being, attained or perceived at the summit of an abstractive intellection, of an eidetic or intensive visualization which owes its purity and power of illumination only to the fact that the intellect, one day, was stirred to its depths and trans-illuminated by the impact of the act of existing apprehended in things, and because it was quickened to the point of receiving this act, or hearkening to it, within itself, in the intelligible and super-intelligible integrity of the tone particular to it." (p. 20)

In view of this priority given to metaphysics, Maritain advocates an epistemology he calls "Critical Realism". Maritain's epistemology is not "critical" in Kant's sense, which held that one could only know anything after undertaking a thorough critique of one's cognitive abilities. Rather, it is critical in the sense that it is not a naive or non-philosophical realism, but one that is defended by way of reason. Against Kant's critical project Maritain argues that epistemology is reflexive; you can only defend a theory of knowledge in light of knowledge you have already attained. Consequently, the critical question is not the question of modern philosophy – how do we pass from what is perceived to what is. Rather, "Since the mind, from the very start, reveals itself as warranted in its certitude by things and measured by an esse[clarification needed] independent of itself, how are we to judge if, how, on what conditions, and to what extent it is so both in principle and in the various moments of knowledge?" In contrast idealism inevitably ends up in contradiction, since it does not recognize the universal scope of the first principles of identity, contradiction, and finality. These become merely laws of thought or language, but not of being, which opens the way to contradictions being instantiated in reality. Maritain's metaphysics ascends from this account of being to a critique of the philosophical aspects of modern science, through analogy to an account of the existence and nature of God as it is known philosophically and through mystical experience. Ethics[edit] Maritain was a strong defender of a natural law ethics. He viewed ethical norms as being rooted in human nature. For Maritain the natural law is known primarily, not through philosophical argument and demonstration, but rather through "Connaturality". Connatural knowledge is a kind of knowledge by acquaintance. We know the natural law through our direct acquaintance with it in our human experience. Of central importance, is Maritain's argument that natural rights are rooted in the natural law. This was key to his involvement in the drafting of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Another important aspect of his ethics was his insistence upon the need for moral philosophy to be conducted in a theological context. While a Christian could engage in speculative thought about nature or metaphysics in a purely rational manner and develop an adequate philosophy of nature of metaphysics, this is not possible with ethics. Moral philosophy must address the actual state of the human person, and this is a person in a state of grace. Thus, "moral philosophy adequately considered" must take into account properly theological truths. It would be impossible, for instance, to develop an adequate moral philosophy without giving consideration to properly theological facts such as original sin and the supernatural end of the human person in beatitude. Any moral philosophy that does not take into account these realities that are only known through faith would be fundamentally incomplete.[9] Political theory[edit] Maritain advocated what he called "Integral Humanism." He argued that secular forms of humanism were inevitably anti-human in that they refused to recognize the whole person. Once the spiritual dimension of human nature is rejected, we no longer have an integral, but merely partial humanism, one which rejects a fundamental aspect of the human person. Accordingly, in Integral Humanism he explores the prospects for a new Christendom, rooted in his philosophical pluralism, in order to find ways Christianity could inform political discourse and policy in a pluralistic age. In this account he develops a theory of cooperation, to show how people of different intellectual positions can nevertheless cooperate to achieve common practical aims. Maritain's political theory was extremely influential, and was a primary source behind the Christian Democratic movement. Maritain also corresponded with, and was a friend of[10] the American radical community organizer Saul Alinsky[11] and French Prime Minister Robert Schuman.[12] Criticism[edit] Major criticisms of Maritain have included:

An overdependence upon late scholastic commentators at the expense of fidelity to Aquinas' own text. However, Maritain is frequently developing his own thought to address contemporary problems. His work is that of a philosopher who makes use of historical sources to develop his own positions rather than that of a historian of philosophy.[citation needed] Fr. Santiago Ramírez argued strongly that Maritain's moral philosophy adequately considered could not be distinguished in any meaningful way from moral theology as such.[13] Tracy Rowland has argued that the lack of a fully developed philosophy of culture in Maritain and others (notably Rahner) was responsible for an inadequate notion of culture in the documents of Vatican II
Vatican II
and thereby for much of the misapplication of the conciliar texts in the life of the Church following the Council.[14] Maritain's political theory has been criticized for a democratic pluralism that appeals to something very similar to the later liberal philosopher John Rawls' conception of an overlapping consensus of reasonable views. It is argued that such a view illegitimately presupposes the necessity of pluralistic conceptions of the human good.[15]

Sayings[edit]

"Vae mihi si non Thomistizavero" [Woe to me if I do not Thomisticize].[16] "Je n’adore que Dieu" [I adore only God]. "The artist pours out his creative spirit into a work; the philosopher measures his knowing spirit by the real." "I do not know if Saul Alinsky
Saul Alinsky
knows God. But I assure you that God knows Saul Alinsky." "We do not need a truth to serve us, we need a truth that we can serve"

Writings[edit] Significant works in English[edit]

Introduction to Philosophy, Christian Classics, Inc., Westminster, MD, 1st. 1930, 1991. The Degrees of Knowledge, orig. 1932 Integral Humanism, orig. 1936 An Introduction to Logic (1937) A Preface To Metaphysics
Metaphysics
(1939) (1939) Education
Education
at the Crossroads, engl. 1942 The Person and the Common Good, fr. 1947 Art
Art
and Scholasticism
Scholasticism
with other essays, Sheed and Ward, London, 1947 Existence and the Existent, (fr. 1947) trans. by Lewis Galantiere and Gerald B. Phelan, Image Books division of Doubleday & Co., Inc., Garden City, NY, 1948, Image book, 1956. ISBN 978-0-8371-8078-6 Philosophy
Philosophy
of Nature (1951) The Range of Reason, engl. 1952 Approaches to God, engl. 1954 Creative Intuition in Art
Art
and Poetry, engl. 1953 Man and The State, (orig.) University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press, Chicago, ILL, 1951. A Preface to Metaphysics, engl. 1962 God and the Permission of Evil, trans. Joseph W. Evans, The Bruce Publishing Company, Milwaukee, WI, 1966 (orig. 1963). Moral Philosophy, 1964 The Peasant of the Garonne, An Old Layman Questions Himself about the Present Time, trans. Michael Cuddihy and Elizabeth Hughes, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, NY, 1968; orig. 1966. The Education
Education
of Man, The Educational Philosophy
Philosophy
of Jacques Maritain., ed. D./I. Gallagher, Notre Dame/Ind. 1967

Other works in English[edit]

Religion and Culture (1931) The Things that are Not Caesar's (1931) Theonas; Conversations of a Sage (1933) Freedom in the Modern World (1935) True Humanism (1938) (Integral Humanism, 1968) A Christian Looks at the Jewish Question (1939) The Twilight of Civilization (1939) Scholasticism
Scholasticism
and Politics, New York 1940 Science and Wisdom (1940) Religion and the Modern World (1941) France, My Country Through the Disaster (1941) The Living Thoughts of St. Paul (1941) France, My Country, Through the Disaster (1941) Ransoming the Time (1941) Christian Humanism (1942) Saint Thomas and the problem of evil, Milwaukee 1942; Essays in Thomism, New York 1942; The Rights
Rights
of Man and Natural Law
Law
(1943) Prayer and Intelligence (1943) Give John a Sword (1944) The Dream of Descartes
Descartes
(1944) Christianity and Democracy
Democracy
(1944) Messages 1941-1944, New York 1945; A Faith to Live by (1947) The Person and the Common Good (1947) Art
Art
& Faith (with Jean Cocteau
Jean Cocteau
1951) The Pluralist Principle in Democracy
Democracy
(1952) Creative Intuition in Art
Art
and History (1953) An Essay on Christian Philosophy
Philosophy
(1955) The Situation of Poetry
Poetry
with Raïssa Maritain, 1955) Bergsonian Philosophy
Philosophy
(1955) Reflections on America (1958) St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
(1958) The Degrees of Knowledge (1959) The Sin of the Angel: An Essay on a Re-interpretation of some Thomistic Positions (1959) Liturgy
Liturgy
and Contemplation (1960) The Responsibility of the Artist (1960) On the Use of Philosophy
Philosophy
(1961) God and the Permission of Evil (1966) Challenges and Renewals, ed. J.W. Evans/L.R. Ward, Notre Dame/Ind. 1966 On the Grace and Humanity of Jesus (1969) On the Church of Christ: The Person of the Church and her Personnel (1973) Notebooks (1984) Natural Law: reflections on theory and practice (ed. with Introductions and notes, by William Sweet), St. Augustine's Press [distributed by University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press], 2001; Second printing, corrected, 2003.

Original works in French[edit]

La philosophie bergsonienne, 1914 (1948) Eléments de philosophie, 2 volumes, Paris
Paris
1920/23 Art
Art
et scolastique, 1920 Théonas ou les entretiens d’un sage et de deux philosophes sur diverses matières inégalement actuelles, Paris, Nouvelle librairie nationale, 1921 Antimoderne, Paris, Édition de la Revue des Jeunes, 1922 Réflexions sur l’intelligence et sur sa vie propre, Paris, Nouvelle librairie nationale, 1924. Trois réformateurs : Luther, Descartes, Rousseau, avec six portraits, Paris
Paris
[Plon], 1925 Réponse à Jean Cocteau, 1926 Une opinion sur Charles Maurras
Charles Maurras
et le devoir des catholiques, Paris [Plon], 1926 Primauté du spirituel, 1927 Pourquoi Rome a parlé (coll.), Paris, Spes, 1927 Quelques pages sur Léon Bloy, Paris
Paris
1927 Clairvoyance de Rome (coll.), Paris, Spes, 1929 Le docteur angélique, Paris, Paul Hartmann, 1929 Religion et culture, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1930 (1946) Le thomisme et la civilisation, 1932 Distinguer pour unir ou Les degrés du savoir, Paris
Paris
1932 Le songe de Descartes, Suivi de quelques essais, Paris
Paris
1932 De la philosophie chrétienne, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1933 Du régime temporel et de la liberté, Paris, DDB, 1933 Sept leçons sur l'être et les premiers principes de la raison spéculative, Paris
Paris
1934 Frontières de la poésie et autres essais, Paris
Paris
1935 La philosophie de la nature, Essai critique sur ses frontières et son objet, Paris
Paris
1935 (1948) Lettre sur l’indépendance, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1935. Science et sagesse, Paris
Paris
1935 Humanisme intégral. Problèmes temporels et spirituels d'une nouvelle chrétienté; zunächst spanisch 1935), Paris
Paris
(Fernand Aubier), 1936 (1947) Les Juifs parmi les nations, Paris, Cerf, 1938 Situation de la Poesie, 1938 Questions de conscience : essais et allocutions, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1938 La personne humaine et la societé, Paris
Paris
1939 Le crépuscule de la civilisation, Paris, Éd. Les Nouvelles Lettres, 1939 Quattre essais sur l'ésprit dans sa crudition charnelle, Paris
Paris
1939 (1956) De la justice politique, Notes sur le présente guerre, Paris
Paris
1940 A travers le désastre, New York 1941 (1946) Conféssion de foi, New York 1941 La pensée de St.Paul, New York 1941 ( Paris
Paris
1947) Les Droits de l'Homme et la Loi naturelle, New York 1942 ( Paris
Paris
1947) Christianisme et démocratie, New York 1943 ( Paris
Paris
1945) Principes d'une politique humaniste, New York 1944 ( Paris
Paris
1945); De Bergson à Thomas d'Aquin, Essais de Métaphysique et de Morale, New York 1944 ( Paris
Paris
1947) A travers la victoire, Paris
Paris
1945; Pour la justice, Articles et discours 1940-1945, New York 1945; Le sort de l'homme, Neuchâtel 1945; Court traité de l'existence et de l'existent, Paris
Paris
1947; La personne et le bien commun, Paris
Paris
1947; Raison et raisons, Essais détachés, Paris
Paris
1948 La signification de l'athéisme contemporain, Paris
Paris
1949 Neuf leçons sur les notions premières de la philosophie morale, Paris
Paris
1951 Approaches de Dieu, Paris
Paris
1953. L'Homme et l'Etat (engl.: Man and State, 1951) Paris, PUF, 1953 Pour une philosophie de l'éducation, Paris
Paris
1959 Le philosophe dans la Cité, Paris
Paris
1960 La philosophie morale, Vol. I: Examen historique et critique des grands systèmes, Paris
Paris
1960 Dieu et la permission du mal, 1963 Carnet de notes, Paris, DDB, 1965 L'intuition créatrice dans l'art et dans la poésie, Paris, Desclée de Brouwer, 1966 (engl. 1953) Le paysan de la Garonne. Un vieux laïc s’interroge à propos du temps présent, Paris, DDB, 1966 De la grâce et de l'humanité de Jésus, 1967 De l'Église du Christ. La personne de l'église et son personnel, Paris
Paris
1970 Approaches sans entraves, posthum 1973. La loi naturelle ou loi non écrite, texte inédit, établi par Georges Brazzola. Fribourg, Suisse: Éditions universitaires, 1986. [Lectures on Natural Law. Tr. William Sweet. In The Collected Works of Jacques Maritain, Vol. VI, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, (forthcoming).] Oeuvres complètes de Jacques et Raïssa Maritain, 16 Bde., 1982-1999.

See also[edit]

Personalism

Notes[edit]

^ Donald DeMarco. "The Christian Personalism of Jacques Maritain". EWTN.  ^ Hanna 1996, p. 39 ^ Piero Viotto, Grandi amicizie: i Maritain e i loro contemporanei, 38, https://books.google.com/books?id=aonOg8KLOdIC&pg=PA38 Accessed 28 February 2016. Jean Leclercq, Di grazia in grazia: memorie, 60. https://books.google.com/books?id=jxKnMfTj81AC&pg=PA60 Accessed 28 February 2016 ^ Hilton Kramer, "What was the Congress for Cultural Freedom?" The New Criterion, Volume 8, January 1990, page 7, January 1990. ^ The most comprehensive biography of the Maritians is: Jean-Luc Barre, "Jacques And Raissa Maritain: Beggars For Heaven", University of Notre Dame Press. ^ Beatification
Beatification
process for Jacques and Raissa Maritain could begin on YouTube
YouTube
(8 February 2011) ^ Hanna 1996, p. 40 ^ Richard Francis Crane (2011). "Heart-Rending Ambivalence: Jacques Maritain and the Complexity of Postwar Catholic
Catholic
Philosemitism". Studies in Christian-Jewish Relations. 6: 8–9.  ^ Maritain, An Essay on Christian Philosophy, (NY: Philosophical Library, 1955), pp. 38 ff. ^ Wolfe, C.J. “Lessons from the Friendship of Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
with Saul Alinsky” he Catholic
Catholic
Social Science Review 16 (2011): 229-240 Archived 26 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Doering, Bernard E. (1987). " Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
and His Two Authentic Revolutionaries". In Kennedy, Leonard A. Thomistic Papers (PDF). 3. Houston, Tex.: Center for Thomistic Studies. pp. 91–116. ISBN 0-268-01865-0. OCLC 17307550.  ^ Fimister, Alan Paul (2008). Robert Schuman: Neo-Scholastic Humanism and the Reunification of Europe. p. 131. ISBN 978-90-5201-439-5. OCLC 244339575.  ^ Denis J. M. Bradley. Aquinas on the Twofold Human Good: Reason and Human Happiness in Aquinas's Moral Science. Washington, D. C.: The Catholic
Catholic
University of America Press, 1997. ^ Tracy Rowland, "Culture and the Thomist Tradition: After Vatican II" (Routledge Radical Orthodoxy) ^ Thaddeus J. Kozinski, The Political Problem of Religious Pluralism: And Why Philosophers Can't Solve It, (Lexington Books, 2013) ^ Maritain,, Jacques (1946). St. Thomas Aquinas: Angel of the Schools. J. F. Scanlan (trans.). London: Sheed & Ward. p. viii. 

References[edit]

G. B. Phelan, Jacques Maritain, NY, 1937. J.W. Evans in Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopaedia Vol XVI Supplement 1967–1974. Michael R. Marrus, "The Ambassador & The Pope; Pius XII, Jacques Maritain & the Jews", Commonweal, Oct. 22, 2004 H. Bars, Maritain en notre temps, Paris, 1959. D. and I. Gallagher, The Achievement of Jacques and Raïssa Maritain: A Bibliography, 1906–1961, NY, 1962. J. W. Evans, ed., Jacques Maritain: The Man and His Achievement, NY, 1963. C. A. Fecher, The Philosophy
Philosophy
of Jacques Maritain, Westminster, MD, 1963. Jude P. Dougherty, Jacques Maritain: An Intellectual Profile, Catholic University of America Press, 2003 Ralph McInerny, The Very Rich Hours of Jacques Maritain: A Spiritual Life, University of Notre Dame
University of Notre Dame
Press, 2003 Hanna, Martha (1996). The Mobilization of Intellect: French Scholars and Writers During the Great War. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674577558. 

Further reading[edit]

The Social and Political Philosophy
Philosophy
of Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
(1955) W. Herberg (ed.), Four Existentialist Theologians (1958) The Philosophy
Philosophy
of Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
(1953) Jacques Maritain, Antimodern or Ultramodern?: An Historical Analysis of His Critics, His Thought, and His Life (1974)

External links[edit]

Quotations related to Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
at Wikiquote Études maritainiennes-Maritain Studies Maritain Center, Kolbsheim[permanent dead link] (in French) Cercle d'Etudes J. & R. Maritain at Kolbsheim
Kolbsheim
(France). Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
Center at the University of Notre Dame. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
by William Sweet. International Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
Institute. [1] of the primary and secondary literatures on Jacques Maritain. Works by or about Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Jacques Maritain, Man and the State (1951)

v t e

Aesthetics
Aesthetics
topics

Philosophers

Abhinavagupta Theodor W. Adorno Leon Battista Alberti Thomas Aquinas Hans Urs von Balthasar Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten Clive Bell Bernard Bosanquet Edward Bullough R. G. Collingwood Ananda Coomaraswamy Arthur Danto John Dewey Denis Diderot Hubert Dreyfus Curt John Ducasse Thierry de Duve Roger Fry Nelson Goodman Clement Greenberg Georg Hegel Martin Heidegger David Hume Immanuel Kant Paul Klee Susanne Langer Theodor Lipps György Lukács Jean-François Lyotard Joseph Margolis Jacques Maritain Thomas Munro Friedrich Nietzsche José Ortega y Gasset Dewitt H. Parker Stephen Pepper David Prall Jacques Rancière Ayn Rand George Lansing Raymond I. A. Richards George Santayana Friedrich Schiller Arthur Schopenhauer Roger Scruton Irving Singer Rabindranath Tagore Giorgio Vasari Morris Weitz Johann Joachim Winckelmann Richard Wollheim more...

Theories

Classicism Evolutionary aesthetics Historicism Modernism New Classical Postmodernism Psychoanalytic theory Romanticism Symbolism more...

Concepts

Aesthetic emotions Aesthetic interpretation Art
Art
manifesto Avant-garde Axiology Beauty Boredom Camp Comedy Creativity Cuteness Disgust Ecstasy Elegance Entertainment Eroticism Gaze Harmony Judgement Kama Kitsch Life imitating art Magnificence Mimesis Perception Quality Rasa Reverence Style Sublime Taste Work of art

Related topics

Aesthetics
Aesthetics
of music Applied aesthetics Architecture Art Arts criticism Feminist aesthetics Gastronomy History of painting Humour Japanese aesthetics Literary merit Mathematical beauty Mathematics and architecture Mathematics and art Music theory Neuroesthetics Painting Patterns in nature Philosophy
Philosophy
of design Philosophy
Philosophy
of film Philosophy
Philosophy
of music Poetry Sculpture Theory of painting Theory of art Tragedy Visual arts

Index Outline Category Portal

v t e

Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika

Concepts

Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

Related articles

Jurisprudence Philosophy
Philosophy
and economics Philosophy
Philosophy
of education Philosophy
Philosophy
of history Philosophy
Philosophy
of love Philosophy
Philosophy
of sex Philosophy
Philosophy
of social science Political ethics Social epistemology

Category Portal Task Force

v t e

History of Catholic
Catholic
theology

General history

History of the Catholic
Catholic
Church Early Christianity History of the papacy Ecumenical Councils Timeline of the Catholic
Catholic
Church History of Christianity History of Christian theology

Church beginnings

Paul Clement of Rome First Epistle of Clement Didache Ignatius of Antioch Polycarp Epistle of Barnabas The Shepherd of Hermas Aristides of Athens Justin Martyr Epistle to Diognetus Irenaeus Montanism Tertullian Origen Antipope Novatian Cyprian

Constantine to Pope Gregory I

Eusebius Athanasius of Alexandria Arianism Pelagianism Nestorianism Monophysitism Ephrem the Syrian Hilary of Poitiers Cyril of Jerusalem Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Ambrose John Chrysostom Jerome Augustine of Hippo John Cassian Orosius Cyril of Alexandria Peter Chrysologus Pope Leo I Boethius Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite Pope Gregory I

Early Middle Ages

Isidore of Seville John Climacus Maximus the Confessor Monothelitism Ecthesis Bede John of Damascus Iconoclasm Transubstantiation
Transubstantiation
dispute Predestination
Predestination
disputes Paulinus II of Aquileia Alcuin Benedict of Aniane Rabanus Maurus Paschasius Radbertus John Scotus Eriugena

High Middle Ages

Roscellinus Gregory of Narek Berengar of Tours Peter Damian Anselm of Canterbury Joachim of Fiore Peter Abelard Decretum Gratiani Bernard of Clairvaux Peter Lombard Anselm of Laon Hildegard of Bingen Hugh of Saint Victor Dominic de Guzmán Robert Grosseteste Francis of Assisi Anthony of Padua Beatrice of Nazareth Bonaventure Albertus Magnus Boetius of Dacia Henry of Ghent Thomas Aquinas Siger of Brabant Thomism Roger Bacon

Mysticism
Mysticism
and reforms

Ramon Llull Duns Scotus Dante Alighieri William of Ockham Richard Rolle John of Ruusbroec Catherine of Siena Brigit of Sweden Meister Eckhart Johannes Tauler Walter Hilton The Cloud of Unknowing Heinrich Seuse Geert Groote Devotio Moderna Julian of Norwich Thomas à Kempis Nicholas of Cusa Marsilio Ficino Girolamo Savonarola Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Reformation Counter-Reformation

Erasmus Thomas Cajetan Thomas More John Fisher Johann Eck Francisco de Vitoria Thomas of Villanova Ignatius of Loyola Francisco de Osuna John of Ávila Francis Xavier Teresa of Ávila Luis de León John of the Cross Peter Canisius Luis de Molina
Luis de Molina
(Molinism) Robert Bellarmine Francisco Suárez Lawrence of Brindisi Francis de Sales

Baroque
Baroque
period to French Revolution

Tommaso Campanella Pierre de Bérulle Pierre Gassendi René Descartes Mary of Jesus of Ágreda António Vieira Jean-Jacques Olier Louis Thomassin Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet François Fénelon Cornelius Jansen
Cornelius Jansen
(Jansenism) Blaise Pascal Nicolas Malebranche Giambattista Vico Alphonsus Liguori Louis de Montfort Maria Gaetana Agnesi Alfonso Muzzarelli Johann Michael Sailer Clement Mary Hofbauer Bruno Lanteri

19th century

Joseph Görres Felicité de Lamennais Luigi Taparelli Antonio Rosmini Ignaz von Döllinger John Henry Newman Henri Lacordaire Jaime Balmes Gaetano Sanseverino Giovanni Maria Cornoldi Wilhelm Emmanuel Freiherr von Ketteler Giuseppe Pecci Joseph Hergenröther Tommaso Maria Zigliara Matthias Joseph Scheeben Émile Boutroux Modernism Léon Bloy Désiré-Joseph Mercier Friedrich von Hügel Vladimir Solovyov Marie-Joseph Lagrange George Tyrrell Maurice Blondel Thérèse of Lisieux

20th century

G. K. Chesterton Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange Joseph Maréchal Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Jacques Maritain Étienne Gilson Ronald Knox Dietrich von Hildebrand Gabriel Marcel Marie-Dominique Chenu Romano Guardini Edith Stein Fulton Sheen Henri de Lubac Jean Guitton Josemaría Escrivá Adrienne von Speyr Karl Rahner Yves Congar Bernard Lonergan Emmanuel Mounier Jean Daniélou Hans Urs von Balthasar Alfred Delp Edward Schillebeeckx Thomas Merton René Girard Johann Baptist Metz Jean Vanier Henri Nouwen

21st century

Pope Benedict XVI Walter Kasper Raniero Cantalamessa Michał Heller Peter Kreeft Jean-Luc Marion Tomáš Halík Scott Hahn Robert Barron

Catholicism portal Pope portal

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 7393855 LCCN: n80067092 ISNI: 0000 0001 2098 8923 GND: 118731033 SUDOC: 027010562 BNF: cb119146209 (data) BIBSYS: 90271989 ULAN: 500322114 NDL: 00448853 BNE: XX834

.