Jacques Derrida
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Jacques Derrida (; ; born Jackie Élie Derrida; See also . 15 July 1930 – 9 October 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher. He developed the philosophy of
deconstruction The term deconstruction refers to approaches to understanding the relationship between Text (literary theory), text and Meaning (linguistics), meaning. It was introduced by the philosopher Jacques Derrida, who defined it as a turn away from Pl ...
, which he utilized in numerous texts, and which was developed through close readings of the linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure and Husserlian and Heideggerian phenomenology.Jacques Derrida
. ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. Britannica.com. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
He is one of the major figures associated with post-structuralism and postmodern philosophyVincent B. Leitch ''Postmodernism: Local Effects, Global Flows'', SUNY Series in Postmodern Culture (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1996), p. 27. although he has distanced himself from post-structuralism and "protest dagainst the word postmodernity". During his career, Derrida published more than 40 books, together with hundreds of essays and public presentations. He had a significant influence on the
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classi ...
and
social science Social science is one of the branches of science, devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the o ...
s, including philosophy, literature,
law Law is a set of rules that are created and are law enforcement, enforceable by social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. ...
,
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, societies, and linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because i ...
,
historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians ha ...
,
applied linguistics Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field which identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Some of the academic fields related to applied linguistics are education, psychology, Communication stud ...
,
sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any or all aspects of society, including cultural Norm (sociology), norms, expectations, and context (language use), context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on languag ...
, psychoanalysis,
music Music is generally defined as the The arts, art of arranging sound to create some combination of Musical form, form, harmony, melody, rhythm or otherwise Musical expression, expressive content. Exact definition of music, definitions of mu ...
, architecture, and political theory. His work retains major academic influence throughout the United States,
continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent of Europe, excluding its surrounding islands. It can also be referred to ambiguously as the European continent, – which can conversely mean the whole of Europe – and, by ...
, South America and all other countries where continental philosophy has been predominant, particularly in debates around
ontology In metaphysics Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy that studies the fundamental nature of reality, the first principles of being, identity and change, space and time, causality, necessity, and possibility. It includes questions about ...
,
epistemology Epistemology (; ), or the theory of knowledge, is the branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major subfields such as ethics, logic, and metaphysics. Epis ...
(especially concerning
social sciences Social science is one of the branches of science, devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the o ...
), ethics,
aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics, is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of aesthetics). It examines aesthetic values, ...
, hermeneutics, and the
philosophy of language In analytic philosophy, philosophy of language investigates the nature of language and the relations between language, language users, and the world. Investigations may include inquiry into the nature of Meaning (philosophy of language), meanin ...
. In most of the
Anglosphere The Anglosphere is a group of English-speaking world, English-speaking nations that share historical and cultural ties with England, and which today maintain close political, diplomatic and military co-operation. While the nations included in d ...
, where analytic philosophy is dominant, Derrida's influence is most presently felt in literary studies due to his longstanding interest in language and his association with prominent literary critics from his time at
Yale Yale University is a Private university, private research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Established in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the List of Colonial Colleges, third-oldest institution of higher education in the United Sta ...
. He also influenced architecture (in the form of
deconstructivism Deconstructivism is a movement of postmodern architecture which appeared in the 1980s. It gives the impression of the fragmentation of the constructed building, commonly characterised by an absence of obvious harmony, continuity, or symmetry. ...
), music (especially in the musical atmosphere of hauntology), art, and
art criticism Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual art. Art critics usually criticize art in the context of aesthetics or the theory of beauty. A goal of art criticism is the pursuit of a rational basis for art appreciation but it is questi ...
. Particularly in his later writings, Derrida addressed ethical and political themes in his work. Some critics consider '' Speech and Phenomena'' (1967) to be his most important work. Others cite: '' Of Grammatology'' (1967), '' Writing and Difference'' (1967), and '' Margins of Philosophy'' (1972). These writings influenced various activists and political movements. He became a well-known and influential public figure, while his approach to philosophy and the notorious abstruseness of his work made him controversial.Lawlor, Leonard.
Jacques Derrida
. ''Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy''. plato.stanford.edu. 22 November 2006; last modified 6 October 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
He was often named - but never awarded - for a
Nobel Prize in Literature ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , caption = , awarded_for = Outstanding contributions in literature , presenter = Swedish Academy , holder = Annie Ernaux (2022) , location = Stockholm, Sweden , year = 1901 , ...
.


Life

Derrida was born on 15 July 1930, in a summer home in El Biar (
Algiers Algiers ( ; ar, الجزائر, al-Jazāʾir; ber, Dzayer, script=Latn; french: Alger, ) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Algeria. The city's population at the 2008 Census was 2,988,145Census 14 April 2008: Office National des ...
), Algeria, to Haïm Aaron Prosper Charles (known as "Aimé") Derrida (1896–1970), who worked all his life for the wine and spirits company Tachet, including as a travelling salesman (his son reflected the job was "exhausting" and "humiliating", his father forced to be a "docile employee" to the extent of waking early to do the accounts at the dining-room table), and Georgette Sultana Esther (1901–1991),Bennington (1991), p. 325. daughter of Moïse Safar. His family was Sephardic Jewish, (originally from Toledo) and became French in 1870 when the Crémieux Decree granted full French citizenship to the Jews of Algeria. His parents named him "Jackie", "which they considered to be an American name", although he would later adopt a more "correct" version of his first name when he moved to Paris; some reports indicate that he was named Jackie after the American child actor Jackie Coogan, who had become well-known around the world via his role in the 1921
Charlie Chaplin Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin Jr. (16 April 188925 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film. He became a worldwide icon through his screen persona, the Tramp, and is consider ...
film ''The Kid''.Powell (2006), p. 12. He was also given the middle name Élie after his paternal uncle Eugène Eliahou, at his
circumcision Circumcision is a procedure that removes the foreskin from the human penis. In the most common form of the operation, the foreskin is extended with forceps, then a circumcision device may be placed, after which the foreskin is excised. Top ...
; this name was not recorded on his birth certificate unlike those of his siblings, and he would later call it his "hidden name". See also Derrida was the third of five children. His elder brother Paul Moïse died at less than three months old, the year before Derrida was born, leading him to suspect throughout his life his role as a replacement for his deceased brother.'''' Derrida spent his youth in Algiers and in El-Biar. On the first day of the school year in 1942, French administrators in Algeria —implementing
antisemitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice towards, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is considered to be a form of racism. Antis ...
quotas set by the
Vichy Vichy (, ; ; oc, Vichèi, link=no, ) is a city in the Allier Departments of France, department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of central France, in the historic province of Bourbonnais. It is a Spa town, spa and resort town and in World ...
government—expelled Derrida from his lycée. He secretly skipped school for a year rather than attend the Jewish lycée formed by displaced teachers and students, and also took part in numerous
football Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, Kick (football), kicking a Football (ball), ball to score a Goal (sport), goal. Unqualified, Football (word), the word ''football'' normally means the form of football tha ...
competitions (he dreamed of becoming a professional player). In this adolescent period, Derrida found in the works of philosophers and writers (such as
Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects ...
, Nietzsche, and Gide) an instrument of revolt against family and society. His reading also included Camus and Sartre. In the late 1940s, he attended the , in Algiers; in 1949 he moved to Paris, attending the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, where his professor of philosophy was Étienne Borne. At that time he prepared for his entrance exam to the prestigious École Normale Supérieure (ENS); after failing the exam on his first try, he passed it on the second, and was admitted in 1952. On his first day at ENS, Derrida met Louis Althusser, with whom he became friends. A professor of his, Jan Czarnecki, was a progressive Protestant who would become a signer of the Manifesto of the 121. After visiting the Husserl Archive in
Leuven Leuven (, ) or Louvain (, , ; german: link=no, Löwen ) is the capital and largest City status in Belgium, city of the Provinces of Belgium, province of Flemish Brabant in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located about east of Brussels. Th ...
, Belgium (1953–1954), he completed his master's degree in philosophy (') on Edmund Husserl (see below). He then passed the highly competitive '' agrégation'' exam in 1956. Derrida received a grant for studies at
Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the History of the Puritans in North America, Puritan cler ...
, and he spent the 1956–57 academic year reading James Joyce's '' Ulysses'' at the Widener Library.Caputo (1997), p. 25. In June 1957, he married the psychoanalyst Marguerite Aucouturier in
Boston Boston (), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, state capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts, as well as the cultural and financ ...
. During the Algerian War of Independence of 1954–1962, Derrida asked to teach soldiers' children in lieu of military service, teaching French and English from 1957 to 1959. Following the war, from 1960 to 1964, Derrida taught philosophy at the Sorbonne, where he was an assistant of Suzanne Bachelard (daughter of Gaston), Georges Canguilhem, Paul Ricœur (who in these years coined the term '' hermeneutics of suspicion''), and Jean Wahl. His wife, Marguerite, gave birth to their first child, Pierre, in 1963. In 1964, on the recommendation of Louis Althusser and Jean Hyppolite, Derrida got a permanent teaching position at the ENS, which he kept until 1984. In 1965 Derrida began an association with the '' Tel Quel'' group of literary and philosophical theorists, which lasted for seven years.Powell (2006), p. 58. Derrida's subsequent distance from the ''Tel Quel'' group, after 1971, was connected to his reservations about their embrace of Maoism and of the Chinese
Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution, formally known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in the People's Republic of China (PRC) launched by Mao Zedong in 1966, and lasting until Death and state funeral of Mao Zedon ...
. With " Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences", his contribution to a 1966 colloquium on structuralism at
Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins University (Johns Hopkins, Hopkins, or JHU) is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, Johns Hopkins is the oldest research university in the United States and in the western hem ...
, his work began to gain international prominence. At the same colloquium Derrida would meet
Jacques Lacan Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (, , ; 13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist. Described as "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Sigmund Freud, Freud", Lacan gave The Seminars of Jacques Lacan, yearl ...
and Paul de Man, the latter an important interlocutor in the years to come. A second son, Jean, was born in 1967. In the same year, Derrida published his first three books—'' Writing and Difference'', '' Speech and Phenomena'', and '' Of Grammatology''. In 1980, he received his first honorary doctorate (from
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity ...
) and was awarded his State doctorate (''doctorat d'État'') by submitting to the
University of Paris , image_name = Coat of arms of the University of Paris.svg , image_size = 150px , caption = Coat of Arms , latin_name = Universitas magistrorum et scholarium Parisiensis , motto = ''Hic et ubique terrarum'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is ...
ten of his previously published books in conjunction with a defense of his intellectual project under the title "" ("Inscription in Philosophy: Research on the Interpretation of Writing").Powell (2006), p. 145. The text of Derrida's defense was based on an abandoned draft thesis he had prepared in 1957 under the direction of Jean Hyppolite at the ENS entitled "The Ideality of the Literary Object" (""); his 1980 dissertation was subsequently published in English translation as "The Time of a Thesis: Punctuations". In 1983 Derrida collaborated with Ken McMullen on the film '' Ghost Dance''. Derrida appears in the film as himself and also contributed to the script. Derrida traveled widely and held a series of visiting and permanent positions. Derrida became full professor () at the in Paris from 1984 (he had been elected at the end of 1983). With François Châtelet and others he in 1983 co-founded the (CIPH; 'International college of philosophy'), an institution intended to provide a location for philosophical research which could not be carried out elsewhere in the academia. He was elected as its first president. In 1985 Sylviane Agacinski gave birth to Derrida's third child, Daniel."Obituary: Jacques Derrida"
by Derek Attridge and Thomas Baldwin, ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer'' and ''The Guardian Weekly'', ''The Guardian'' is part of the Gu ...
'', 11 October 2004. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
On 8 May 1985, Derrida was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences The American Academy of Arts and Sciences (abbreviation: AAA&S) is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is ...
, to Class IV - Humanities, Section 3 -Criticism and Philology. In 1986 Derrida became Professor of the Humanities at the University of California, Irvine, where he taught until shortly before his death in 2004. His papers were filed in the university archives. After Derrida's death, his widow and sons said they wanted copies of UCI's archives shared with the Institute of Contemporary Publishing Archives in France. The university had sued in an attempt to get manuscripts and correspondence from Derrida's widow and children that it believed the philosopher had promised to UC Irvine's collection, although it dropped the suit in 2007. Derrida was a regular visiting professor at several other major American and European universities, including
Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins University (Johns Hopkins, Hopkins, or JHU) is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, Johns Hopkins is the oldest research university in the United States and in the western hem ...
,
Yale University Yale University is a Private university, private research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Established in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the List of Colonial Colleges, third-oldest institution of higher education in the United Sta ...
,
New York University New York University (NYU) is a private university, private research university in New York City. Chartered in 1831 by the New York State Legislature, NYU was founded by a group of New Yorkers led by then-United States Secretary of the Treasu ...
, Stony Brook University, The New School for Social Research, and
European Graduate School The European Graduate School (EGS) is a private graduate school that operates in two locations: Saas-Fee, Switzerland, and Valletta, Malta. History It was founded in 1994 in Saas-Fee, Switzerland by the Swiss scientist, artist, and therapist, Pao ...
. He was awarded honorary doctorates by the
University of Cambridge The University of Cambridge is a Public university, public collegiate university, collegiate research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by Henry III of England, Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the world' ...
(1992),
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity ...
, The New School for Social Research, the University of Essex, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, the University of Silesia, the University of Coimbra, the
University of Athens The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (NKUA; el, Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών, ''Ethnikó ke Kapodistriakó Panepistímio Athinón''), usually referred to simply as the Univers ...
, and many others around the world. In 2001, he received the Adorno-Preis from the University of Frankfurt. Derrida's honorary degree at Cambridge was protested by leading philosophers in the analytic tradition. Philosophers including Quine, Marcus, and Armstrong wrote a letter to the university objecting that "Derrida's work does not meet accepted standards of clarity and rigour," and "Academic status based on what seems to us to be little more than semi-intelligible attacks upon the values of reason, truth, and scholarship is not, we submit, sufficient grounds for the awarding of an honorary degree in a distinguished university". Late in his life, Derrida participated in making two biographical documentaries, ''D'ailleurs, Derrida'' (''Derrida's Elsewhere'') by Safaa Fathy (1999), and '' Derrida'' by Kirby Dick and Amy Ziering Kofman (2002). Derrida was diagnosed with
pancreatic cancer Pancreatic cancer arises when cell (biology), cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a Neoplasm, mass. These cancerous cells have the malignant, ability to invade other parts of t ...
in 2003, which reduced his speaking and travelling engagements. He died during surgery in a hospital in Paris in the early hours of 9 October 2004. At the time of his death, Derrida had agreed to go for the summer to
Heidelberg Heidelberg (; Palatine German: ''Heidlberg'') is a city A city is a human settlement of notable size.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science ...
as holder of the Gadamer professorship,
The University of Heidelberg Mourns the Death of Jacques Derrida
whose invitation was expressed by the hermeneutic philosopher himself before his death. Peter Hommelhoff, Rector at Heidelberg by that time, would summarize Derrida's place as: "Beyond the boundaries of philosophy as an academic discipline he was a leading intellectual figure not only for the humanities but for the cultural perception of a whole age."


Philosophy

Derrida referred to himself as a historian.Derrida (1989) ''This Strange Institution Called Literature'', p. 54: He questioned assumptions of the Western philosophical tradition and also more broadly
Western culture image:Da Vinci Vitruve Luc Viatour.jpg, Leonardo da Vinci's ''Vitruvian Man''. Based on the correlations of ideal Body proportions, human proportions with geometry described by the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius in Book III of his treatise '' ...
. By questioning the dominant discourses, and trying to modify them, he attempted to democratize the university scene and to politicize it.Derrida (1992) ''Cambridge Review'', pp. 404, 408–13. Derrida called his challenge to the assumptions of
Western culture image:Da Vinci Vitruve Luc Viatour.jpg, Leonardo da Vinci's ''Vitruvian Man''. Based on the correlations of ideal Body proportions, human proportions with geometry described by the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius in Book III of his treatise '' ...
"
deconstruction The term deconstruction refers to approaches to understanding the relationship between Text (literary theory), text and Meaning (linguistics), meaning. It was introduced by the philosopher Jacques Derrida, who defined it as a turn away from Pl ...
". On some occasions, Derrida referred to deconstruction as a radicalization of a certain spirit of
Marxism Marxism is a Left-wing politics, left-wing to Far-left politics, far-left method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a Materialism, materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand S ...
. With his detailed readings of works from Plato to Rousseau to Heidegger, Derrida frequently argues that Western philosophy has uncritically allowed metaphorical depth models to govern its conception of language and consciousness. He sees these often unacknowledged assumptions as part of a "metaphysics of presence" to which philosophy has bound itself. This "logocentrism," Derrida argues, creates "marked" or hierarchized binary oppositions that have an effect on everything from our conception of speech's relation to writing to our understanding of racial difference. Deconstruction is an attempt to expose and undermine such "metaphysics." Derrida approaches texts as constructed around binary oppositions which all speech has to articulate if it intends to make any sense whatsoever. This approach to text is, in a broad sense, influenced by the semiology of Ferdinand de Saussure. Royle, Nicholas (2004)
''Jacques Derrida''
pp. 62–63.
Derrida and Ferraris (1997), p. 76: Saussure, considered to be one of the fathers of structuralism, posited that terms get their meaning in reciprocal determination with other terms inside language. Perhaps Derrida's most quoted and famous assertion, which appears in an essay on
Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects ...
in his book '' Of Grammatology'' (1967),Derrida (1967), ''Of Grammatology'', Part II ''Introduction to the "Age of Rousseau,"'' section 2 "...''That Dangerous Supplement''...", title ''The Exorbitant. Question of Method'', pp. 158–59, 163. is the statement that "there is no out-of-context" (). Critics of Derrida have been often accused of having mistranslated the phrase in French to suggest he had written "" ("There is nothing outside the text") and of having widely disseminated this translation to make it appear that Derrida is suggesting that nothing exists but words.Reilly, Brian J. (2005) ''Jacques Derrida'', in Kritzman (2005), p. 500. Coward, Harold G. (1990
''Derrida and Indian philosophy''
pp. 83, 137.
Pidgen, Charles R. (1990) ''On a Defence of Derrida'', i
''The Critical review''
(1990), Issues 30–32, pp. 40–41.
Sullivan, Patricia (2004)

in ''
Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C. It is the most widely circulated newspaper within the Washington metropolitan area and has a large nati ...
'', 10 October 2004, p. C11. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
Derrida once explained that this assertion "which for some has become a sort of slogan, in general so badly understood, of deconstruction ... means nothing else: there is nothing outside context. In this form, which says exactly the same thing, the formula would doubtless have been less shocking."Derrida (1988) ''Afterword'', p. 136.


Early works

Derrida began his career examining the limits of phenomenology. His first lengthy academic manuscript, written as a dissertation for his and submitted in 1954, concerned the work of Edmund Husserl. Gary Banham has said that the dissertation is "in many respects the most ambitious of Derrida's interpretations with Husserl, not merely in terms of the number of works addressed but also in terms of the extraordinarily focused nature of its investigation." In 1962 he published ''Edmund Husserl's Origin of Geometry: An Introduction'', which contained his own translation of Husserl's essay. Many elements of Derrida's thought were already present in this work. In the interviews collected in '' Positions'' (1972), Derrida said: Derrida first received major attention outside France with his lecture, "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences," delivered at
Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins University (Johns Hopkins, Hopkins, or JHU) is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, Johns Hopkins is the oldest research university in the United States and in the western hem ...
in 1966 (and subsequently included in ''Writing and Difference''). The conference at which this paper was delivered was concerned with structuralism, then at the peak of its influence in France, but only beginning to gain attention in the United States. Derrida differed from other participants by his lack of explicit commitment to structuralism, having already been critical of the movement. He praised the accomplishments of structuralism but also maintained reservations about its internal limitations; this has led US academics to label his thought as a form of post-structuralism.Bensmaïa, Réda, "Poststructuralism", in Kritzman (2005), pp. 92–93.Poster (1988), pp. 5–6. The effect of Derrida's paper was such that by the time the conference proceedings were published in 1970, the title of the collection had become ''The Structuralist Controversy''. The conference was also where he met Paul de Man, who would be a close friend and source of great controversy, as well as where he first met the French psychoanalyst
Jacques Lacan Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (, , ; 13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist. Described as "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Sigmund Freud, Freud", Lacan gave The Seminars of Jacques Lacan, yearl ...
, with whose work Derrida had a mixed relationship.


Phenomenology vs structuralism debate (1959)

In the early 1960s, Derrida began speaking and writing publicly, addressing the most topical debates at the time. One of these was the new and increasingly fashionable movement of structuralism, which was being widely favoured as the successor to the phenomenology approach, the latter having been started by Husserl sixty years earlier. Derrida's countercurrent take on the issue, at a prominent international conference, was so influential that it reframed the discussion from a celebration of the triumph of structuralism to a "phenomenology vs structuralism debate." Phenomenology, as envisioned by Husserl, is a method of philosophical inquiry that rejects the rationalist bias that has dominated Western thought since
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. He founded the Platonist school of thou ...
in favor of a method of reflective attentiveness that discloses the individual's "lived experience"; for those with a more phenomenological bent, the goal was to understand experience by comprehending and describing its genesis, the process of its emergence from an origin or event. For the structuralists, this was a false problem, and the "depth" of experience could in fact only be an effect of structures which are not themselves experiential. In that context, in 1959, Derrida asked the question: Must not structure have a genesis, and must not the origin, the point of genesis, be ''already'' structured, in order to be the genesis ''of'' something? In other words, every structural or "synchronic" phenomenon has a history, and the structure cannot be understood without understanding its genesis. At the same time, in order that there be movement or potential, the origin cannot be some pure unity or simplicity, but must already be articulated—complex—such that from it a "diachronic" process can emerge. This original complexity must not be understood as an original ''positing'', but more like a default of origin, which Derrida refers to as iterability, inscription, or textuality.Derrida (1971), Scarpetta interview, quote from pp. 77–8: On the phrase "default of origin" as applied to Derrida's work, cf. Bernard Stiegler, "Derrida and Technology: Fidelity at the Limits of Deconstruction and the Prosthesis of Faith," in Tom Cohen (ed.) ''Jacques Derrida and the Humanities'' (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001). Stiegler understands Derrida's thinking of textuality and inscription in terms of a thinking of originary technicity, and in this context speaks of "the originary default of origin that arche-writing constitutes" (p. 239). See also Stiegler, '' Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus'' (Stanford:
Stanford University Press Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University. It is one of the oldest academic presses in the United States and the first university press to be established on the West Coast. It was among the presses officiall ...
, 1998).
It is this thought of originary complexity that sets Derrida's work in motion, and from which all of its terms are derived, including "deconstruction". Derrida's method consisted in demonstrating the forms and varieties of this originary complexity, and their multiple consequences in many fields. He achieved this by conducting thorough, careful, sensitive, and yet transformational readings of philosophical and literary texts, to determine what aspects of those texts run counter to their apparent systematicity (structural unity) or intended sense (authorial genesis). By demonstrating the aporias and ellipses of thought, Derrida hoped to show the infinitely subtle ways in which this originary complexity, which by definition cannot ever be completely known, works its structuring and destructuring effects.


1967–1972

Derrida's interests crossed disciplinary boundaries, and his knowledge of a wide array of diverse material was reflected in the three collections of work published in 1967: '' Speech and Phenomena'', '' Of Grammatology'' (initially submitted as a thesis under Maurice de Gandillac),Alan D. Schrift (2006), ''Twentieth-Century French Philosophy: Key Themes and Thinkers'', Blackwell Publishing, p. 120. and '' Writing and Difference''.Derrida (1967) interview with Henri Ronse, pp. 4–5: " 'Speech and Phenomena''is perhaps the essay which I like most. Doubtless, I could have bound it as a long note to one or the other of the other two works. ''Of Grammatology'' refers to it and economizes its development. But in a classical philosophical architecture, ''Speech...'' would come first: in it is posed, at a point which appears juridically decisive for reasons that I cannot explain here, the question of the privilege of the voice and of phonetic writing in their relationship to the entire history of the West, such as this history can be represented by the history of metaphysics and metaphysics in its most modern, critical and vigilant form: Husserl's transcendental phenomenology." On several occasions, Derrida has acknowledged his debt to Husserl and Heidegger, and stated that without them he would not have said a single word.Derrida (1967) interview with Henri Ronse, p. 8.On the influence of Heidegger, Derrida claims in his "Letter to a Japanese Friend" (''Derrida and différance'', eds. Robert Bernasconi and David Wood) that the word "déconstruction" was his attempt both to translate and re-appropriate for his own ends the Heideggerian terms ''Destruktion'' and ''Abbau'', via a word from the French language, the varied senses of which seemed consistent with his requirements. This relationship with the Heideggerian term was chosen over the Nietzschean term "demolition," as Derrida shared Heidegger's interest in renovating philosophy. Among the questions asked in these essays are "What is 'meaning', what are its historical relationships to what is purportedly identified under the rubric 'voice' as a value of presence, presence of the object, presence of meaning to consciousness, self-presence in so called living speech and in self-consciousness?" In another essay in ''Writing and Difference'' entitled "Violence and Metaphysics: An Essay on the Thought of Emmanuel Levinas", the roots of another major theme in Derrida's thought emerge: the Other as opposed to the Same "Deconstructive analysis deprives the present of its prestige and exposes it to something ''tout autre'', "wholly other," beyond what is foreseeable from the present, beyond the horizon of the "same"."Caputo (1997), p. 42. Other than Rousseau, Husserl, Heidegger and Levinas, these three books discussed, and/or relied upon, the works of many philosophers and authors, including linguist Saussure, Hegel,"From Restricted to General Economy: A Hegelianism without Reserve" in ''Writing and Difference''. Foucault,"Cogito and the History of Madness" in ''Writing and Difference''. Bataille, Descartes, anthropologist Lévi-Strauss, paleontologist Leroi-Gourhan, psychoanalyst
Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for evaluating and treating psychopathology, pathologies explained as originatin ...
, and writers such as Jabès and Artaud. This collection of three books published in 1967 elaborated Derrida's theoretical framework. Derrida attempts to approach the very heart of the Western intellectual tradition, characterizing this tradition as "a search for a transcendental being that serves as the origin or guarantor of meaning". The attempt to "ground the meaning relations constitutive of the world in an instance that itself lies outside all relationality" was referred to by Heidegger as logocentrism, and Derrida argues that the philosophical enterprise is ''essentially'' logocentric, and that this is a paradigm inherited from Judaism and Hellenism. He in turn describes logocentrism as phallocratic, patriarchal and masculinist. Derrida contributed to "the understanding of certain deeply hidden philosophical presuppositions and prejudices in
Western culture image:Da Vinci Vitruve Luc Viatour.jpg, Leonardo da Vinci's ''Vitruvian Man''. Based on the correlations of ideal Body proportions, human proportions with geometry described by the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius in Book III of his treatise '' ...
",Wayne A. Borody
(1998), pp. 3, 5

ttp://kenstange.com/nebula/ ''Nebula: A Netzine of the Arts and Science'' Vol. 13 (pp. 1–27).
arguing that the whole philosophical tradition rests on arbitrary dichotomous categories (such as sacred/profane, signifier/signified, mind/body), and that any text contains implicit hierarchies, "by which an order is imposed on reality and by which a subtle repression is exercised, as these hierarchies exclude, subordinate, and hide the various potential meanings." Derrida refers to his procedure for uncovering and unsettling these dichotomies as
deconstruction The term deconstruction refers to approaches to understanding the relationship between Text (literary theory), text and Meaning (linguistics), meaning. It was introduced by the philosopher Jacques Derrida, who defined it as a turn away from Pl ...
of Western culture. In 1968, he published his influential essay " Plato's Pharmacy" in the French journal '' Tel Quel''.Spurgin, Tim (1997
Reader's Guide to Derrida's "Plato's Pharmacy"
Graff (1993). This essay was later collected in ''Dissemination'', one of three books published by Derrida in 1972, along with the essay collection ''Margins of Philosophy'' and the collection of interviews entitled '' Positions''.


1973–1980

Starting in 1972, Derrida produced on average more than one book per year. Derrida continued to produce important works, such as '' Glas'' (1974) and '' The Post Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond'' (1980). Derrida received increasing attention in the United States after 1972, where he was a regular visiting professor and lecturer at several major American universities. In the 1980s, during the American culture wars,
conservatives Conservatism is a Philosophy of culture, cultural, Social philosophy, social, and political philosophy that seeks to promote and to preserve traditional institutions, practices, and values. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in r ...
started a dispute over Derrida's influence and legacy upon American intellectuals, and claimed that he influenced American literary critics and theorists more than academic philosophers.Sven Ove Hansson – ''Editorial From Theoria'' vol. 72, Part 1 (2006).


''Of Spirit'' (1987)

On 14 March 1987, Derrida presented at the CIPH conference entitled "Heidegger: Open Questions," a lecture which was published in October 1987 as ''Of Spirit: Heidegger and the Question''. It follows the shifting role of '' Geist'' (spirit) through Heidegger's work, noting that, in 1927, "spirit" was one of the philosophical terms that Heidegger set his sights on dismantling. With his Nazi political engagement in 1933, however, Heidegger came out as a champion of the "German Spirit," and only withdrew from an exalting interpretation of the term in 1953. Derrida asks, "What of this meantime?" His book connects in a number of respects with his long engagement of Heidegger (such as "The Ends of Man" in ''Margins of Philosophy'', his Paris seminar on philosophical nationality and nationalism in the mid-1980s, and the essays published in English as ''Geschlecht'' and ''Geschlecht II''). He considers "four guiding threads" of Heideggerian philosophy that form "the knot of this ''Geflecht'' raid: "the question of the question," "the essence of technology," "the discourse of animality," and "epochality" or "the hidden teleology or the narrative order." ''Of Spirit'' contributes to the long debate on Heidegger's Nazism and appeared at the same time as the French publication of a book by a previously unknown Chilean writer, Victor Farías, who charged that Heidegger's philosophy amounted to a wholehearted endorsement of the
Nazi Nazism ( ; german: Nazismus), the common name in English for National Socialism (german: Nationalsozialismus, ), is the far-right politics, far-right Totalitarianism, totalitarian political ideology and practices associated with Adolf Hit ...
''
Sturmabteilung The (; SA; literally "Storm Detachment (military), Detachment") was the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party. It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Its primary purposes were providing pro ...
'' (SA) faction. Derrida responded to Farías in an interview, "Heidegger, the Philosopher's Hell" and a subsequent article, "Comment donner raison? How to Concede, with Reasons?" He called Farías a weak reader of Heidegger's thought, adding that much of the evidence Farías and his supporters touted as new had long been known within the philosophical community.


1990s: political and ethical themes

Some have argued that Derrida's work took a political and ethical "turn" in the 1990s. Texts cited as evidence of such a turn include '' Force of Law'' (1990), as well as '' Specters of Marx'' (1994) and ''Politics of Friendship'' (1994). Some refer to ''The Gift of Death'' as evidence that he began more directly applying deconstruction to the relationship between ethics and religion. In this work, Derrida interprets passages from the Bible, particularly on
Abraham Abraham, ; ar, , , name=, group= (originally Abram) is the common Hebrews, Hebrew patriarch of the Abrahamic religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. In Judaism, he is the founding father of the Covenant (biblical), special ...
and the Sacrifice of Isaac, and from Søren Kierkegaard's '' Fear and Trembling''. However, scholars such as Leonard Lawlor, Robert Magliola, and Nicole Anderson have argued that the "turn" has been exaggerated. Some, including Derrida himself, have argued that much of the philosophical work done in his "political turn" can be dated to earlier essays. Derrida develops an ethicist view respecting to hospitality, exploring the idea that two types of hospitalities exist, conditional and unconditional. Though this contributed to the works of many scholars, Derrida was seriously criticized for this. Derrida's contemporary readings of Emmanuel Levinas, Walter Benjamin, Carl Schmitt, Jan Patočka, on themes such as law, justice, responsibility, and friendship, had a significant impact on fields beyond philosophy. Derrida and Deconstruction influenced aesthetics, literary criticism, architecture, film theory,
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, societies, and linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. It is called a scientific study because i ...
, sociology,
historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians ha ...
, law, psychoanalysis, theology,
feminism Feminism is a range of socio-political movements and ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes. Feminism incorporates the position that society prioritizes the male po ...
, gay and lesbian studies and political theory.
Jean-Luc Nancy Jean-Luc Nancy ( , ; 26 July 1940 – 23 August 2021) was a French Philosophy, philosopher. Nancy's first book, published in 1973, was ''Le titre de la lettre'' (''The Title of the Letter'', 1992), a reading of the work of French psychoanalysis ...
, Richard Rorty, Geoffrey Hartman, Harold Bloom,
Rosalind Krauss Rosalind Epstein Krauss (born November 30, 1941) is an American art critic, art theory, art theorist and a professor at Columbia University in New York City. Krauss is known for her scholarship in 20th-century painting, sculpture and photography. ...
, Hélène Cixous,
Julia Kristeva Julia Kristeva (; born Yuliya Stoyanova Krasteva, bg, Юлия Стоянова Кръстева; on 24 June 1941) is a Bulgarians in France, Bulgarian-French philosopher, literary critic, semiotics, semiotician, psychoanalysis, psychoanalyst, ...
, Duncan Kennedy, Gary Peller, Drucilla Cornell, Alan Hunt, Hayden White, Mario Kopić, and Alun Munslow are some of the authors who have been influenced by deconstruction. Derrida delivered a eulogy at Levinas' funeral, later published as ''Adieu à Emmanuel Lévinas'', an appreciation and exploration of Levinas's moral philosophy. Derrida used Bracha L. Ettinger's interpretation of Lévinas' notion of femininity and transformed his own earlier reading of this subject respectively. Derrida continued to produce readings of literature, writing extensively on Maurice Blanchot, Paul Celan, and others. In 1991 he published ''The Other Heading'', in which he discussed the concept of identity (as in cultural identity, European identity, and
national identity National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one or more states or to one or more nation, nations. It is the sense of "a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, and language". National i ...
), in the name of which in Europe have been unleashed "the worst violences," "the crimes of xenophobia, racism, anti-Semitism, religious or nationalist fanaticism." At the 1997 Centre culturel international de Cerisy-la-Salle, Cerisy Conference, Derrida delivered a ten-hour address on the subject of "the autobiographical animal" entitled The Animal That Therefore I Am (More To Follow). Engaging with questions surrounding the ontology of nonhuman animals, the ethics of animal slaughter and the difference between humans and other animals, the address has been seen as initiating a late "animal turn" in Derrida's philosophy, although Derrida himself has said that his interest in animals is present in his earliest writings.


''The Work of Mourning'' (1981–2001)

Beginning with "The Deaths of Roland Barthes" in 1981, Derrida produced a series of texts on mourning and memory occasioned by the loss of his friends and colleagues, many of them new engagements with their work. ''Memoires for Paul de Man'', a book-length lecture series presented first at Yale and then at Irvine as Derrida's Wellek Lecture, followed in 1986, with a revision in 1989 that included "Like the Sound of the Sea Deep Within a Shell: Paul de Man's War". Ultimately, fourteen essays were collected into ''The Work of Mourning'' (2001), which was expanded in the 2003 French edition, ''Chaque fois unique, la fin du monde'' (literally, "Unique each time, the end of the world"), to include essays dedicated to Gérard Granel and Maurice Blanchot.


2002 film

In October 2002, at the theatrical opening of the film '' Derrida'', he said that, in many ways, he felt more and more close to Guy Debord's work, and that this closeness appears in Derrida's texts. Derrida mentioned, in particular, "everything I say about the media, technology, the spectacle, and the 'criticism of the show', so to speak, and the markets – the becoming-a-spectacle of everything, and the exploitation of the spectacle."Derrida (2002), Q&A session at Film Forum. Among the places in which Derrida mentions the ''Spectacle (critical theory), Spectacle'', is a 1997 interview about the notion of the intellectual.


Debate with Jean Baudrillard

On 19 February 2003, with the 2003 invasion of Iraq impending, moderated a debate entitled ''"Pourquoi La Guerre Aujourd’hui?"'' between Jean Baudrillard#Debate with Jacques Derrida, Jean Baudrillard and Derrida, co-hosted by ''Major's Institute for Advanced Studies in Psychoanalysis'' and ''Le Monde Diplomatique''. The debate discussed the relation between terrorist attacks and the invasion.MLA Brennan, Eugene. Review of Pourquoi la guerre aujourd’hui?, by Jean Baudrillard, Jacques Derrida. French Studies: A Quarterly Review, vol. 71 no. 3, 2017, p. 449-449. Project MUSE muse.jhu.edu/article/666299. APA Brennan, E. (2017). [Review of the book Pourquoi la guerre aujourd’hui?, by Jean Baudrillard, Jacques Derrida]. French Studies: A Quarterly Review 71(3), 449. https://www.muse.jhu.edu/article/666299. Chicago Brennan, Eugene. Review of Pourquoi la guerre aujourd’hui?, by Jean Baudrillard, Jacques Derrida. French Studies: A Quarterly Review 71, no. 3 (2017): 449-449. muse.jhu.edu/article/666299. Endnote TY - JOUR T1 - Pourquoi la guerre aujourd’hui? by Jean Baudrillard, Jacques Derrida (review) A1 - Brennan, Eugene JF - French Studies: A Quarterly Review VL - 71 IS - 3 SP - 449 EP - 449 PY - 2017 PB - Oxford University Press SN - 1468-2931 UR - https://muse.jhu.edu/pub/8/article/666299 N1 - Volume 71, Number 3, July 2017 ER -


Politics

Derrida engaged with many political issues, movements, and debates: * Although Derrida participated in the rallies of the May 1968 protests, and organized the first general assembly at the ''École Normale Superieure'', he said "I was on my guard, even worried in the face of a certain cult of spontaneity, a fusionist, anti-unionist euphoria, in the face of the enthusiasm of a finally "freed" speech, of restored "transparence," and so forth."Derrida (1991) ''"A 'Madness' Must Watch Over Thinking"'', pp. 347–9. During May '68, he met frequently with Maurice Blanchot. * He registered his objections to the Vietnam War in delivering "The Ends of Man" in the United States. * In 1977, he was among the intellectuals, with Foucault and Althusser, who signed the French petition against age of consent laws, petition against age of consent laws. * In 1981 Derrida, on the prompting of Roger Scruton and others, founded the French Jan Hus association with structuralist historian Jean-Pierre Vernant. Its purpose was to aid dissident or persecuted Czech intellectuals. Derrida became vice-president.Powell (2006), p. 151. * In late 1981 he was arrested by the Czechoslovakian government upon leading a conference in Prague that lacked government authorization, and charged with the "production and trafficking of drugs", which he claimed were planted as he visited Kafka's grave. He was released (or "expelled", as the Czechoslovakian government put it) after the interventions of the François Mitterrand, Mitterrand government, and the assistance of Michel Foucault, returning to Paris on 1 January 1982. * He registered his concerns against the proliferation of nuclear weapons in 1984. * He was active in cultural activities against the History of South Africa in the apartheid era, Apartheid government of South Africa and on behalf of Nelson Mandela beginning in 1983. * He met with Palestinian people, Palestinian intellectuals during a 1988 visit to Jerusalem. * He protested against the death penalty, dedicating his seminar in his last years to the production of a non-utilitarianism, utilitarian argument for its abolition, and was active in the campaign to free Mumia Abu-Jamal. * Derrida was not known to have participated in any conventional electoral political party until 1995, when he joined a committee in support of Lionel Jospin's French Socialist Party, Socialist candidacy, although he expressed misgivings about such organizations going back to French Communist Party, Communist organizational efforts while he was a student at ENS. * In the 2002 French presidential election he refused to vote in the run-off between far-right candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen and center-right Jacques Chirac, citing a lack of acceptable choices. * While supportive of the American government in the wake of September 11, 2001 attacks, the terrorist attacks of 9/11, he opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq (see ''Rogues'' and his contribution to ''Philosophy in a Time of Terror'' with Giovanna Borradori and Jürgen Habermas). Beyond these explicit political interventions, however, Derrida was engaged in rethinking politics and the political itself, within and beyond philosophy. Derrida insisted that a distinct political undertone had pervaded his texts from the very beginning of his career. Nevertheless, the attempt to understand the political implications of notions of responsibility, reason of state, the other, decision, sovereignty, Europe, friendship, difference, faith, and so on, became much more marked from the early 1990s on. By 2000, theorizing "democracy to come," and thinking the limitations of existing democracies, had become important concerns.


Influences on Derrida

Crucial readings in his adolescence were
Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects ...
's ''Reveries of a Solitary Walker'' and ''Confessions (Jean-Jacques Rousseau), Confessions'', André Gide's journal, ''La porte étroite'', ''Les nourritures terrestres'' and ''The Immoralist''; and the works of Friedrich Nietzsche.Derrida (1989) ''This Strange Institution Called Literature'', pp. 35, 38–9. The phrase ''Families, I hate you!'' in particular, which inspired Derrida as an adolescent, is a famous verse from Gide's ''Les nourritures terrestres'', book IV. In a 1991 interview Derrida commented on a similar verse, also from book IV of the same Gide work: "I hated the homes, the families, all the places where man thinks he'll find rest" (''Je haïssais les foyers, les familles, tous lieux où l'homme pense trouver un repos''). Other influences upon Derrida are Martin Heidegger,
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. He founded the Platonist school of thou ...
, Søren Kierkegaard, Alexandre Kojève, Maurice Blanchot, Antonin Artaud, Roland Barthes, Georges Bataille, Edmund Husserl, Emmanuel Lévinas, Ferdinand de Saussure, Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Claude Lévi-Strauss, James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, J. L. AustinDerrida (1988), ''Afterword'', pp. 130–31. and Stéphane Mallarmé. His book, ''Adieu à Emmanuel Lévinas'', reveals his mentorship by this philosopher and Talmudic scholar who practiced the phenomenological encounter with the Other in the form of the Face-to-face (philosophy), Face, which commanded human response. The use of deconstruction to read Jewish texts – like the Talmud – is relatively rare but has recently been attempted.


Peers and contemporaries

Derrida's philosophical friends, allies, students and the heirs of Derrida's thought include Paul de Man, Jean-François Lyotard, Michel Foucault, Louis Althusser, Emmanuel Levinas, Maurice Blanchot, Gilles Deleuze,
Jean-Luc Nancy Jean-Luc Nancy ( , ; 26 July 1940 – 23 August 2021) was a French Philosophy, philosopher. Nancy's first book, published in 1973, was ''Le titre de la lettre'' (''The Title of the Letter'', 1992), a reading of the work of French psychoanalysis ...
, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Sarah Kofman, Hélène Cixous, Bernard Stiegler, Alexander García Düttmann, Joseph Cohen, Geoffrey Bennington, Jean-Luc Marion, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Raphael Zagury-Orly, Jacques Ehrmann, Avital Ronell, Judith Butler, Béatrice Galinon-Mélénec, Ernesto Laclau, Samuel Weber, Catherine Malabou, and Claudette Sartiliot.


Nancy and Lacoue-Labarthe

Jean-Luc Nancy Jean-Luc Nancy ( , ; 26 July 1940 – 23 August 2021) was a French Philosophy, philosopher. Nancy's first book, published in 1973, was ''Le titre de la lettre'' (''The Title of the Letter'', 1992), a reading of the work of French psychoanalysis ...
and Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe were among Derrida's first students in France and went on to become well-known and important philosophers in their own right. Despite their considerable differences of subject, and often also of a method, they continued their close interaction with each other and with Derrida, from the early 1970s. Derrida wrote on both of them, including a long book on Nancy: ''Le Toucher, Jean-Luc Nancy'' (''On Touching—Jean-Luc Nancy'', 2005).


Paul de Man

Derrida's most prominent friendship in intellectual life was with Paul de Man, which began with their meeting at
Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins University (Johns Hopkins, Hopkins, or JHU) is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, Johns Hopkins is the oldest research university in the United States and in the western hem ...
and continued until de Man's death in 1983. De Man provided a somewhat different approach to deconstruction, and his readings of literary and philosophical texts were crucial in the training of a generation of readers. Shortly after de Man's death, Derrida wrote the book ''Memoires: pour Paul de Man'' and in 1988 wrote an article in the journal ''Critical Inquiry'' called "Like the Sound of the Sea Deep Within a Shell: Paul de Man's War". The memoir became cause for controversy, because shortly before Derrida published his piece, it had been discovered by the Belgian literary critic Ortwin de Graef that long before his academic career in the US, de Man had written almost two hundred essays in a pro-Nazi newspaper during the History of Belgium#World War II, German occupation of Belgium, including several that were explicitly antisemitic. Critics of Derrida have argued that he minimizes the antisemitic character of de Man's writing. Some critics have found Derrida's treatment of this issue surprising, given that, for example, Derrida also spoke out against antisemitism and, in the 1960s, broke with the Heidegger disciple Jean Beaufret over Beaufret's instances of antisemitism, about which Derrida (and, after him, Maurice Blanchot) expressed shock.


Michel Foucault

Derrida's criticism of Foucault appears in the essay ''Cogito and the History of Madness'' (from ''Writing and Difference''). It was first given as a lecture on 4 March 1963, at a conference at Jean Wahl, Wahl's ''Collège philosophique'', which Foucault attended, and caused a rift between the two men that was never fully mended.Powell (2006), pp. 34–5. In an appendix added to the 1972 edition of his ''History of Madness'', Foucault disputed Derrida's interpretation of his work, and accused Derrida of practicing "a historically well-determined little pedagogy [...] which teaches the student that there is nothing outside the text [...]. A pedagogy which inversely gives to the voice of the masters that infinite sovereignty that allows it indefinitely to re-say the text." According to historian Carlo Ginzburg, Foucault may have written ''The Order of Things'' (1966) and ''The Archaeology of Knowledge'' partly under the stimulus of Derrida's criticism.Carlo Ginzburg [1976], ''Il formaggio e i vermi'', translated in 1980 as
The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller
', trans. Anne Tedeschi (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), xviii.
Carlo Ginzburg briefly labeled Derrida's criticism in ''Cogito and the History of Madness'', as "facile, nihilistic objections," without giving further argumentation.


Derrida's translators

Geoffrey Bennington, Avital Ronell and Samuel Weber belong to a group of Derrida translators. Many of Derrida's translators are esteemed thinkers in their own right. Derrida often worked in a collaborative arrangement, allowing his prolific output to be translated into English in a timely fashion. Having started as a student of de Man, Gayatri Spivak took on the translation of ''Of Grammatology'' early in her career and has since revised it into a second edition. Barbara Johnson's translation of Derrida's ''Dissemination'' was published by The Athlone Press in 1981. Alan Bass was responsible for several early translations; Bennington and Peggy Kamuf have continued to produce translations of his work for nearly twenty years. In recent years, a number of translations have appeared by Michael Naas (also a Derrida scholar) and Pascale-Anne Brault. Bennington, Brault, Kamuf, Naas, Elizabeth Rottenberg, and David Wills (writer), David Wills are currently engaged in translating Derrida's previously unpublished seminars, which span from 1959 to 2003. Volumes I and II of ''The Beast and the Sovereign'' (presenting Derrida's seminars from 12 December 2001 to 27 March 2002 and from 11 December 2002 to 26 March 2003), as well as ''The Death Penalty, Volume I'' (covering 8 December 1999 to 22 March 2000), have appeared in English translation. Further volumes currently projected for the series include ''Heidegger: The Question of Being and History'' (1964-1965), ''Death Penalty, Volume II'' (2000–2001), ''Perjury and Pardon, Volume I'' (1997–1998), and ''Perjury and Pardon, Volume II'' (1998–1999). With Bennington, Derrida undertook the challenge published as ''Jacques Derrida'', an arrangement in which Bennington attempted to provide a systematic explication of Derrida's work (called the "Derridabase") using the top two-thirds of every page, while Derrida was given the finished copy of every Bennington chapter and the bottom third of every page in which to show how deconstruction exceeded Bennington's account (this was called the "Circumfession"). Derrida seems to have viewed Bennington in particular as a kind of rabbinical explicator, noting at the end of the "Applied Derrida" conference, held at the University of Luton in 1995 that: "everything has been said and, as usual, Geoff Bennington has said everything before I have even opened my mouth. I have the challenge of trying to be unpredictable after him, which is impossible... so I'll try to pretend to be unpredictable after Geoff. Once again."


Marshall McLuhan

Derrida was familiar with the work of Marshall McLuhan, and since his early 1967 writings (''Of Grammatology'', ''Speech and Phenomena''), he speaks of language as a "medium," of phonetic writing as "the medium of the great metaphysical, scientific, technical, and economic adventure of the West." He expressed his disagreement with McLuhan in regard to what Derrida called McLuhan's ideology about the end of writing.Poster (2010), pp. 3–4, 12–13. In a 1982 interview, he said: And in his 1972 essay ''Signature Event Context'' he said:


Architectural thinkers

Derrida had a direct impact on the theories and practices of influential architects Peter Eisenman and Bernard Tschumi towards the end of the twentieth century. Derrida impacted a project that was theorized by Eisenman in ''Chora L Works: Jacques Derrida and Peter Eisenman''. This design was architecturally conceived by Tschumi for the Parc de la Villette in Paris, which included a sieve, or harp-like structure that Derrida envisaged as a physical metaphor for the receptacle-like properties of the ''khôra''. Moreover, Derrida's commentaries on Plato's notion of ''khôra'' (χώρα) as set in the ''Timaeus (dialogue), Timaeus'' (48e4) received later reflections in the philosophical works and architectural writings of the philosopher-architect Nader El-Bizri within the domain of phenomenology (architecture), phenomenology. Derrida used "χώρα" to name a radical otherness that "gives place" for being. El-Bizri built on this by more narrowly taking ''khôra'' to name the radical happening of an ontological difference between being and beings. El-Bizri's reflections on "''khôra''" are taken as a basis for tackling the meditations on ''dwelling'' and on ''being and space'' in Heidegger's thought and the critical conceptions of space and place as they evolved in architectural theory (and its strands in phenomenological thinking), and in history of philosophy and science, with a focus on geometry and optics. This also describes El-Bizri's take on "econtology" as an extension of Heidegger's consideration of the question of being (''Seinsfrage'') by way of the fourfold (''Das Geviert'') of earth-sky-mortals-divinities (''Erde und Himmel, Sterblichen und Göttlichen''); and as also impacted by his own meditations on Derrida's take on "χώρα". Ecology is hence co-entangled with ontology, whereby the worldly existential analytics are grounded in earthiness, and environmentalism is orientated by ontological thinking Derrida argued that the subjectile is like Plato's ''khôra'', Greek for space, receptacle or site. Plato proposes that ''khôra'' rests between the sensible and the intelligible, through which everything passes but in which nothing is retained. For example, an image needs to be held by something, just as a mirror will hold a reflection. For Derrida, ''khôra'' defies attempts at naming or the either/or logic, which he "deconstructed".


Criticism


Criticism from Marxists

In a paper entitled ''Ghostwriting'', Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak—the translator of Derrida's ''De la grammatologie'' (''Of Grammatology'') into English—criticised Derrida's understanding of Marx. Commenting on Derrida's ''Specters of Marx'', Terry Eagleton wrote "The portentousness is ingrained in the very letter of this book, as one theatrically inflected rhetorical question tumbles hard on the heels of another in a tiresomely mannered syntax which lays itself wide open to parody."


Criticism from Anglophone philosophers

Though Derrida addressed the American Philosophical Association on at least one occasion in 1988, and was highly regarded by some contemporary philosophers like Richard Rorty, Alexander Nehamas, and Stanley Cavell, his work has been regarded by other analytic philosophers, such as John Searle and Willard Van Orman Quine,J. E. D'Ulisse,
Derrida (1930–2004)
', ''New Partisan'', 24 December 2004.
as pseudophilosophy or sophistry. Some analytic philosophers have in fact claimed, since at least the 1980s, that Derrida's work is "not philosophy". One of the main arguments they gave was alleging that Derrida's influence had not been on US philosophy departments but on literature and other
humanities Humanities are List of academic disciplines, academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with Divinity (academic discipline), divinity and referred to what is now called classi ...
disciplines. In his 1989 ''Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity'', Richard Rorty argues that Derrida (especially in his book, '' The Post Card: From Socrates to Freud and Beyond'', one section of which is an experiment in fiction) purposefully uses words that cannot be defined (e.g., ''différance''), and uses previously definable words in contexts diverse enough to make understanding impossible, so that the reader will never be able to contextualize Derrida's literary self. Rorty, however, argues that this intentional obfuscation is philosophically grounded. In garbling his message Derrida is attempting to escape the naïve, positive metaphysical projects of his predecessors.Rorty, Richard. ''Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. . Ch. 6: "From ironist theory to private allusions: Derrida". Roger Scruton wrote in 2004, "He's difficult to summarise because it's nonsense. He argues that the meaning of a sign is never revealed in the sign but deferred indefinitely and that a sign only means something by virtue of its difference from something else. For Derrida, there is no such thing as meaning – it always eludes us and therefore anything goes." On Derrida's scholarship and writing style, Noam Chomsky wrote "I found the scholarship appalling, based on pathetic misreading; and the argument, such as it was, failed to come close to the kinds of standards I've been familiar with since virtually childhood. Well, maybe I missed something: could be, but suspicions remain, as noted." Paul R. Gross and Norman Levitt also criticized his work for misusing scientific terms and concepts in ''Higher Superstition: The Academic Left and Its Quarrels With Science'' (1994). Three quarrels (or disputes) in particular went out of academic circles and received international mass media coverage: the 1972–88 quarrel with John Searle, the analytic philosophers' pressures on Cambridge University not to award Derrida an honorary degree, and a dispute with Richard Wolin and the NYRB.


Searle–Derrida debate

In the early 1970s, Searle had a brief exchange with Jacques Derrida regarding speech-act theory. The exchange was characterized by a degree of mutual hostility between the philosophers, each of whom accused the other of having misunderstood his basic points.Derrida, Jacques. ''Limited, Inc.'' Northwestern University Press, 1988. p. 29: "...I have read some of his [Searle's] work (more, in any case, than he seems to have read of mine)". Searle was particularly hostile to Derrida's
deconstruction The term deconstruction refers to approaches to understanding the relationship between Text (literary theory), text and Meaning (linguistics), meaning. It was introduced by the philosopher Jacques Derrida, who defined it as a turn away from Pl ...
ist framework and much later refused to let his response to Derrida be printed along with Derrida's papers in the 1988 collection ''Limited Inc''. Searle did not consider Derrida's approach to be legitimate philosophy or even intelligible writing and argued that he did not want to legitimize the deconstructionist point of view by dedicating any attention to it. Consequently, some critics have considered the exchange to be a series of elaborate misunderstandings rather than a debate, while others have seen either Derrida or Searle gaining the upper hand. The level of hostility can be seen from Searle's statement that "It would be a mistake to regard Derrida's discussion of Austin as a confrontation between two prominent philosophical traditions", to which Derrida replied that that sentence was "the only sentence of the 'reply' to which I can subscribe". Commentators have frequently interpreted the exchange as a prominent example of a confrontation between Analytical philosophy, analytical and continental philosophy. The debate began in 1972, when, in his paper "Signature Event Context", Derrida analyzed J. L. Austin's theory of the illocutionary act. While sympathetic to Austin's departure from a purely denotational account of language to one that includes "force", Derrida was sceptical of the framework of normativity employed by Austin. He argued that Austin had missed the fact that any speech event is framed by a "structure of absence" (the words that are left unsaid due to contextual constraints) and by "iterability" (the constraints on what can be said, given by what has been said in the past). Derrida argued that the focus on intentionality in speech-act theory was misguided because intentionality is restricted to that which is already established as a possible intention. He also took issue with the way Austin had excluded the study of fiction, non-serious or "parasitic" speech, wondering whether this exclusion was because Austin had considered these speech genres governed by different structures of meaning, or simply due to a lack of interest. In his brief reply to Derrida, "Reiterating the Differences: A Reply to Derrida", Searle argued that Derrida's critique was unwarranted because it assumed that Austin's theory attempted to give a full account of language and meaning when its aim was much narrower. Searle considered the omission of parasitic discourse forms to be justified by the narrow scope of Austin's inquiry. Searle agreed with Derrida's proposal that intentionality presupposes iterability, but did not apply the same concept of intentionality used by Derrida, being unable or unwilling to engage with the continental conceptual apparatus. (This caused Derrida to criticize Searle for not being sufficiently familiar with wikt:phenomenological, phenomenological perspectives on intentionality.Marian Hobson. 1998. Jacques Derrida: opening lines. Psychology Press. pp. 95–97.) Searle also argued that Derrida's disagreement with Austin turned on his having misunderstood Austin's type–token distinction and his failure to understand Austin's concept of failure in relation to performativity. Some critics have suggested that Searle, by being so grounded in the analytical tradition that he was unable to engage with Derrida's continental phenomenological tradition, was at fault for the unsuccessful nature of the exchange. The substance of Searle's criticism of Derrida in relation to topics in the
philosophy of language In analytic philosophy, philosophy of language investigates the nature of language and the relations between language, language users, and the world. Investigations may include inquiry into the nature of Meaning (philosophy of language), meanin ...
—referenced in Derrida's ''Signature Event Context''—was that Derrida had no apparent familiarity with contemporary philosophy of language nor of contemporary linguistics in Anglo-Saxon countries. Searle explains, "When Derrida writes about the philosophy of language he refers typically to
Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects ...
and Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, Condillac, not to mention
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. He founded the Platonist school of thou ...
. And his idea of a "modern linguist" is Émile Benveniste, Benveniste or even Saussure." Searle describes Derrida's philosophical knowledge as Ludwig Wittgenstein, pre-Wittgensteinian—that is to say, disconnected from analytic tradition—and consequently, in his perspective, naive and misguided, concerned with issues long-since resolved or otherwise found to be ''non''-issues. Searle also wrote in ''The New York Review of Books'' that he was surprised by "the low level of philosophical argumentation, the deliberate obscurantism of the prose, the wildly exaggerated claims, and the constant striving to give the appearance of profundity by making claims that seem paradoxical, but under analysis often turn out to be silly or trivial." Derrida, in his response to Searle ( in ''Limited Inc''), ridiculed Searle's positions. Claiming that a clear sender of Searle's message could not be established, he suggested that Searle had formed with Austin a ''société à responsabilité limitée'' (a "limited liability company") due to the ways in which the ambiguities of authorship within Searle's reply circumvented the very speech act of his reply. Searle did not reply. Later in 1988, Derrida tried to review his position and his critiques of Austin and Searle, reiterating that he found the constant appeal to "normality" in the analytical tradition to be problematic from which they were only paradigmatic examples. He continued arguing how problematic was establishing the relation between "nonfiction or standard discourse" and "fiction," defined as its "parasite", "for part of the most original essence of the latter is to allow fiction, the simulacrum, parasitism, to take place-and in so doing to 'de-essentialize' itself as it were".Jacques Derrida, "Afterwords" in ''Limited, Inc.'' (Northwestern University Press, 1988), p. 133. He would finally argue that the indispensable question would then become: In the debate, Derrida praises Austin's work but argues that he is wrong to banish what Austin calls "infelicities" from the "normal" operation of language. One "infelicity," for instance, occurs when it cannot be known whether a given speech act is "sincere" or "merely citational" (and therefore possibly ironic, etc.). Derrida argues that every iteration is necessarily "citational," due to the graphematic nature of speech and writing, and that language could not work at all without the ever-present and ineradicable possibility of such alternate readings. Derrida takes Searle to task for his attempt to get around this issue by grounding final authority in the speaker's inaccessible "intention". Derrida argues that intention cannot possibly govern how an iteration signifies, once it becomes hearable or readable. All speech acts borrow a language whose significance is determined by historical-linguistic context, and by the alternate possibilities that this context makes possible. This significance, Derrida argues, cannot be altered or governed by the whims of intention. In 1994, Searle argued that the ideas upon which deconstruction is founded are essentially a consequence of a series of conceptual confusions made by Derrida as a result of his outdated knowledge or are merely banalities. He insisted that Derrida's conception of ''iterability'' and its alleged corrupting effect on meaning stems from Derrida's ignorance of the type–token distinction that exists in current linguistics and
philosophy of language In analytic philosophy, philosophy of language investigates the nature of language and the relations between language, language users, and the world. Investigations may include inquiry into the nature of Meaning (philosophy of language), meanin ...
. As Searle explains, "Most importantly, from the fact that different tokens of a sentence type can be uttered on different occasions with different intentions, that is, different speaker meanings, nothing of any significance follows about the original speaker meaning of the original utterance token." In 1995, Searle gave a brief reply to Derrida in ''The Construction of Social Reality''. He called Derrida's conclusion "preposterous" and stated that "Derrida, as far as I can tell, does not have an argument. He simply declares that there is nothing outside of texts..." Searle's reference here is not to anything forwarded in the debate, but to a mistranslation of the phrase "''il n'y a pas de hors-texte''" ("there is no outside-text"), which appears in Derrida's '' Of Grammatology''. According to Searle, the consistent pattern of Derrida's rhetoric is:
(a) announce a preposterous thesis, e.g. "there is no outside-text" (''il n'y a pas de hors-texte'');
(b) when challenged on ''(a)'' respond that you have been misunderstood and revise the claim in ''(a)'' such that it becomes a truism, e.g. "' means nothing else: there is nothing outside contexts";
(c) when the reformulation from ''(b)'' is acknowledged then proceed as if the ''original'' formulation from ''(a)'' was accepted. The revised idea—for example that ''everything exists in some context''—is a banality, but a charade ensues as if the original claim—''nothing exists outside of text'' [''sic'']—had been established.


Cambridge honorary doctorate

In 1992 some academics at Cambridge University, mostly not from the philosophy faculty, proposed that Derrida be awarded an honorary doctorate. This was opposed by, among others, the university's Professor of Philosophy David Hugh Mellor, Hugh Mellor. Eighteen other philosophers from US, Austrian, Australian, French, Polish, Italian, German, Dutch, Swiss, Spanish, and British institutions, including Barry Smith (academic and ontologist), Barry Smith, Willard Van Orman Quine, David Malet Armstrong, David Armstrong, Ruth Barcan Marcus, and René Thom, then sent a letter to Cambridge claiming that Derrida's work "does not meet accepted standards of clarity and rigour" and describing Derrida's philosophy as being composed of "tricks and gimmicks similar to those of the Dadaists". The letter concluded that: In the end the protesters were outnumbered—336 votes to 204—when Cambridge put the motion to a formal ballot;John Rawlings (librarian), John Rawlings (1999
Presidential Lectures: Jacques Derrida: Introduction
at Stanford University
though almost all of those who proposed Derrida and who voted in favour were not from the philosophy faculty. Hugh Mellor continued to find the award undeserved, explaining: "He is a mediocre, unoriginal philosopher — he is not even interestingly bad". Derrida suggested in an interview that part of the reason for the attacks on his work was that it questioned and modified "the rules of the dominant discourse, it tries to politicize and democratize education and the university scene". To answer a question about the "exceptional violence", the compulsive "ferocity", and the "exaggeration" of the "attacks", he would say that these critics organize and practice in his case "a sort of obsessive personality cult that philosophers should know how to question and above all to moderate".


Dispute with Richard Wolin and the ''NYRB''

Richard Wolin has argued since 1991 that Derrida's work, as well as that of Derrida's major inspirations (e.g., Bataille, Blanchot, Levinas, Heidegger, Nietzsche), leads to a corrosive nihilism. For example, Wolin argues that the "deconstructive gesture of overturning and reinscription ends up by threatening to efface many of the essential differences between Nazism and non-Nazism".Richard Wolin, Preface to the MIT press edition: Note on a missing text. In R. Wolin (ed.) ''The Heidegger Controversy: A Critical Reader''. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 1993, p. xiii. . In 1991, when Wolin published a Derrida interview on Heidegger in the first edition of ''The Heidegger Controversy'', Derrida argued that the interview was an intentionally malicious mistranslation, which was "demonstrably execrable" and "weak, simplistic, and compulsively aggressive". As French law requires the consent of an author to translations and this consent was not given, Derrida insisted that the interview not appear in any subsequent editions or reprints. Columbia University Press subsequently refused to offer reprints or new editions. Later editions of ''The Heidegger Controversy'' by MIT Press also omitted the Derrida interview. The matter achieved public exposure owing to a friendly review of Wolin's book by the Heideggerian scholar Thomas Sheehan (academic), Thomas Sheehan that appeared in ''The New York Review of Books'', in which Sheehan characterised Derrida's protests as an imposition of censorship. It was followed by an exchange of letters.NYBooks.com: 2658
and
NYBooks.com: 2591.
/ref> Derrida in turn responded to Sheehan and Wolin, in "The Work of Intellectuals and the Press (The Bad Example: How the New York Review of Books and Company do Business)", which was published in the book ''Points...''.Derrida, "The Work of Intellectuals and the Press (The Bad Example: How the New York Review of Books and Company do Business)", published in the book ''Points...'' (1995; see the footnote about , Jacques Derrida bibliography, here) (see also the [1992] French version ''Points de suspension: entretiens'' () Jacques Derrida bibliography, there). Twenty-four academics, belonging to different schools and groups – often in disagreement with each other and with deconstruction – signed a letter addressed to ''The New York Review of Books'', in which they expressed their indignation for the magazine's behaviour as well as that of Sheenan and Wolin.''Points'', p. 434.


Critical obituaries

Critical obituaries of Derrida were published in ''The New York Times'', ''The Economist'', and ''The Independent''.''The Independent''.
/ref> The magazine ''The Nation'' responded to the ''New York Times'' obituary saying that "even though American papers had scorned and trivialized Derrida before, the tone seemed particularly caustic for an obituary of an internationally acclaimed philosopher who had profoundly influenced two generations of American humanities scholars".Ross Benjamin
Hostile Obituary for Derrida
', The Nation, 24 November 2004.
Jonathan Culler (2008)
Why deconstruction still matters: A conversation with Jonathan Culler
', interviewed by Paul Sawyer for ''The Cornell Chronicle'', 24 January 2008.


Works by Derrida


See also

* Gadamer–Derrida debate * Difference (poststructuralism)


Notes


Works cited

*Geoffrey Bennington (1991).
Jacques Derrida
', University of Chicago Press. Section ''Curriculum vitae'', pp. 325–36

*John D. Caputo, Caputo, John D. (ed.) (1997). ''Deconstruction in a Nutshell: A Conversation with Jacques Derrida''. New York: Fordham University Press. Transcript (which is also available ) of the Roundtable Discussion with Jacques Derrida at Villanova University, 3 October 1994. With commentary by Caputo. * Hélène Cixous, Cixous, Hélène (2001). ''Portrait of Jacques Derrida as a Young Jewish Saint'' (English edition, New York: Columbia University Press, 2004). *Derrida (1967): interview with Henri Ronse, republished in '' Positions'' (English edition, Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1981). *Derrida (1971): interview with Guy Scarpetta, republished in ''Positions'' (English edition, Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1981). *Derrida (1976). ''Where a Teaching Body Begins and How It Ends'', republished in ''Who's Afraid of Philosophy?''. *Derrida (1988). ''Afterword: Toward An Ethic of Discussion'', published in the English translation of ''Limited Inc.'' *Derrida (1989). ''This Strange Institution Called Literature'', interview published in ''Acts of Literature'' (1991), pp. 33–75 *Derrida (1990). ''Once Again from the Top: Of the Right to Philosophy'', interview with Robert Maggiori for ''Libération'', 15 November 1990, republished in ''Points...: Interviews, 1974–1994'' (1995). *Derrida (1991). "A 'Madness' Must Watch Over Thinking", interview with Francois Ewald for ''Le Magazine Litteraire'', March 1991, republished in ''Points...: Interviews, 1974–1994'' (1995). *Derrida (1992). Derrida's interview in ''The Cambridge Review'' 113, October 1992. Reprinted in ''Points...: Interviews, 1974–1994'' Stanford University Press (1995) and retitled as ''Honoris Causa'': "This is ''also'' extremely funny," pp. 399–421
Excerpt
*Derrida (1993). '' Specters of Marx''. *Derrida ''et al.'' (1994): roundtable discussion
''Of the Humanities and Philosophical Disciplines''
Surfaces Vol. VI.108 (v.1.0A – 16 August 1996) – Later republished in ''Ethics, Institutions, and the Right to Philosophy'' (2002). *Derrida and Ferraris (1997). ''I Have a Taste for Secret'', 1993–5 conversations with Maurizio Ferraris and Giorgio Vattimo, in Derrida and Ferraris [1997
''A Taste for the Secret''
translated by Giacomo Donis. *Derrida (1997): interview ''Les Intellectuels: tentative de définition par eux-mêmes. Enquête'', published in a special number of journal ''Lignes'', 32 (1997): 57–68, republished in
Papier Machine
' (2001), and translated into English as '' Intellectuals. Attempt at Definition by Themselves. Survey'', in Derrida (2005) ''Paper machine''. *Derrida (2002): Q&A session at Film Forum, New York City, 23 October 2002, transcript by Gil Kofman. Published in Kirby Dick, Amy Ziering Kofman, Jacques Derrida (2005)
''Derrida: screenplay and essays on the film''
*Gerald Graff, Graff, Gerald (1993)
''Is Reason in Trouble?''
in ''Proc. Am. Philos. Soc.'', 137, no. 4, 1993, pp. 680–88. *Lawrence D. Kritzman, Kritzman, Lawrence (ed., 2005).
The Columbia History of Twentieth-Century French Thought
', Columbia University Press. *Louis H. Mackey, Mackey, Louis (1984) with a reply by John Searle, Searle
''An Exchange on Deconstruction''
in ''New York Review of Books'', 2 February 1984. *Peeters, Benoît (2012).
Derrida: A Biography
'. Polity. *Jason Powell, Powell, Jason (2006).
Jacques Derrida: A Biography
'. London and New York: Continuum. *Mark Poster, Poster, Mark (1988)
''Critical theory and poststructuralism: in search of a context''
section ''Introduction: Theory and the problem of Context''. *Mark Poster, Poster, Mark (2010)
''McLuhan and the Cultural Theory of Media''
''MediaTropes eJournal'', Vol. II, No. 2 (2010): 1–18. *John Searle, Searle (1983).
The Word Turned Upside Down
', in ''The New York Review of Books'', October 1983. *John Searle, Searle (2000).
Reality Principles: An Interview with John R. Searle
'. Reason.com. February 2000 issue. Retrieved 30 August 2010.


Further reading


Biographies

*Peeters, Benoît (2012) ''Derrida: A Biography''. Cambridge: Polity *Salmon, Peter (2020) ''An Event, Perhaps: A Biography of Jacques Derrida''. London: Verso.


Introductory works

*Adleman, Dan (2010) "Deconstricting Derridean Genre Theory"
PDF
*Culler, Jonathan (1975) ''Structuralist Poetics''. *Culler, Jonathan (1983) ''On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism''. *Descombes, Vincent (1980) ''Modern French Philosophy''. *Deutscher, Penelope (2006) ''How to Read Derrida'' (). * Mark Dooley and Liam Kavanagh (2007) ''The Philosophy of Derrida'', London: Acumen Press, 2006; Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. *Goldschmit, Marc (2003) ''Jacques Derrida, une introduction'' Paris, Agora Pocket, . *Leslie Hill, Hill, Leslie (2007
''The Cambridge introduction to Jacques Derrida''
*Fredric Jameson, Jameson, Fredric (1972) ''The Prison-House of Language''. *Leitch, Vincent B. (1983) ''Deconstructive Criticism: An Advanced Introduction''. *Lentricchia, Frank (1980) ''After the New Criticism''. *Moati Raoul (2009), Derrida/Searle, déconstruction et langage ordinaire *Christopher Norris (critic), Norris, Christopher (1987) ''Derrida'' (). *Norris, Christopher (1982) ''Deconstruction: Theory and Practice''. *Thomas, Michael (2006) ''The Reception of Derrida: Translation and Transformation''. *Christopher Wise, Wise, Christopher (2009) ''Derrida, Africa, and the Middle East''.


Other works

*Giorgio Agamben, Agamben, Giorgio. "Pardes: The Writing of Potentiality," in Giorgio Agamben, ''Potentialities: Collected Essays in Philosophy'', ed. and trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005. 205–19. *Beardsworth, Richard, ''Derrida and the Political'' (). *Geoffrey Bennington, Bennington, Geoffrey, ''Legislations'' (). *Bennington, Geoffrey, ''Interrupting Derrida'' (). * Simon Critchley, Critchley, Simon, *John D. Caputo, Caputo, John D., ''The Prayers and Tears of Jacques Derrida''. * Coward, Harold G. (ed) ''Derrida and Negative theology'', SUNY 1992. *Federico Dal Bo, Dal Bo, F. ''Deconstructing the Talmud'' Routledge 2019. *Paul de Man, de Man, Paul, "The Rhetoric of Blindness: Jacques Derrida's Reading of Rousseau," in Paul de Man, ''Blindness and Insight: Essays in the Rhetoric of Contemporary Criticism'', second edition, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983. 102–41. *Nader El-Bizri, El-Bizri, Nader, "Qui-êtes vous Khôra?: Receiving
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a Greeks, Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece. He founded the Platonist school of thou ...
's Timaeus", ''Existentia Meletai-Sophias'' 11 (2001), pp. 473–490. *Nader El-Bizri, El-Bizri, Nader, "''ON KAI KHORA'': Situating Heidegger between the ''Sophist'' and the ''Timaeus (dialogue), Timaeus''," ''Studia Phaenomenologica'' 4 (2004), pp. 73–98. * Fabbri, Lorenzo
"Chronotopologies of the Exception. Agamben and Derrida before the Camps"
"Diacritics", Volume 39, Number 3 (2009): 77–95. *Michel Foucault, Foucault, Michel, "My Body, This Paper, This Fire," in Michel Foucault, ''History of Madness'', ed. Jean Khalfa, trans. Jonathan Murphy and Jean Khalfa, London: Routledge, 2006. 550–74. * Fradet, Pierre-Alexandre, ''Derrida-Bergson. Sur l'immédiateté'', Éditions Hermann, Hermann, Paris, coll. "Hermann Philosophie", 2014. *Rodolphe Gasché, Gasché, Rodolphe, ''Inventions of Difference: On Jacques Derrida''. *Gasché, Rodolphe, ''The Tain of the Mirror''. *Goldschmit, Marc, ''Une langue à venir. Derrida, l'écriture hyperbolique'' Paris, Lignes et Manifeste, 2006. *Jürgen Habermas, Habermas, Jürgen, "Beyond a Temporalized Philosophy of Origins: Jacques Derrida's Critique of Phonocentrism," in Jürgen Habermas, ''The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures'', trans. Frederick G. Lawrence, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990. 161-84. *Martin Hägglund, Hägglund, Martin, ''Radical Atheism: Derrida and the Time of Life'', Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008. *Werner Hamacher, Hamacher, Werner, ''Lingua amissa'', Buenos Aires: Miño y Dávila editores, 2012. * *Mario Kopić, Kopić, Mario, ''Izazovi post-metafizike'', Sremski Karlovci - Novi Sad: Izdavačka knjižarnica, 2007. () *Mario Kopić, Kopić, Mario, ''Nezacjeljiva rana svijeta'', Zagreb: Antibarbarus, 2007. () * Louis H. Mackey, Mackey, Louis, "Slouching Toward Bethlehem: Deconstructive Strategies in Theology," in ''Anglican Theological Review, Volume LXV, Number 3'', July 1983. 255–272. *John Llewelyn, Llewelyn, John, ''Derrida on the Threshold of Sense'', London: Macmillan, 1986. *Llewelyn, John, ''Appositions – of Jacques Derrida and Emmanuel Levinas'', Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002. *Llewelyn, John, ''Margins of Religion: Between Kierkegaard and Derrida'', Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009. * Louis H. Mackey, Mackey, Louis, "A Nicer Knowledge of Belief" in Loius Mackey, ''An Ancient Quarrel Continued: The Troubled Marriage of Philosophy and Literature'', Lanham, University Press of America, 2002. 219–240 (). *Robert Magliola, Magliola, Robert, ''Derrida on the Mend'', Lafayette: Purdue UP, 1984; 1986; rpt. 2000 (). (Initiated what has become a very active area of study in Buddhology and comparative philosophy, the comparison of Derridean deconstruction and Buddhist philosophy, especially Madhyamikan and Zen Buddhist philosophy.) *Robert Magliola, Magliola, Robert, ''On Deconstructing Life-Worlds: Buddhism, Christianity, Culture'', Atlanta: Scholars P, American Academy of Religion, 1997; Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000 (). (Further develops comparison of Derridean thought and Buddhism.) *Michael Marder, Marder, Michael,
The Event of the Thing: Derrida's Post-Deconstructive Realism
', Toronto: Toronto UP, 2009. () *J. Hillis Miller, Miller, J. Hillis, ''For Derrida'', New York: Fordham University Press, 2009. *Chantal Mouffe, Mouffe, Chantal (ed.), ''Deconstruction and Pragmatism'', with essays by Simon Critchley, Ernesto Laclau, Richard Rorty, and Derrida. *Park, Jin Y., ed., ''Buddhisms and Deconstructions'', Lanham: Rowland and Littlefield, 2006 (; ). (Several of the collected papers specifically treat Derrida and Buddhist thought.) *Rapaport, Herman, ''Later Derrida'' (). * Richard Rorty, Rorty, Richard, "From Ironist Theory to Private Allusions: Derrida," in Richard Rorty, ''Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity'', Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. 121-37. *Stephen David Ross, Ross, Stephen David, ''Betraying Derrida, for Life'', Atropos Press, 2013. * Elisabeth Roudinesco, Roudinesco, Elisabeth, ''Philosophy in Turbulent Times: Canguilhem, Sartre, Foucault, Althusser, Deleuze, Derrida'', Columbia University Press, New York, 2008. *John Sallis, Sallis, John (ed.), ''Deconstruction and Philosophy'', with essays by Rodolphe Gasché, John D. Caputo, Robert Bernasconi, David Wood, and Derrida. * *Salvioli, Marco, ''Il Tempo e le Parole. Ricoeur e Derrida a "margine" della fenomenologia'', ESD, Bologna 2006. *James K. A. Smith, Smith, James K. A., ''Jacques Derrida: Live Theory''. *Sprinker, Michael, ed. ''Ghostly Demarcations: A Symposium on Jacques Derrida's Specters of Marx'', London and New York: Verso, 1999; rpt. 2008. (Includes Derrida's reply, "Marx & Sons.") *Bernard Stiegler, Stiegler, Bernard, "Derrida and Technology: Fidelity at the Limits of Deconstruction and the Prosthesis of Faith," in Tom Cohen (ed.), ''Jacques Derrida and the Humanities'' (). *David Wood (philosopher), Wood, David (ed.), ''Derrida: A Critical Reader'', Wiley-Blackwell, 1992. *Zlomislic, Marko, ''Jacques Derrida's Aporetic Ethics'', Lexington Books, 2004.


External links

* Leonard Lawlor.
Entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
* Gerry Coulter.

Volume 2, Number 1, January 2005 * John Rawlings.
''Jacques Derrida''
Stanford Presidential Lectures in the Humanities and Arts * Jean-Michel Rabaté. Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory. * Eddie Yeghiayan. (up to 2001), Bibliography and translations list
Guide to the Jacques Derrida Papers.
Special Collections and Archives, The UC Irvine Libraries, Irvine, California.
Guide to the Saffa Fathy Video Recordings of Jacques Derrida Lectures.
Special Collections and Archives, The UC Irvine Libraries, Irvine, California.
Guide to the Jacques Derrida Listserv Collection.
Special Collections and Archives, The UC Irvine Libraries, Irvine, California. * Mario Perniola
''Remembering Derrida''
in "SubStance" (University of California), 2005, n.1, issue 106. * Rick Roderick
and the Ends of Man''
in "The Self Under Siege: Philosophy in the 20th Century (1993)" (University of Texas, Austin). {{DEFAULTSORT:Derrida, Jacques Jacques Derrida, 1930 births 2004 deaths Deaths from cancer in France Deaths from pancreatic cancer French architecture writers French essayists French male non-fiction writers Postmodern writers Writers about activism and social change Writers from Algiers 20th-century anthropologists 20th-century essayists 20th-century French male writers 20th-century French philosophers 20th-century translators 21st-century anthropologists 21st-century essayists 21st-century French male writers 21st-century French philosophers 21st-century translators Architectural theoreticians Continental philosophers Deconstruction Epistemologists Founders of philosophical traditions Jewish philosophers Judaism and environmentalism Metaphysicians Moral philosophers Ontologists Phenomenologists Philosophers of art Philosophers of culture Philosophers of education Philosophers of ethics and morality Philosophers of history Philosophers of language Philosophers of law Philosophers of linguistics Philosophers of literature Philosophers of mind Philosophers of psychology Philosophers of science Philosophers of social science Philosophers of technology Philosophical debates Philosophy academics Philosophy teachers Political philosophers Social philosophers Anti–Iraq War activists Cultural critics Democracy activists French environmentalists French literary critics French semioticians French social commentators French translation scholars Hermeneutists Literacy and society theorists Literary theorists Poststructuralists Rhetoric theorists Semanticists Social critics Theorists on Western civilization Trope theorists African Sephardi Jews Mizrahi Jews Algerian emigrants to France Algerian Jews People from El Biar Pieds-Noirs École Normale Supérieure alumni École Normale Supérieure faculty European Graduate School faculty Harvard University alumni University of California, Irvine faculty University of Paris faculty