Jack Patrick Dorsey (born November 19, 1976) is an American
computer programmer and Internet entrepreneur who is co-founder and
CEO of Twitter, and founder and CEO of Square, a mobile payments
1 Early life
2.2 Square, Inc.
2.3 Other projects
5 Further reading
6 External links
Dorsey was born and raised in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of
Marcia (Smith) and Tim Dorsey. He is of English, Irish and
Italian descent. His father worked for a company that developed
mass spectrometers and his mother was a homemaker. He was raised
Catholic, and his uncle is a Catholic priest in Cincinnati. He
attended the Catholic Bishop DuBourg High School.
By age fourteen, Dorsey had become interested in dispatch routing.
Some of the open-source software he created in the area of dispatch
logistics is still used by many taxi cab companies. Dorsey
attended the University of Missouri–Rolla for two-plus years
(1995–1997) before transferring to New York University, but he
dropped out in 1999, one semester short of graduating. He
first came up with the idea that he developed as
studying at New York University.
While working on dispatching as a programmer, Dorsey moved to
In Oakland in 2000, Dorsey started his company to dispatch couriers,
taxis, and emergency services from the Web. His other projects and
ideas at this time included networks of medical devices and a
"frictionless service market". In July 2000, building on
dispatching and inspired in part by
LiveJournal and by AOL Instant
Messenger, he had the idea for a Web-based realtime status/short
message communication service.
When he first saw implementations of instant messaging, Dorsey
wondered whether the software's user status output could be shared
easily among friends. He approached Odeo, which at the time
happened to be interested in text messaging. Dorsey and Biz Stone
decided that SMS text suited the status-message idea, and built a
Twitter in about two weeks. The idea attracted many
Odeo and investment from Evan Williams, who had left
Google after selling
Pyra Labs and Blogger.
Main article: Twitter
Dorsey in 2008
Dorsey at a
Twitter Town Hall during 2011 alongside United States
President Barack Obama
Williams, Stone and Noah Glass co-founded Obvious Corporation, which
then spun off
Twitter Inc., with Dorsey as the Chief Executive Officer
(CEO). As chief executive officer, Dorsey saw the startup
through two rounds of funding by the venture capitalists who backed
the company. He reportedly lost his position for leaving work
early to enjoy other pursuits, such as yoga and fashion design.
As the service began to grow in popularity, Dorsey chose the
improvement of uptime as top priority, even over creating
revenue – which, as of 2008,
Twitter was not designed to
earn. Dorsey described the commercial use of
Twitter and its API
as two things that could lead to paid features. He describes his
three guiding principles, which he says are shared by the company, as
simplicity, constraint and craftsmanship.
On October 16, 2008, Williams took over the role of CEO, while
Dorsey became chairman of the board. On March 28, 2011, Dorsey
Twitter as Executive Chairman after
Dick Costolo replaced
Williams as the CEO. On June 10, 2015, Costolo announced that he
was resigning as CEO of Twitter, effective July 1, 2015. Dorsey would
assume the post of Interim CEO upon Costolo's departure. He was
named permanent CEO of
Twitter on October 5, 2015. On the day
after the controversy about Twitter's new algorithms for tweets,
Dorsey responded to the trend, saying it was only a hoax.
In May 2016, Dorsey announced that
Twitter would not count photos and
links in the 140-character limit to free up more space for text. This
move was an attempt to entice new users, since the number of tweets
per day had dropped to about 300 million in January 2016 compared to
about 500 million in September 2013 and its peak of 661 million in
On November 17, 2016, Dorsey tweeted a public apology for an automated
system error that allowed a "hate ad" to appear on
violated Twitter's user policy. The error occurred within one day of
Twitter suspending multiple accounts associated with the alt-right
On November 22, 2016, Dorsey was briefly suspended from his own
Twitter user account with 3.9 million followers. After restoring the
account, Dorsey tweeted the suspension was due to an "internal
In February 2017, Dorsey and Executive Chairman Omid Kordestan matched
a $530,000 donation to the
American Civil Liberties Union
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
Twitter staffers. Their match brought the total donation to
In March 2018,
Jack Dorsey announced that an improved version of the
verification system is coming to Twitter. The purpose of redesigning
verification is to let people verify more facts about themselves,
emphasizing proof of identity. The overhaul may be in place before
the U.S midterm election of 2018 and help in verifying the identities
of the candidates.
Main article: Square, Inc.
Dorsey, along with co-founder Jim McKelvey, developed a small business
platform to accept debit and credit card payments on a mobile device
called Square, released in May 2010. The small, square-shaped device
attaches to iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, or Android devices via the
headphone jack, and as a mini card reader allows a person to swipe
their card, choose an amount to transfer to the recipient and then
sign their name for confirmation. Square is also a system for sending
paperless receipts via text message or email, and is available as a
free app for iOS and Android OS. The company grew from 10
employees in December 2009 to over a hundred employees by June
2011. Square's office is located on Market Street in San
Francisco. In September 2012,
Business Insider magazine valued
Square Inc. at US$3.2 billion. Dorsey is CEO of Square, Inc.
On October 14, 2015, Square filed for an IPO to be listed on the New
York Stock Exchange. As of that date, Dorsey owned 24.4% of the
Producer Tom Anderson and correspondent
Lara Logan interviewed Dorsey
for a segment of
60 Minutes called "The Innovator: Jack Dorsey"
which aired during March 2013. In 2013, talking to CNN, Dorsey
expressed admiration for
Michael Bloomberg and his reinvention through
design and simple interfaces of what it means to be mayor. Dorsey
thinks becoming mayor of New York City is an aspiration that would
raise the bar for him. He served as a judge for New York City
Mayor Michael Bloomberg's
NYC BigApps competition in 2011. Dorsey
is an on-record donor to Democratic Party candidates.
Dorsey was announced as a new member of the board of directors of The
Walt Disney Company on December 24, 2013. The press release referred
to Dorsey as a "talented entrepreneur" and explained that his
experience is aligned with the corporation's "strategic
priorities." In January 2018, it was reported that Dorsey would
not seek re-election at Disney's March annual meeting, due to
increased difficulty at avoiding conflicts of interest.
He is also a board member of the Berggruen Institute's Governance
Biz Stone and Dorsey accepting a Crunchie award for best mobile
In 2008, he was named to the
MIT Technology Review
MIT Technology Review
TR35 as one of the
top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35. For 2012, The
Wall Street Journal gave him the "Innovator of the Year Award" for
At the 5th Annual Crunchies Awards in 2012, hosted by TechCrunch,
Dorsey was named Founder of the Year.
Dorsey was ranked by Fox Business as the #4 Worst CEO of 2016.
In 2017, 24/7 Wall St. listed Dorsey among the 2017 Worst CEOs in
^ "Jack Dorsey". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2014. Retrieved December
Jack Dorsey as CEO".
CNN Money. October 5, 2015.
Retrieved October 5, 2015.
^ "Jack Dorsey". Forbes.
^ "Board of directors – About". Twitter. Retrieved January 31,
^ "About Square". Square. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
^ Dorsey, Marcia [@marciadorsey] (November 19, 2013). "This date/day
is one of the BEST days of my LIFE! I am SO BLESSED...🎈Happy
Birthday Jack Patrick Dorsey, (aka) @jack!" (Tweet) – via
^ Strange, Adario (April 20, 2007). "Flickr Document Reveals Origin Of
Twitter". Wired News. CondéNet. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
Twitter founders: Jack Dorsey,
Biz Stone and Evan Williams.
Telegraph. Retrieved on January 14, 2014.
^ Taste of
St. Louis first major event to use Square : Business.
Stltoday.com (September 29, 2010). Retrieved on January 14, 2014.
^ a b c d e f g h Glaser, Mark (May 17, 2007). "
Thrive on Micro-Blogging Constraints". MediaShift. Retrieved November
^ Jack Dorsey, creador de twitter: 'En 140 caracteres la gente se
siente más libre al escribir' CIENCIA&TECNOLOGÍA.
latercera.com. Retrieved on January 14, 2014.
^ The Virginian-Pilot Archives. Nl.newsbank.com (November 26, 2009).
Retrieved on January 14, 2014.
Jack Dorsey Believes That Eating Purple Food Makes You Healthier.
Vanity Fair (March 21, 2012). Retrieved on January 14, 2014.
^ Robehmed, Natalie (September 30, 2014). "The youngest billionaires
on the Forbes 400: 11 under 40". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved October 1,
^ a b c Barker, Tim (November 15, 2009). "Native son sets St. Louis
St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
^ Rampton, John (September 22, 2016). "12 of the most successful
entrepreneurs who dropped out of college". Mashable. Retrieved January
^ "Co-founder of
Twitter receives key to
St. Louis with 140 character
proclamation". ksdk.com. KSDK. September 19, 2009. Retrieved September
29, 2009. After high school in
St. Louis and some time at the
University of Missouri–Rolla, Jack headed east to New York
^ BusinessWeek (March 26, 2007). "Tech's Next Gen: The Best and
Brightest". BusinessWeek. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved
November 5, 2008.
^ Dorsey, Jack (April 8, 2009). "To be clear: I didn't attend Cornell
(and didn't invent
Twitter there)". Twitter. Retrieved April 13,
^ a b c Dorsey, Jack (March 24, 2006). "twttr sketch". Flickr. Yahoo!.
Retrieved November 7, 2008.
^ Hoge, Patrick (December 23, 2011). "Executive of the Year: Jack
San Francisco Business Times. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
^ Miller, Claire Cain (October 16, 2008). "
Twitter Sidelines One
Founder and Promotes Another". The New York Times. The New York Times
Company. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
^ "The Approval Matrix". Entertainment. New York magazine. October 21,
2013. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
^ Wagner, Mitch (June 24, 2008). "
Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey: Improved
Uptime Is Top Priority". InformationWeek. United Business ...Media.
Retrieved November 5, 2008.
^ a b c Wagner, Mitch (June 24, 2008). "
Jack Dorsey Talks
About Its Business Model". InformationWeek. United Business Media.
Retrieved November 5, 2008.
^ Miller, Claire Cain (October 20, 2008). "Popularity or Income? Two
Sites Fight It Out". The New York Times. The New York Times Company.
Retrieved November 5, 2008.
^ McCarthy, Caroline (October 16, 2008). "
Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey
steps down". CNET News.
CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 5,
Jack Dorsey Tells David Kirkpatrick How It Felt to Be Ousted from
Twitter and Discusses His Big New Idea: Square". Vanity Fair. March 3,
2011. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
Jack Dorsey Officially Returns to Twitter". Mashable. March 28,
2011. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
^ Primack, Dan (June 11, 2015). "
Dick Costolo is Out, Jack
Dorsey Back In". Retrieved April 30, 2017.
^ Koh, Yoree (October 5, 2015). "
Jack Dorsey CEO". The
Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved October 5,
^ "Jack on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
Jack Dorsey is moving too slowly to save Twitter". Business
Insider. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
^ Moyer, Edward (November 17, 2016). "
Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey
apologizes for neo-Nazi ad". cnet. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
^ Seetherman, Deepa (November 22, 2016). "
Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey's
Account Briefly Suspended". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November
^ Russell, Jon (February 1, 2017). "
Twitter staff donate $1.59M to the
ACLU to fight Trump on immigration". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 11,
^ Barron, Laignee (March 9, 2018). "
Twitter Wants to Open Verification
to All Users". Fortune. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
^ Guynn, Jessica (March 8, 2018). "
Jack Dorsey pledges
improve blue check mark verification system". USA Today. Retrieved
March 9, 2018.
^ "Square". Square. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
^ Hempel, Jessi (June 2, 2011). "Jack Dorsey: The man with two
brains". Fortune. Retrieved 2018-03-12.
^ Pollock, Jennifer (June 30, 2011). "CH+D Office Space: Square in San
Francisco's Chronicle Building".
California Home + Design. Retrieved
September 19, 2011.
^ "Square opens new headquarters in San Francisco, announces plans for
expanded offices in New York and Kitchener-Waterloo" (Press release).
Square, Inc. October 7, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
^ Shontell, Alyssa (October 3, 2012). "THE DIGITAL 100: The World's
Most Valuable Private Tech Companies". Business Insider. Retrieved
October 4, 2012.
^ Strugatz, Rachel (January 16, 2014). "
Jack Dorsey Looks to Simplify
Commerce With Square". WWD. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
^ Soper, Alex Barinka alexbarinka Spencer. "Square Files for IPO as
CEO Dorsey Juggles
Twitter Revamp". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved October
^ Rao, Leena (October 14, 2015). "Who owns what at Square". Fortune.
Retrieved November 25, 2017.
^ Lara Logan, correspondent. Tom Anderson, producer (March 17, 2013).
Jack Dorsey (13:14 running time). 60 Minutes: CBS
Interactive. Retrieved March 18, 2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names:
authors list (link)
^ a b Tapper, Jake; Pham, Sherisse (March 21, 2013). "
Jack Dorsey on
his desire to be mayor of New York City, Steve Jobs, and being a
bachelor". CNN. Turner Broadcasting. Retrieved March 25, 2013.
^ "MAYOR BLOOMBERG ANNOUNCES WINNERS OF NYC BIGAPPS 2.0 COMPETITION".
NYC.gov. March 31, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
^ "Donor Lookup: Jack Dorsey". OpenSecrets.org. The Center for
Responsive Politics. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
^ Anthony Ha (December 24, 2013). "
Jack Dorsey Joins Disney's Board Of
Directors". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
^ Palmeri, Christopher (January 12, 2018). "Sheryl Sandberg, Jack
Dorsey to Leave Disney's Board". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 13,
^ "Members of Governance Group". Berggruen Institute. Retrieved April
^ Ward, Vicky (May 11, 2016). "Why Nicolas Berggruen is Creating an
Institute for Geniuses". Town & Country. Retrieved April 17, 2017.
Another wing of the
Berggruen Institute has technologists like Elon
Twitter co-founder Jack Dorsey, as well as former treasury
secretary Larry Summers
TR35 Young Innovator". Technology Review. Massachusetts Institute
of Technology. 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
^ "Innovator of the Year Awards". WSJ. Magazine. Dow Jones. 2012.
Retrieved March 18, 2013. [dead link]
^ "Columbia to host Square and
Jack Dorsey on
September 16". Columbia College. Retrieved 2018-01-16.
^ TV, TechCrunch. "Founder of the Year:
Jack Dorsey (Square,
Twitter)". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2018-01-16.
^ Tobak, Steve (2016-12-21). "The Worst CEOs of 2016". Fox Business.
^ "20 Worst CEOs in America 2017". 247wallst.com. Retrieved
^ Mirabella, Lorraine. "Under Armour founder Kevin Plank lands on a
'Worst CEOs' list". baltimoresun.com. Retrieved 2018-01-16.
Max, D. T. (October 21, 2013). "Two-hit wonder". Profiles. The New
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See also: Acquisition of 21st Century Fox (pending)