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Jack Patrick Dorsey[6] (born November 19, 1976) is an American computer programmer and Internet entrepreneur who is co-founder and CEO of Twitter, and founder and CEO of Square, a mobile payments company.[7]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 Twitter 2.2 Square, Inc. 2.3 Other projects

3 Recognition 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Early life[edit] Dorsey was born and raised in St. Louis, Missouri,[8][9] the son of Marcia (Smith) and Tim Dorsey.[10][11][12] He is of English, Irish and Italian descent.[13] His father worked for a company that developed mass spectrometers and his mother was a homemaker.[14] He was raised Catholic, and his uncle is a Catholic priest in Cincinnati.[15] He attended the Catholic Bishop DuBourg High School. By age fourteen, Dorsey had become interested in dispatch routing. Some of the open-source software he created in the area of dispatch logistics is still used by many taxi cab companies.[10] Dorsey attended the University of Missouri–Rolla for two-plus years (1995–1997)[15] before transferring to New York University, but he dropped out in 1999,[16] one semester short of graduating.[15] He first came up with the idea that he developed as Twitter
Twitter
while studying at New York University.[17] While working on dispatching as a programmer, Dorsey moved to California.[18][19] In Oakland in 2000, Dorsey started his company to dispatch couriers, taxis, and emergency services from the Web.[20] His other projects and ideas at this time included networks of medical devices and a "frictionless service market".[20] In July 2000, building on dispatching[10] and inspired in part by LiveJournal
LiveJournal
and by AOL Instant Messenger, he had the idea for a Web-based realtime status/short message communication service.[20] When he first saw implementations of instant messaging, Dorsey wondered whether the software's user status output could be shared easily among friends.[10] He approached Odeo, which at the time happened to be interested in text messaging.[10] Dorsey and Biz Stone decided that SMS text suited the status-message idea, and built a prototype of Twitter
Twitter
in about two weeks.[10] The idea attracted many users at Odeo and investment from Evan Williams,[10] who had left Google
Google
after selling Pyra Labs and Blogger. Career[edit] Twitter[edit] Main article: Twitter

Dorsey in 2008

Dorsey at a Twitter
Twitter
Town Hall during 2011 alongside United States President Barack Obama

Williams, Stone and Noah Glass co-founded Obvious Corporation, which then spun off Twitter
Twitter
Inc., with Dorsey as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO).[10][21] As chief executive officer, Dorsey saw the startup through two rounds of funding by the venture capitalists who backed the company.[22] He reportedly lost his position for leaving work early to enjoy other pursuits, such as yoga and fashion design.[23] As the service began to grow in popularity, Dorsey chose the improvement of uptime as top priority,[24] even over creating revenue – which, as of 2008, Twitter
Twitter
was not designed to earn.[25] Dorsey described the commercial use of Twitter
Twitter
and its API as two things that could lead to paid features.[25] He describes his three guiding principles, which he says are shared by the company, as simplicity, constraint and craftsmanship.[25] On October 16, 2008,[26] Williams took over the role of CEO, while Dorsey became chairman of the board.[27][28] On March 28, 2011, Dorsey returned to Twitter
Twitter
as Executive Chairman after Dick Costolo replaced Williams as the CEO.[29] On June 10, 2015, Costolo announced that he was resigning as CEO of Twitter, effective July 1, 2015. Dorsey would assume the post of Interim CEO upon Costolo's departure.[30] He was named permanent CEO of Twitter
Twitter
on October 5, 2015.[31] On the day after the controversy about Twitter's new algorithms for tweets, Dorsey responded to the trend, saying it was only a hoax.[32] In May 2016, Dorsey announced that Twitter
Twitter
would not count photos and links in the 140-character limit to free up more space for text. This move was an attempt to entice new users, since the number of tweets per day had dropped to about 300 million in January 2016 compared to about 500 million in September 2013 and its peak of 661 million in August 2014.[33] On November 17, 2016, Dorsey tweeted a public apology for an automated system error that allowed a "hate ad" to appear on Twitter
Twitter
that violated Twitter's user policy. The error occurred within one day of Twitter
Twitter
suspending multiple accounts associated with the alt-right movement.[34] On November 22, 2016, Dorsey was briefly suspended from his own Twitter
Twitter
user account with 3.9 million followers. After restoring the account, Dorsey tweeted the suspension was due to an "internal mistake".[35] In February 2017, Dorsey and Executive Chairman Omid Kordestan matched a $530,000 donation to the American Civil Liberties Union
American Civil Liberties Union
(ACLU) raised by Twitter
Twitter
staffers. Their match brought the total donation to $1.59 million.[36] In March 2018, Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
announced that an improved version of the verification system is coming to Twitter. The purpose of redesigning verification is to let people verify more facts about themselves, emphasizing proof of identity.[37] The overhaul may be in place before the U.S midterm election of 2018 and help in verifying the identities of the candidates.[38] Square, Inc.[edit] Main article: Square, Inc. Dorsey, along with co-founder Jim McKelvey, developed a small business platform to accept debit and credit card payments on a mobile device called Square, released in May 2010. The small, square-shaped device attaches to iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch, or Android devices via the headphone jack, and as a mini card reader allows a person to swipe their card, choose an amount to transfer to the recipient and then sign their name for confirmation. Square is also a system for sending paperless receipts via text message or email, and is available as a free app for iOS and Android OS.[39][40] The company grew from 10 employees in December 2009[41] to over a hundred employees by June 2011. Square's office is located on Market Street in San Francisco.[42] In September 2012, Business Insider
Business Insider
magazine valued Square Inc. at US$3.2 billion.[43] Dorsey is CEO of Square, Inc.[44] On October 14, 2015, Square filed for an IPO to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange.[45] As of that date, Dorsey owned 24.4% of the company.[46] Other projects[edit] Producer Tom Anderson and correspondent Lara Logan
Lara Logan
interviewed Dorsey for a segment of CBS
CBS
60 Minutes
60 Minutes
called "The Innovator: Jack Dorsey" which aired during March 2013.[47] In 2013, talking to CNN, Dorsey expressed admiration for Michael Bloomberg
Michael Bloomberg
and his reinvention through design and simple interfaces of what it means to be mayor.[48] Dorsey thinks becoming mayor of New York City is an aspiration that would raise the bar for him.[48] He served as a judge for New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg's NYC BigApps competition in 2011.[49] Dorsey is an on-record donor to Democratic Party candidates.[50] Dorsey was announced as a new member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Company on December 24, 2013. The press release referred to Dorsey as a "talented entrepreneur" and explained that his experience is aligned with the corporation's "strategic priorities."[51] In January 2018, it was reported that Dorsey would not seek re-election at Disney's March annual meeting, due to increased difficulty at avoiding conflicts of interest.[52] He is also a board member of the Berggruen Institute's Governance Center.[53][54] Recognition[edit]

Biz Stone
Biz Stone
and Dorsey accepting a Crunchie award for best mobile startup

In 2008, he was named to the MIT Technology Review
MIT Technology Review
TR35 as one of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35.[55] For 2012, The Wall Street Journal gave him the "Innovator of the Year Award" for technology.[56][57] At the 5th Annual Crunchies Awards in 2012, hosted by TechCrunch, Dorsey was named Founder of the Year.[58] Dorsey was ranked by Fox Business as the #4 Worst CEO of 2016.[59] In 2017, 24/7 Wall St. listed Dorsey among the 2017 Worst CEOs in America.[60][61] References[edit]

^ "Jack Dorsey". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2014. Retrieved December 22, 2014.  ^ " Twitter
Twitter
names Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
as CEO". CNN
CNN
Money. October 5, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2015.  ^ "Jack Dorsey". Forbes.  ^ "Board of directors – About". Twitter. Retrieved January 31, 2017.  ^ "About Square". Square. Retrieved January 31, 2017.  ^ Dorsey, Marcia [@marciadorsey] (November 19, 2013). "This date/day is one of the BEST days of my LIFE! I am SO BLESSED...🎈Happy Birthday Jack Patrick Dorsey, (aka) @jack!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.  ^ Strange, Adario (April 20, 2007). "Flickr Document Reveals Origin Of Twitter". Wired News. CondéNet. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  ^ Profile Twitter
Twitter
founders: Jack Dorsey, Biz Stone
Biz Stone
and Evan Williams. Telegraph. Retrieved on January 14, 2014. ^ Taste of St. Louis
St. Louis
first major event to use Square : Business. Stltoday.com (September 29, 2010). Retrieved on January 14, 2014. ^ a b c d e f g h Glaser, Mark (May 17, 2007). " Twitter
Twitter
Founders Thrive on Micro-Blogging Constraints". MediaShift. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  ^ Jack Dorsey, creador de twitter: 'En 140 caracteres la gente se siente más libre al escribir' CIENCIA&TECNOLOGÍA. latercera.com. Retrieved on January 14, 2014. ^ The Virginian-Pilot Archives. Nl.newsbank.com (November 26, 2009). Retrieved on January 14, 2014. ^ Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
Believes That Eating Purple Food Makes You Healthier. Vanity Fair (March 21, 2012). Retrieved on January 14, 2014. ^ Robehmed, Natalie (September 30, 2014). "The youngest billionaires on the Forbes 400: 11 under 40". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved October 1, 2014.  ^ a b c Barker, Tim (November 15, 2009). "Native son sets St. Louis atwitter". St. Louis
St. Louis
Post-Dispatch. Retrieved January 17, 2018.  ^ Rampton, John (September 22, 2016). "12 of the most successful entrepreneurs who dropped out of college". Mashable. Retrieved January 16, 2018.  ^ "Co-founder of Twitter
Twitter
receives key to St. Louis
St. Louis
with 140 character proclamation". ksdk.com. KSDK. September 19, 2009. Retrieved September 29, 2009. After high school in St. Louis
St. Louis
and some time at the University of Missouri–Rolla, Jack headed east to New York University.  ^ BusinessWeek (March 26, 2007). "Tech's Next Gen: The Best and Brightest". BusinessWeek. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  ^ Dorsey, Jack (April 8, 2009). "To be clear: I didn't attend Cornell (and didn't invent Twitter
Twitter
there)". Twitter. Retrieved April 13, 2009.  ^ a b c Dorsey, Jack (March 24, 2006). "twttr sketch". Flickr. Yahoo!. Retrieved November 7, 2008.  ^ Hoge, Patrick (December 23, 2011). "Executive of the Year: Jack Dorsey". San Francisco
San Francisco
Business Times. Retrieved April 30, 2017.  ^ Miller, Claire Cain (October 16, 2008). " Twitter
Twitter
Sidelines One Founder and Promotes Another". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  ^ "The Approval Matrix". Entertainment. New York magazine. October 21, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2017.  ^ Wagner, Mitch (June 24, 2008). " Twitter
Twitter
CEO Jack Dorsey: Improved Uptime Is Top Priority". InformationWeek. United Business ...Media. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  ^ a b c Wagner, Mitch (June 24, 2008). " Twitter
Twitter
CEO Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
Talks About Its Business Model". InformationWeek. United Business Media. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  ^ Miller, Claire Cain (October 20, 2008). "Popularity or Income? Two Sites Fight It Out". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  ^ McCarthy, Caroline (October 16, 2008). " Twitter
Twitter
CEO Jack Dorsey steps down". CNET News. CBS
CBS
Interactive. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  ^ " Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
Tells David Kirkpatrick How It Felt to Be Ousted from Twitter
Twitter
and Discusses His Big New Idea: Square". Vanity Fair. March 3, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2017.  ^ " Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
Officially Returns to Twitter". Mashable. March 28, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2017.  ^ Primack, Dan (June 11, 2015). " Twitter
Twitter
CEO Dick Costolo is Out, Jack Dorsey Back In". Retrieved April 30, 2017.  ^ Koh, Yoree (October 5, 2015). " Twitter
Twitter
Names Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
CEO". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved October 5, 2015.  ^ "Jack on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved February 7, 2016.  ^ " Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
is moving too slowly to save Twitter". Business Insider. Retrieved May 17, 2016.  ^ Moyer, Edward (November 17, 2016). " Twitter
Twitter
CEO Jack Dorsey apologizes for neo-Nazi ad". cnet. Retrieved November 18, 2016.  ^ Seetherman, Deepa (November 22, 2016). " Twitter
Twitter
CEO Jack Dorsey's Account Briefly Suspended". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 23, 2016.  ^ Russell, Jon (February 1, 2017). " Twitter
Twitter
staff donate $1.59M to the ACLU to fight Trump on immigration". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 11, 2017.  ^ Barron, Laignee (March 9, 2018). " Twitter
Twitter
Wants to Open Verification to All Users". Fortune. Retrieved March 9, 2018.  ^ Guynn, Jessica (March 8, 2018). " Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
pledges Twitter
Twitter
will improve blue check mark verification system". USA Today. Retrieved March 9, 2018.  ^ "Square". Square. Retrieved October 7, 2014.  ^ Hempel, Jessi (June 2, 2011). "Jack Dorsey: The man with two brains". Fortune. Retrieved 2018-03-12.  ^ Pollock, Jennifer (June 30, 2011). "CH+D Office Space: Square in San Francisco's Chronicle Building". California
California
Home + Design. Retrieved September 19, 2011.  ^ "Square opens new headquarters in San Francisco, announces plans for expanded offices in New York and Kitchener-Waterloo" (Press release). Square, Inc.
Square, Inc.
October 7, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2014.  ^ Shontell, Alyssa (October 3, 2012). "THE DIGITAL 100: The World's Most Valuable Private Tech Companies". Business Insider. Retrieved October 4, 2012.  ^ Strugatz, Rachel (January 16, 2014). " Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
Looks to Simplify Commerce With Square". WWD. Retrieved January 16, 2014.  ^ Soper, Alex Barinka alexbarinka Spencer. "Square Files for IPO as CEO Dorsey Juggles Twitter
Twitter
Revamp". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved October 16, 2015.  ^ Rao, Leena (October 14, 2015). "Who owns what at Square". Fortune. Retrieved November 25, 2017.  ^ Lara Logan, correspondent. Tom Anderson, producer (March 17, 2013). The Innovator: Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
(13:14 running time). 60 Minutes: CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 18, 2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Tapper, Jake; Pham, Sherisse (March 21, 2013). " Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
on his desire to be mayor of New York City, Steve Jobs, and being a bachelor". CNN. Turner Broadcasting. Retrieved March 25, 2013.  ^ "MAYOR BLOOMBERG ANNOUNCES WINNERS OF NYC BIGAPPS 2.0 COMPETITION". NYC.gov. March 31, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2013.  ^ "Donor Lookup: Jack Dorsey". OpenSecrets.org. The Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved December 3, 2016.  ^ Anthony Ha (December 24, 2013). " Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
Joins Disney's Board Of Directors". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved December 25, 2013.  ^ Palmeri, Christopher (January 12, 2018). "Sheryl Sandberg, Jack Dorsey to Leave Disney's Board". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 13, 2018.  ^ "Members of Governance Group". Berggruen Institute. Retrieved April 17, 2017.  ^ Ward, Vicky (May 11, 2016). "Why Nicolas Berggruen is Creating an Institute for Geniuses". Town & Country. Retrieved April 17, 2017. Another wing of the Berggruen Institute
Berggruen Institute
has technologists like Elon Musk and Twitter
Twitter
co-founder Jack Dorsey, as well as former treasury secretary Larry Summers  ^ " TR35 Young Innovator". Technology Review. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.  ^ "Innovator of the Year Awards". WSJ. Magazine. Dow Jones. 2012. Retrieved March 18, 2013. [dead link] ^ "Columbia to host Square and Twitter
Twitter
Founder Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
on September 16". Columbia College. Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ TV, TechCrunch. "Founder of the Year: Jack Dorsey
Jack Dorsey
(Square, Twitter)". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ Tobak, Steve (2016-12-21). "The Worst CEOs of 2016". Fox Business. Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ "20 Worst CEOs in America 2017". 247wallst.com. Retrieved 2018-01-16.  ^ Mirabella, Lorraine. "Under Armour founder Kevin Plank lands on a 'Worst CEOs' list". baltimoresun.com. Retrieved 2018-01-16. 

Further reading[edit]

Max, D. T. (October 21, 2013). "Two-hit wonder". Profiles. The New Yorker. 89 (33): 48–59. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jack Dorsey.

Jack Dorsey
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Corporate Bio Jack on Twitter

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Preceded by Company founded Twitter
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CEO 2006–2008 Succeeded by Evan Williams

Preceded by Dick Costolo Twitter
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