JSTOR (/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/ JAY-stor; short for Journal Storage) is a
digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back
issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and primary
sources, and current issues of journals. It provides full-text
searches of almost 2,000 journals. As of 2013, more than 8,000
institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR; most
access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is
freely available to anyone. JSTOR's revenue was $69 million in
Aaron Swartz incident
3.3 Increasing public access
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
William G. Bowen, president of
Princeton University from 1972 to 1988,
JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one
of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university
libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in
existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of
cost and space to maintain a comprehensive collection of journals. By
digitizing many journal titles,
JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource
the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain
available long-term. Online access and full-text search ability
improved access dramatically.
Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution. However,
Ira Fuchs, Princeton University's vice-president for Computing and
Information Technology, convinced Bowen that CD-ROM was an
increasingly outdated technology and that network distribution could
eliminate redundancy and increase accessibility. (For example, all
Princeton's administrative and academic buildings were networked by
1989; the student dormitory network was completed in 1994; and campus
networks like the one at Princeton were, in turn, linked to larger
networks such as
BITNET and the Internet.)
JSTOR was initiated in 1995
at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten
economics and history journals.
JSTOR access improved based on
feedback from its initial sites, and it became a fully searchable
index accessible from any ordinary web browser.
Special software was
put in place to make pictures and graphs clear and readable.
With the success of this limited project, Bowen and Kevin Guthrie,
then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating
journals. They met with representatives of the
Royal Society of London
and an agreement was made[by whom?] to digitize the Philosophical
Transactions of the
Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665.
The work of adding these volumes to
JSTOR was completed by December
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded
JSTOR initially. Until January
JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit
organization with offices in
New York City
New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
JSTOR merged with the nonprofit Ithaka Harbors, Inc.—a
nonprofit organization founded in 2003 and "dedicated to helping the
academic community take full advantage of rapidly advancing
information and networking technologies".
JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers. The database
contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50
disciplines. Each object is uniquely identified by an integer value,
starting at 1.
In addition to the main site, the
JSTOR labs group operates an open
service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the
purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service. This
site offers a search facility with graphical indication of the article
coverage and loose integration into the main
JSTOR site. Users may
create focused sets of articles and then request a dataset containing
word and n-gram frequencies and basic metadata. They are notified when
the dataset is ready and may download it in either
XML or CSV formats.
The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request
that from JSTOR, subject to a non-disclosure agreement.
JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site.
JSTOR Plant Science provides access to content such as plant type
specimens, taxonomic structures, scientific literature, and related
materials and aimed at those researching, teaching, or studying
botany, biology, ecology, environmental, and conservation studies. The
JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global
Plants Initiative (GPI) and are accessible only to
JSTOR and GPI
members. Two partner networks are contributing to this: the African
Plants Initiative, which focuses on plants from Africa, and the Latin
American Plants Initiative, which contributes plants from Latin
JSTOR launched its Books at
JSTOR program in November 2012, adding
15,000 current and backlist books to its site. The books are linked
with reviews and from citations in journal articles.
In September 2014,
JSTOR Daily, an online magazine
meant to bring academic research to a broader audience. Posted
articles are generally based on
JSTOR entries, and some entries
provide the backstory to current events.
JSTOR is licensed mainly to academic institutions, public libraries,
research institutions, museums, and schools. More than 7,000
institutions in more than 150 countries have access.
JSTOR has been
running a pilot program of allowing subscribing institutions to
provide access to their alumni, in addition to current students and
staff. The Alumni Access Program officially launched in January
2013. Individual subscriptions also are available to certain
journal titles through the journal publisher. Every year, JSTOR
blocks 150 million attempts by non-subscribers to read articles.
Inquiries have been made about the possibility of making
access. According to Harvard Law professor Lawrence Lessig,
been asked "how much would it cost to make this available to the whole
world, how much would we need to pay you? The answer was $250
Aaron Swartz incident
Main article: United States v. Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz § JSTOR
In late 2010 and early 2011,
Aaron Swartz used MIT's
data network to bulk-download a substantial portion of JSTOR's
collection of academic journal articles. When the
bulk-download was discovered, a video camera was placed in the room to
film the mysterious visitor and the relevant computer was left
untouched. Once video was captured of the visitor, the download was
stopped and Swartz identified. Rather than pursue a civil lawsuit
against him, in June 2011 they reached a settlement wherein he
surrendered the downloaded data.
The following month, federal authorities charged Swartz with several
"data theft"–related crimes, including wire fraud, computer fraud,
unlawfully obtaining information from a protected computer, and
recklessly damaging a protected computer. Prosecutors in the
case claimed that Swartz acted with the intention of making the papers
available on P2P file-sharing sites.
Swartz surrendered to authorities, pleaded not guilty to all counts,
and was released on $100,000 bail. In September 2012, U.S. attorneys
increased the number of charges against Swartz from four to thirteen,
with a possible penalty of 35 years in prison and $1 million in
fines. The case still was pending when Swartz committed
suicide in January 2013. Prosecutors dropped the charges after his
The availability of most journals on
JSTOR is controlled by a "moving
wall", which is an agreed-upon delay between the current volume of the
journal and the latest volume available on JSTOR. This time period is
specified by agreement between
JSTOR and the publisher of the journal,
which usually is three to five years. Publishers may request that the
period of a "moving wall" be changed or request discontinuation of
coverage. Formerly, publishers also could request that the "moving
wall" be changed to a "fixed wall"—a specified date after which
JSTOR would not add new volumes to its database. As of
November 2010[update], "fixed wall" agreements were still in
effect with three publishers of 29 journals made available online
through sites controlled by the publishers.
JSTOR started adding current issues of certain journals
through its Current Scholarship Program.
Increasing public access
Beginning September 6, 2011,
JSTOR made public domain content freely
available to the public. This "Early Journal Content" program
constitutes about 6% of JSTOR's total content, and includes over
500,000 documents from more than 200 journals that were published
before 1923 in the United States, and before 1870 in other
JSTOR stated that it had been working on making
this material free for some time. The Swartz controversy and Greg
Maxwell's protest torrent of the same content led
JSTOR to "press
ahead" with the initiative. As of 2017,
JSTOR does not have
plans to extend it to other public domain content, stating that "We do
not believe that just because something is in the public domain, it
can always be provided for free".
In January 2012,
JSTOR started a pilot program, "Register & Read",
offering limited no-cost access (not open access) to archived articles
for individuals who register for the service. At the conclusion of the
pilot, in January 2013,
JSTOR expanded Register & Read from an
initial 76 publishers to include about 1,200 journals from over 700
publishers. Registered readers may read up to six articles online
every calendar month, but may not print or download PDFs.
JSTOR is conducting a pilot program with, whereby
established editors are given reading privileges through the
Library, as with a university library.
JSTOR users performed nearly 152 million searches, with more
than 113 million article views and 73.5 million article downloads.
JSTOR has been used as a resource for linguistics research to
investigate trends in language use over time and also to analyze
gender differences in scholarly publishing.
List of academic databases and search engines
Japanese Historical Text Initiative
^ a b "About". Ithaka. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
^ "Jstor.org Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2016-10-03.
JSTOR Videos". YouTube. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
^ a b "At a glance" (PDF). JSTOR. February 13, 2012.
^ a b c d e "Annual Summary" (PDF). JSTOR. 19 March 2013. Retrieved 13
^ "Register and read beta".
^ "2014 Form 990" (PDF). ERI. Ithaka Harbors Inc.
^ Leitch, Alexander. "Bowen, William Gordon". Princeton University
^ "JSTOR, A History" by Roger C. Schonfeld, Princeton University
^ a b Taylor, John (2001). "JSTOR: An Electronic Archive from 1665".
Notes and Records of the
Royal Society of London. 55 (1): 179–81.
doi:10.1098/rsnr.2001.0135. JSTOR 532157.
^ "About". JSTOR. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
^ Data for Research. JSTOR.
JSTOR Plant Science. JSTOR.
^ Global Plants Initiative. JSTOR.
^ "A new chapter begins: Books at
JSTOR launches". JSTOR. November 12,
2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
^ Lichterman, Joseph. "Opening up the archives:
JSTOR wants to tie a
library to the news". Nieman Lab. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
^ "Access for alumni". JSTOR. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
^ "Individual subscriptions". JSTOR. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
^ Every Year,
JSTOR Turns Away 150 Million Attempts to Read Journal
Articles. The Atlantic. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
^ Lessig on "Aaron's Laws—Law and Justice in a Digital Age". YouTube
(2013-02-20). Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
^ a b "
JSTOR Statement: Misuse Incident and Criminal Case". JSTOR.
^ a b c "Aaron Swartz,
Internet Pioneer, Found Dead Amid Prosecutor
'Bullying' In Unconventional Case". The Huffington Post.
^ Bilton, Nick (July 19, 2011). "
Internet activist charged in M.I.T.
data theft". Bits Blog, The New York Times. Retrieved December 1,
^ Schwartz, John (July 19, 2011). "Open-Access Advocate Is Arrested
for Huge Download". New York Times. Retrieved July 19, 2011.
^ Lindsay, Jay (July 19, 2011). "Feds: Harvard fellow hacked millions
of papers". Associated Press. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
^ Ortiz, Carmen (2011-07-19). "Alleged Hacker Charged with Stealing
over Four Million Documents from MIT Network". The United States
Attorney's Office". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24.
^ Kravets, David (2012-09-18). "Feds Charge Activist with 13 Felonies
for Rogue Downloading of Academic Articles". Wired.
^ "Aaron Swartz, internet freedom activist, dies aged 26", BBC News
^ "Aaron Swartz's father: He'd be alive today if he was never
^ "Moving wall". JSTOR.
^ "About current journals". JSTOR. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
^ a b c Brown, Laura (September 7, 2011). "JSTOR–free access to
early journal content and serving 'unaffiliated' users", JSTOR.
Retrieved December 1, 2012.
^ a b c Rapp, David (2011-09-07). "
JSTOR Announces Free Access to 500K
Public Domain Journal Articles". Library Journal.
^ "Early journal content". JSTOR. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
^ "About JSTOR: Frequently Asked Questions". JSTOR. Retrieved
^ Tilsley, Alexandra (January 9, 2013). "Journal Archive Opens Up
(Some)". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
JSTOR Read Online Free". JSTOR. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
^ Orlowitz, Jake; Earley, Patrick (January 25, 2014). "Librarypedia:
The Future of Libraries and". The Digital Shift. Library
Journal. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
^ Price, Gary (June 22, 2014). "Library Program Expands With
More Accounts from JSTOR, Credo, and Other Database Providers".
INFOdocket. Library Journal. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
^ Shapiro, Fred R. (1998). "A Study in Computer-Assisted Lexicology:
Evidence on the Emergence of Hopefully as a Sentence Adverb from the
JSTOR Journal Archive and Other Electronic Resources". American
Speech. 73 (3): 279–296. doi:10.2307/455826.
^ Wilson, Robin (October 22, 2012). "Scholarly Publishing's Gender
Gap". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 6 January
Gauger, Barbara J; Kacena, Carolyn (2006). "
JSTOR usage data and what
it can tell us about ourselves: is there predictability based on
historical use by libraries of similar size?".
OCLC Systems &
Services. 22 (1): 43–55. doi:10.1108/10650750610640801.
Schonfeld, Roger C (2003). JSTOR: A History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press. ISBN 0-691-11531-1.
Seeds, Robert S (November 2002). "Impact of a digital archive (JSTOR)
on print collection use". Collection Building. 21 (3): 120–22.
Spinella, Michael P (2007). "JSTOR". Journal of Library
Administration. 46 (2): 55–78. doi:10.1300/J111v46n02_05.
Spinella, Michael (2008). "
JSTOR and the changing digital landscape".
Interlending & Document Supply. 36 (2): 79–85.
"Libraries and institutions offering access". JSTOR. Retrieved
2015-10-21. . Searchable database, includes many public libraries
offering free access to library card holders.
"Register & Read". JSTOR. Retrieved 2015-10-21. . Free
individual registration, offering free read-only access (no printing
or saving) to three articles every two weeks (seventy-eight per year).
JSTOR Early Journal Content : Free Texts : Download &