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The J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM, commonly referred to as THE GETTY, is an art museum in California
California
housed on two campuses: the Getty Center
Getty Center
and Getty Villa
Getty Villa
.

The Getty Center
Getty Center
is in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles and is the primary location of the museum. The collection features Western art from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the present. Its estimated 1.3 million visitors annually make it one of the most visited museums in the United States. The museum's second location, the Getty Villa, is in the Pacific Palisades neighborhood (though self-claims in the city of Malibu ) and displays art from ancient Greece , Rome
Rome
, and Etruria
Etruria
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 GettyGuide * 3 The controversies with Italy
Italy
and Greece * 4 Selected collection highlights * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

In 1974, J. Paul Getty
J. Paul Getty
opened a museum in a re-creation of the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum
Herculaneum
on his property in Pacific Palisades, California
California
. In 1982, the museum became the richest in the world when it inherited US$1.2 billion. In 1983, after an economic downturn in what was then West Germany
West Germany
, the Getty Museum acquired 144 illuminated medieval manuscripts from the financially struggling Ludwig Collection in Aachen; John Russell , writing in _ The New York Times
The New York Times
_, said of the collection, "One of the finest holdings of its kind ever assembled, it is quite certainly the most important that was in private hands." In 1997, the museum moved to its current location in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles; the Pacific Palisades museum, renamed the " Getty Villa
Getty Villa
", was renovated and reopened in 2006.

GETTYGUIDE

The Getty attracts approximately 1.8 million visitors a year.

Detailed information about the J. Paul Getty
J. Paul Getty
Museum’s collections is provided on GettyGuide, a suite of interactive multimedia tools available at the Museum, as well as on getty.edu. At the GettyGuide stations in the Museum, visitors can get information about exhibitions, interact with a timeline, watch videos on art-making techniques, and more. Also available at the Museum, the GettyGuide multimedia player features commentary from curators and conservators on many works of art. With GettyGuide on the Web, one may browse the Museum’s collection and bookmark works of art to create a customized tour and printable map. Architect Richard Meier
Richard Meier
chose beige-colored Italian travertine panels to cover the retaining walls and to serve as paving stones for the arrival plaza and Museum courtyard.

THE CONTROVERSIES WITH ITALY AND GREECE

In the 1970s and 1980s, the curator, Jiří Frel, designed a tax manipulation scheme which expanded the museum collection of antiquities, essentially buying artifacts of dubious provenance, as well as a number of artifacts generally considered fakes, such as the Getty kouros. In 1984, Frel was demoted, and in 1986, he resigned.

The Getty is involved in a controversy regarding proper title to some of the artwork in its collection. The museum's previous curator of antiquities , Marion True(hired by Frel), was indicted in Italy
Italy
in 2005 (along with famed dealer Robert E. Hecht) on criminal charges relating to trafficking in stolen antiquities. Similar charges have been addressed by the Greek authorities. The primary evidence in the case came from the 1995 raid of a Geneva
Geneva
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, warehouse which had contained a fortune in stolen artifacts. Italian art dealer Giacomo Medici was arrested in 1997; his operation was thought to be "one of the largest and most sophisticated antiquities networks in the world, responsible for illegally digging up and spiriting away thousands of top-drawer pieces and passing them on to the most elite end of the international art market". In 2005 True was forced to tender her resignation by the Board of Trustees, which announced her early retirement. Italy
Italy
allowed the statute of limitations of the charges filed against her to expire in October 2010.

In a letter to the J. Paul Getty
J. Paul Getty
Trust on December 18, 2006, True stated that she was being made to "carry the burden" for practices which were known, approved, and condoned by the Getty's Board of Directors. True is currently under investigation by Greek authorities over the acquisition of a 2,500-year-old funerary wreath. The wreath, along with a 6th-century BC statue of a woman, have been returned to Greece and are exhibited at the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki .

On November 20, 2006, the director of the museum, Michael Brand, announced that 26 disputed pieces were to be returned to Italy, but not the Victorious Youth, which is still claimed by the Italian authorities. In 2007, the Los Angeles J. Paul Getty
J. Paul Getty
Museum was forced to return 40 artifacts, including a 5th-century BC statue of the goddess Aphrodite
Aphrodite
, which was looted from Morgantina, an ancient Greek settlement in Sicily. The Getty Museum resisted the requests of the Italian government for nearly two decades, only to admit later that "there might be 'problems'" attached to the acquisition." In 2006, Italian senior cultural official Giuseppe Proietti said: "The negotiations haven't made a single step forward." Only after he suggested the Italian government "to take cultural sanctions against the Getty, suspending all cultural cooperation," did the J. Paul Getty Museum return the antiquities.

In another unrelated case in 1999, the Getty Museum had to hand over three antiquities to Italy
Italy
after determining they were stolen. The objects included a Greek red-figure kylix from the 5th-century BC, signed by the painter Onesimos and the potter Euphronios as potter, looted from the Etruscan site of Cerveteri; a torso of the god Mithra from the 2nd-century AD, and the head of a youth by the Greek sculptor Polykleitos.

In 2016, the terracotta head of the Greek god Hades
Hades
was returned to Sicily
Sicily
( Italy
Italy
). The archaeological artifact was looted from Morgantinain the 1970s. The Getty museum purchased the terracotta head of Hades
Hades
in 1985 from the New York collector Maurice Tempelsman, who had purchased it from the London dealer Robin Symes. Getty records show the museum paid $530,000 for it. On December 21, 2016, the head of Hades
Hades
was added to the collection of the archaeological museum of Aidone, where it joined the statue of Demeter
Demeter
, the mother of his consort Persephone
Persephone
. Sicilian archaeologists found a blue curl that was missing from Hades' beard, and so it proved the origin of the terracotta head.

SELECTED COLLECTION HIGHLIGHTS

*

Pontormo
Pontormo
, _Portrait of a Halberdier_, 1528 *

Parmigianino
Parmigianino
, _Virgin with Child, St. John the Baptist, and Mary Magdalene_, about 1530 *

Titian
Titian
, _Portrait of Alfonso d’Avalos, Marchese del Vasto_, 1533 *

Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
, _The Entombment_, 1612 *

Orazio Gentileschi
Orazio Gentileschi
, _Danaë_ , 1621 *

Rembrandt
Rembrandt
, _ Rembrandt
Rembrandt
Laughing_, 1628 *

Rembrandt
Rembrandt
, _An Old Man in Military Costume_, 1630 *

Rembrandt
Rembrandt
, _The Abduction of Europa_ , 1632 *

Nicholas Poussin, _Landscape in Calm Weather_, 1651 *

Jean-Antoine Watteau, _The Italian Comedians_, 1720 *

Canaletto
Canaletto
, _The Grand Canal in Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola _, about 1738 *

Jacques-Louis David
Jacques-Louis David
, _The Sisters Zénaïde and Charlotte Bonaparte_, 1821 *

J.M.W. Turner
J.M.W. Turner
, _Modern Rome
Rome
- Campo Vaccino _, 1839 *

Édouard Manet, _Portrait of Madame Brunet_, 1867 *

Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
, _La Promenade_, 1870 *

Claude Monet
Claude Monet
, _Sunrise (Marine)_, 1873 *

Édouard Manet, _The Rue Mosnier with Flags (fr)_, 1878 *

Édouard Manet, _Spring_ , 1881 *

Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
, _Irises _, 1889 *

Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
, _ Arii Matamoe (The Royal End)_, 1892 *

Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
, _Still Life with Apples_, 1893 *

Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
, _Young Italian Woman at a Table_, 1895

SEE ALSO

* Getty Conservation Institute * Getty Foundation * Getty Research Institute

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Top 100 Art Museum Attendance, _ The Art Newspaper_, 2014. Retrieved on July 8, 2014. * ^ " Forbes
Forbes
- Travel Information and Travel News - Forbes.com". Forbestraveler.com. Retrieved January 26, 2012. * ^ "About the Museum (Getty Museum)". _www.getty.edu_. Retrieved 2016-01-19. * ^ "Visit the Getty". Getty.edu. Retrieved January 26, 2012. * ^ "THE GETTY VILLA TO OPEN JANUARY 28, 2006". _Press Release_. J. Paul Getty Trust. Retrieved June 16, 2012. * ^ McGill, Douglas C. (March 4, 1987). "Getty, The Art World\'s Big Spender". _The New York Times_. Retrieved May 5, 2010. * ^ Eric Pace (July 23, 1996), Peter Ludwig, 71, German Art Collector, Dies _ New York Times
New York Times
_. * ^ "The J. Paul Getty
J. Paul Getty
Trust". _The Getty_. J. Paul Getty
J. Paul Getty
Museum. Retrieved May 19, 2015. * ^ "Collection (Getty Museum)". J. Paul Getty
J. Paul Getty
Museum. * ^ "Getty Bookmarks". J. Paul Getty
J. Paul Getty
Museum. * ^ "The Getty Center
Getty Center
- Architecture". _The Getty_. J. Paul Getty Museum. Retrieved May 21, 2015. * ^ Frammolino, Ralph (13 May 2006). "Jiri Frel, 82; Colorful Curator Who Left Getty Under a Cloud". Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
. Retrieved 24 April 2016. * ^ _Men\'s Vogue _, Nov/Dec 2006, Vol. 2, No. 3, pg. 46. * ^ Felch, Jason and Ralph Frammolino (2011), _Chasing Aphrodite: The Hunt for Looted Antiquities
Antiquities
at the World's Richest Museum_. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, pp. 265–66, 312. * ^ Felch, Jason; Frammolino, Ralph (December 29, 2006). "Getty lets her take fall, ex-curator says". _ Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
_. Retrieved May 5, 2010. * ^ "$1.5 mn Macedonian Gold Wreath Attracts Greek Populace". elitechoice.org. March 30, 2007. * ^ Ariel, David (August 1, 2007). "Getty to Return Antiquities
Antiquities
to Italy". _ Forbes
Forbes
_. * ^ Povoledo, Elisabetta (July 4, 2007). "In a Tug of War, Ancient Statue Is Symbol of Patrimony". _The New York Times_. * ^ "Getty will return Aphrodite
Aphrodite
statue if it has origins in Italy". _ North County Times_. November 22, 2006. * ^ Slayman, Andrew (May–June 1999). "Getty Returns Italian Artifacts". _Archaeology_. 52 (3). * ^ "Getty Museum to return Hades
Hades
terracotta head to Sicily". Retrieved 21 December 2016. * ^ "Los Angeles - Head of Hades
Hades
returned to Italy". _Farnesina_. Retrieved 21 December 2016.

EXTERNAL LINKS