The Info List - J. M. Coetzee

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John Maxwell Coetzee (/kʊtˈsiː(ə)/, kuut-SEE-(ə);[1] Afrikaans: [kutˈsɪə]; born 9 February 1940) is a South African novelist, essayist, linguist, translator and recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. He relocated to Australia in 2002 and lives in Adelaide.[2] He became an Australian citizen in 2006.[3] In 2013, Richard Poplak of the Daily Maverick
Daily Maverick
described Coetzee as "inarguably the most celebrated and decorated living English-language author".[4] Before receiving the 2003 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, Coetzee was awarded the Jerusalem Prize, CNA Prize (thrice), the Prix Femina Étranger, The Irish Times
The Irish Times
International Fiction Prize and the Booker Prize
Booker Prize
(twice), among other accolades.


1 Early life and academia 2 Awards and recognition

2.1 Booker Prizes, 1983 and 1999 2.2 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, 2003 2.3 Other awards and recognition

3 Public image 4 Personal life 5 Philosophy

5.1 South Africa 5.2 Politics 5.3 Law 5.4 Animals 5.5 The South

6 Bibliography 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Early life and academia[edit] He was born in Cape Town, Cape Province, Union of South Africa, on 9 February 1940 to Afrikaner
parents.[5][6] His father, Zacharias Coetzee (1912–1988), was an occasional attorney and government employee, and his mother, Vera Coetzee (born Wehmeyer; 1904–1986), a schoolteacher.[7][8] The family mainly spoke English at home, but John spoke Afrikaans with other relatives.[7] He is descended from early Dutch immigrants to South Africa in the 17th century,[9][10] while his mother was a descendant of German and Polish immigrants.[2][11] Coetzee spent most of his early life in Cape Town
Cape Town
and in Worcester in Cape Province
Cape Province
(modern-day Western Cape), as recounted in his fictionalised memoir, Boyhood
(1997). The family moved to Worcester when he was eight, after his father had lost his government job.[8] He attended St. Joseph's College, a Catholic school in the Cape Town suburb of Rondebosch,[12] later studying mathematics and English at the University of Cape Town
Cape Town
and receiving his Bachelor of Arts with Honours in English in 1960 and his Bachelor of Arts with Honours in Mathematics in 1961.[13][14] He then relocated to the United Kingdom, in 1962, worked as a computer programmer for IBM
in London, and ICT (International Computers and Tabulators) in Bracknell
staying until 1965.[7] In 1963, while still in the UK, Coetzee was awarded a Master of Arts degree from the University of Cape Town
Cape Town
for a thesis on the novels of Ford Madox Ford entitled "The Works of Ford Madox Ford with Particular Reference to the Novels" (1963).[7] His experiences in England were later recounted in Youth
(2002), his second volume of fictionalised memoirs. Coetzee went to the University of Texas at Austin, in the United States, on the Fulbright Program
Fulbright Program
in 1965, receiving his doctorate in 1969. His PhD dissertation was on computer stylistic analysis of the works of Samuel Beckett
Samuel Beckett
and was entitled "The English Fiction of Samuel Beckett: An Essay in Stylistic Analysis" (1968).[7] In 1968, he began teaching English literature at the State University of New York at Buffalo where he stayed until 1971.[7] It was at Buffalo that he began his first novel, Dusklands.[7] From as early as 1968 he sought permanent residence in the United States, a process that was finally unsuccessful, in part due to his involvement in protests against the war in Vietnam. In March 1970, he had been one of 45 faculty members who occupied the university's Hayes Hall and were subsequently arrested for criminal trespass.[15] The charges against the 45 were dropped in 1971. He then returned to South Africa to teach English literature at the University of Cape Town, where he was promoted Professor of General Literature in 1983 and was Distinguished Professor of Literature between 1999 and 2001.[7] Upon retiring in 2002 and relocating to Adelaide, Australia, he was made an honorary research fellow at the English Department of the University of Adelaide,[16] where his partner, Dorothy Driver,[14] is a fellow academic[17] and served as professor on the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
until 2003.[18] Awards and recognition[edit] Coetzee has been the recipient of numerous awards throughout his career, although he has a reputation for avoiding award ceremonies.[19] Booker Prizes, 1983 and 1999[edit] He was the first writer to be awarded the Booker Prize
Booker Prize
twice: first for Life & Times of Michael K in 1983, and again for Disgrace
in 1999.[20][21] Two other authors have since managed this — Peter Carey (in 1988 and 2001) and Hilary Mantel (in 2009 and 2012). Summertime, named on the 2009 longlist,[22] was an early favourite to win an unprecedented third Booker Prize
Booker Prize
for Coetzee.[23][24] It subsequently made the shortlist, but lost out to bookmakers' favourite and eventual winner Wolf Hall
Wolf Hall
by Hilary Mantel.[25] Coetzee was also longlisted in 2003 for Elizabeth Costello
Elizabeth Costello
and in 2005 for Slow Man. The Schooldays of Jesus, a follow up to his 2013 novel The Childhood of Jesus was longlisted for the 2016 Booker Prize.[26] Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, 2003[edit] On 2 October 2003, Horace Engdahl, head of the Swedish Academy, announced that Coetzee had been chosen as that year's recipient of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature, making him the fourth African writer to be so honoured[27] and the second South African after Nadine Gordimer.[28] When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy
Swedish Academy
stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider".[29] The press release for the award also cited his "well-crafted composition, pregnant dialogue and analytical brilliance," while focusing on the moral nature of his work.[29] The prize ceremony was held in Stockholm on 10 December 2003.[28] Other awards and recognition[edit] A three-time winner of the CNA Prize,[30] Waiting for the Barbarians received both the James Tait Black Memorial Prize and the Geoffrey Faber Memorial Prize,[31] Age of Iron
Age of Iron
was awarded the Sunday Express Book of the Year award,[32] and The Master of Petersburg
The Master of Petersburg
was awarded The Irish Times
The Irish Times
International Fiction Prize in 1995.[33] He has also won the French Prix Femina Étranger, the Commonwealth Writers' Prize, and the 1987 Jerusalem Prize for the Freedom of the Individual in Society.[31][32][34] Coetzee was awarded the Order of Mapungubwe
Order of Mapungubwe
(gold class) by the South African government on 27 September 2005 for his "exceptional contribution in the field of literature and for putting South Africa on the world stage."[35] He holds honorary doctorates from The American University of Paris,[36] the University of Adelaide,[37] La Trobe University,[38] the University of Natal,[39] the University of Oxford,[40] Rhodes University,[41] the State University of New York at Buffalo,[32] the University of Strathclyde,[32] the University of Technology, Sydney,[42] the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań[43] and the Universidad Iberoamericana.[44] In November 2014, Coetzee was honoured with a three-day academic conference entitled "JM Coetzee in the World", held in his adopted city of Adelaide. It was described as "the culmination of an enormous collaborative effort and the first event of its kind in Australia" and "a reflection of the deep esteem in which John Coetzee is held by Australian academia".[45] Public image[edit] Coetzee is known to be reclusive and avoids publicity to such an extent that he did not collect either of his two Booker Prizes in person.[46][47] The South African writer Rian Malan has said that:

Coetzee is a man of almost monkish self-discipline and dedication. He does not drink, smoke, or eat meat. He cycles vast distances to keep fit and spends at least an hour at his writing-desk each morning, seven days a week. A colleague who has worked with him for more than a decade claims to have seen him laugh just once. An acquaintance has attended several dinner parties where Coetzee has uttered not a single word.[48]

Asked about this comment in an interview by email, Coetzee said, "I have met Rian Malan only once in my life. He does not know me and is not qualified to talk about my character." [49] As a result of his reclusive nature, signed copies of Coetzee's fiction are highly sought after.[50] Recognising this, he was a key figure in the establishment of Oak Tree Press's First Chapter Series, limited -edition signed works by literary greats to raise money for the child victims and orphans of the African HIV/AIDS crisis.[51] Personal life[edit] He married Philippa Jubber in 1963[52] and divorced in 1980.[8] He has a son, Nicolas (born 1966) and a daughter, Gisela (born 1968) from this marriage.[52] Nicolas died in 1989 at the age of 23 in an accident.[8][52][53][54][55] On 6 March 2006, Coetzee became an Australian citizen,[16] and it has been argued that his "acquired 'Australianness' is deliberately adopted and stressed".[45] Coetzee's younger brother, the journalist David Coetzee, died in 2010.[56] His partner, Dorothy Driver, is an academic at the University of Adelaide.[14][17] Coetzee is an atheist.[57] Philosophy[edit] South Africa[edit] Along with André Brink
André Brink
and Breyten Breytenbach, Coetzee was, according to Fred Pfeil, at "the forefront of the anti-apartheid movement within Afrikaner
literature and letters".[58] On accepting the Jerusalem Prize in 1987, Coetzee spoke of the limitations of art in South African society, whose structures had resulted in "deformed and stunted relations between human beings" and "a deformed and stunted inner life". He went on to say that "South African literature is a literature in bondage. It is a less than fully human literature. It is exactly the kind of literature you would expect people to write from prison". He called on the South African government to abandon its apartheid policy.[34] The scholar Isidore Diala states that J. M. Coetzee, Nadine Gordimer
Nadine Gordimer
and André Brink
André Brink
are "three of South Africa's most distinguished white writers, all with definite anti-apartheid commitment".[59] It has been argued that Coetzee's 1999 novel Disgrace
allegorises South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission.[60] Asked about his views on the TRC, Coetzee stated, "In a state with no official religion, the TRC was somewhat anomalous: a court of a certain kind based to a large degree on Christian teaching and on a strand of Christian teaching accepted in their hearts by only a tiny proportion of the citizenry. Only the future will tell what the TRC managed to achieve".[61] Following his Australian citizenship ceremony, Coetzee said that "I did not so much leave South Africa, a country with which I retain strong emotional ties, but come to Australia. I came because from the time of my first visit in 1991, I was attracted by the free and generous spirit of the people, by the beauty of the land itself and – when I first saw Adelaide – by the grace of the city that I now have the honour of calling my home."[16] When he initially moved to Australia, he had cited the South African government's lax attitude to crime in that country as a reason for the move, leading to a spat with Thabo Mbeki, who, speaking of Coetzee's novel Disgrace
stated that "South Africa is not only a place of rape".[46] In 1999, the African National Congress
African National Congress
submission to an investigation into racism in the media by the South African Human Rights Commission named Disgrace
as a novel exploiting racist stereotypes.[62] However, when Coetzee won his Nobel Prize, Mbeki congratulated him "on behalf of the South African nation and indeed the continent of Africa".[63] Politics[edit] Coetzee has never specified any political orientation, though has alluded to politics in his work. Writing about his past in the third person, Coetzee states in Doubling the Point that:

Politically, the raznochinets can go either way. But during his student years he, this person, this subject, my subject, steers clear of the right. As a child in Worcester he has seen enough of the Afrikaner
right, enough of its rant, to last him a lifetime. In fact, even before Worcester he has perhaps seen more of cruelty and violence than should have been allowed to a child. So as a student he moves on the fringes of the left without being part of the left. Sympathetic to the human concerns of the left, he is alienated, when the crunch comes, by its language – by all political language, in fact.[64]

Asked about the latter part of this quote in an interview, Coetzee answered, "There is no longer a left worth speaking of, and a language of the left. The language of politics, with its new economistic bent, is even more repellent than it was fifteen years ago".[61] In February 2016, Coetzee was one of 61 signatories to a letter to Australian prime minister Malcolm Turnbull
Malcolm Turnbull
and immigration minister Peter Dutton, condemning their government's policy of offshore detention of asylum seekers.[65] Law[edit] In 2005, Coetzee criticised contemporary anti-terrorism laws as resembling those employed by the apartheid regime in South Africa: "I used to think that the people who created [South Africa's] laws that effectively suspended the rule of law were moral barbarians. Now I know they were just pioneers ahead of their time".[66] The main character in Coetzee's 2007 Diary of a Bad Year, which has been described as blending "memoir with fiction, academic criticism with novelistic narration" and refusing "to recognize the border that has traditionally separated political theory from fictional narrative",[67] shares similar concerns about the policies of John Howard and George W. Bush.[68] Animals[edit] In recent years, Coetzee has become a vocal critic of animal cruelty and advocate for the animal rights movement.[69] In a speech given on his behalf by Hugo Weaving
Hugo Weaving
in Sydney on 22 February 2007, Coetzee railed against the modern animal husbandry industry.[70] The speech was for Voiceless, the animal protection institute, an Australian non-profit animal protection organization, of which he became a patron in 2004.[71] Coetzee's fiction has similarly engaged with the problems of animal cruelty and animal welfare, in particular his books The Lives of Animals, Disgrace, Elizabeth Costello, and The Old Woman and the Cats. He is a vegetarian.[72] Coetzee wanted to be a candidate in the 2014 European Parliament election for the Dutch Party for the Animals. His candidature was however rejected by the Dutch election board, which argued that candidates had to prove legal residence in the European Union to be allowed.[citation needed] The South[edit] For the period 2015-2018, Coetzee has been a director of a seminar on the "Literatures of the South" at the Universidad Nacional de San Martín. This has involved writers and literary figures from South Africa, Australia, and Argentina.[73] The aim of the seminars, one observer has remarked, is "to develop comparative perspectives on the literatures of the three countries, to establish new intellectual networks, and to build a corpus of translated works from across the South through collaborative publishing ventures."[74] At the same time he has been involved in a research project in Australia, Other Worlds: Forms of World Literature, for which he is leading a theme on "Everyday Pleasures" that also is focused on the literatures of the South.[75]

Bibliography[edit] Main article: J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
bibliography See also[edit]

List of African writers


^ Sangster, Catherine (1 October 2009). "How to Say: JM Coetzee and other Booker authors". BBC News. Retrieved 26 November 2012. : "The first syllable is pronounced kuut (uu as in book); debate rages about the pronunciation of the "ee" at the end. Many South Africans, whether Afrikaans speakers or not, pronounce this as a diphthong EE-uh, as in the word "idea". Indeed, kuut-SEE-uh was the Unit's original recommendation in the early 1980s, based on the advice of the South African Broadcasting Corporation and his London publisher, Secker and Warburg. However, that vowel can also be pronounced as a monophthong (kuut-SEE), especially by those from the south of the country, and this is the pronunciation that the author uses and prefers the BBC to use too." ^ a b "Coetzee honoured in Poznan". Polskie Radio. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  "His maternal great-grandfather was born in Czarnylas, Poland" ^ Donadio, Rachel (16 December 2007). "Out of South Africa". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Donadio, Rachel (3 January 2013). "Disgrace: JM Coetzee humiliates himself in Johannesburg. Or does he?". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 3 January 2013.  ^ Attridge, Derek (2004). J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
and the Ethics of Reading: Literature in the Event. Chicago: University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-226-03117-0.  ^ Richards Cooper, Rand (2 November 1997). "Portrait of the writer as an Afrikaner". New York Times. Retrieved 9 October 2009.  ^ a b c d e f g h Head, Dominic (2009). The Cambridge Introduction to J. M. Coetzee. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 0-521-68709-8.  ^ a b c d Price, Jonathan (April 2012). "J. M. Coetzee". Emory University. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ "Trying to unwrap the great Coetzee enigma". Irish Examiner.  "His Cape ancestry begins as early as the 17th century with the arrival from Holland of one Dirk Couché" ^ "A Nobel calling: 100 years of controversy". The Independent. 14 October 2005. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ Barnard, Rita (19 November 2009). "Coetzee in/and Afrikaans". Journal of Literary Studies. 25 (4): 84–105. doi:10.1080/02564710903226692.  ^ Lowry, Elizabeth (22 August 2007). "J. M. Coetzee's ruffled mirrors". Times Literary Supplement. London. Retrieved 2009-08-02.  ^ Easton, John; Friedman, Allan; Harms, William; Koppes, Steve; Sanders, Seth (23 September 2003). "Faculty receive DSPs, named professorships". University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Chronicle. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ a b c "John Coetzee". Who's Who of Southern Africa. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ "A Rare Interview with Literary Giant J. M. Coetzee". Buffalo News. 13 October 2002. p. E1.  ^ a b c "JM Coetzee Became an Australian Citizen". Mail & Guardian. 6 March 2006. Retrieved 31 August 2011.  ^ a b "Professor Dorothy Driver". University of Adelaide. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Richmond, Chris (2007). "John M. Coetzee". In Badge, Peter. Nobel Faces: A Gallery of Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Winners. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. pp. 428–429. ISBN 3-527-40678-6. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Lake, Ed (1 August 2009). "Starry-eyed Booker Prize". The National. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2009.  ^ Gibbons, Fiachra (25 October 1999). "Absent Coetzee wins surprise second Booker award". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ "Coetzee wins Nobel Literature Prize". Al Jazeera. 4 October 2003. Retrieved 4 October 2003.  ^ Brown, Mark (28 July 2009). "Heavyweights clash on Booker longlist". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Flood, Alison (29 July 2009). "Coetzee leads the bookies' Booker race". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Langley, William (4 September 2009). "Man Booker Prize: J.M Coetzee profile". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ "Mantel named Booker prize winner". BBC News. 6 October 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Brown, Mark (28 July 2016). " Man Booker Prize
Man Booker Prize
2016 longlist JM Coetzee". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2016.  ^ "Coetzee wins Nobel literature prize". BBC News. 2 October 2003. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ a b "Coetzee receives Nobel honour". BBC News. 10 December 2003. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ a b "The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature: John Maxwell Coetzee". Swedish Academy. 2 October 2003. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ Banville, John (16 October 2003). "Being and nothingness". The Nation. Retrieved 12 January 2014. (subscription required) ^ a b O'Neil, Patrick M. (2004). Great World Writers: Twentieth Century. London: Marshall Cavendish. pp. 225–244. ISBN 0-7614-7468-4. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ a b c d Killam, Douglas; Kerfoot, Alicia L. (2007). "Coetzee, J(ohn) M(axwell)". Student Encyclopedia of African Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood. pp. 92–93. ISBN 0-313-33580-X. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ "J M Coetzee". Booker Prize
Booker Prize
Foundation. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ a b "Coetzee, getting prize, denounces apartheid". New York Times. 11 April 1987. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ "National Awards 27 September 2005". Republic of South Africa. 6 December 2007. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ "Commencement 2010". AUP Magazine. American University of Paris. 15 October 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ "JM Coetzee receives honorary doctorate". University of Adelaide. 20 December 2005. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ "Honorary degrees". La Trobe University. Archived from the original on 15 September 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ "John M. Coetzee". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ "Oxford honours arts figures". BBC News. 21 June 2002. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ "SA writer honoured by Rhodes". Daily Dispatch. 12 April 1999. Archived from the original on 24 August 1999. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ "New honour for Nobel laureate". University of Technology, Sydney. 1 October 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ "The ceremony of awarding the title of doctor honoris causa to professor J.M. Coetzee". Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ "La Ibero otorga el honoris causa a Coetzee". El Economista. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 12 April 2016.  ^ a b Heaney, Claire (14 November 2014). "Is JM Coetzee an 'Australian writer'? The answer could be yes". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 May 2015.  ^ a b Pienaar, Hans (3 October 2003). "Brilliant yet Aloof, Coetzee at Last Wins Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Literature". The Independent. Retrieved 1 August 2009. [dead link] ^ Smith, Sandra (7 October 2003). "What to Say About ... JM Coetzee". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Cowley, Jason (25 October 1999). "The New Statesman Profile – J M Coetzee". New Statesman. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Quoted in J.C. Kannemeyer (2012), J.M. Coetzee: A Life in Writing, Scribe, p. 583. ^ "The reclusive Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winner: JM Coetzee". South African Tourism. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Bray, Nancy. "How The First Chapter Series Was Born". Booker Prize Foundation. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ a b c "J. M. Coetzee". The Nobel Foundation. 2003. Retrieved 1 August 2009.  ^ Gallagher, Susan (1991). A Story of South Africa: J. M. Coetzee's Fiction in Context. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 194. ISBN 0-674-83972-2.  ^ Scanlan, Margaret (1997). "Incriminating documents: Nechaev and Dostoevsky in J. M. Coetzee's The Master of St Petersburg". Philological Quarterly. 76 (4): 463–477.  ^ Pearlman, Mickey (18 September 2005). "J.M. Coetzee again sheds light on the 'black gloom' of isolation". Star Tribune. p. 14F.  ^ Whiteman, Kaye (26 March 2010). "David Coetzee obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ In his fictionalized autobiography Boyhood: Scenes from Provincial Life (1997), J.M. Coatzee writes of himself: "Though he himself is an atheist and has always been one, he feels he understands Jesus better" than his religious teacher does. Adam Kirsch, "With Fear and Trembling: The essential Prostestantism of J.M. Coatzee's late fiction", The Nation, vol. 304, no. 18 (June 19/26, 2017), p. 38. The whole review article: pp. 37–38, 40. ^ Pfeil, Fred (21 June 1986). "Sexual Healing". The Nation. Retrieved 21 February 2011. (subscription required) ^ Diala, Isidore (2002). "Nadine Gordimer, J. M. Coetzee, and André Brink: Guilt, expiation, and the reconciliation process in post-apartheid South Africa". Journal of Modern Literature. 25 (2): 50–68 [51]. doi:10.1353/jml.2003.0004.  ^ Poyner, Jane (2000). "Truth and Reconciliation in JM Coetzee's Disgrace
(novel)". Scrutiny2: Issues in English Studies in Southern Africa. 5 (2): 67–77. doi:10.1080/18125440008565972.  ^ a b Poyner, Jane, ed. (2006). " J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
in Conversation with Jane Poyner". J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
and the Idea of the Public Intellectual. Athens: Ohio University Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-8214-1687-1. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Jolly, Rosemary (2006). "Going to the dogs: Humanity in J. M. Coetzee's Disgrace, The Lives of Animals, and South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission". In Poyner, Jane. J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
and the Idea of the Public Intellectual. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press. p. 149. ISBN 0-8214-1687-1. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Laurence, Patrick (27 September 2007). "JM Coetzee Incites an ANC Egg-Dance". Helen Suzman Foundation. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ Coetzee, J. M. (1992). Attwell, David, ed. Doubling the Point: Essays and Interviews. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA. p. 394. ISBN 0-674-21518-4. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Doherty, Ben; D'Souza, Ken (6 February 2016). "Asylum Policies 'Brutal and Shameful', Authors Tell Turnbull and Dutton". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 May 2016.  ^ "Aussie laws 'like apartheid'". News24 archives. 24 October 2005. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Moses, Michael Valdez (July 2008). "State of discontent: J.M. Coetzee's anti-political fiction". Reason. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Hope, Deborah (25 August 2007). "Coetzee 'diary' targets PM". The Australian. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ Coetzee, J. M. (22 February 2007). "Animals can't speak for themselves — it's up to us to do it". The Age. Retrieved 2 August 2009.  ^ Coetzee, J. M. (22 February 2007). "Voiceless: I feel therefore I am". Hugo Weaving
Hugo Weaving
at Random Scribblings. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ "Who is Voiceless: John M Coetzee". Voiceless. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ "JM Coetzee on animal rights". Women24. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.  ^ See the Cátedra Coetzee: Literaturas del Sur website ^ Halford, James, 'Southern Conversations: J.M. Coetzee in Buenos Aires',Sydney Review of Books, February 28, 2017. ^ See the Other Worlds website

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Maxwell Coetzee.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: J. M. Coetzee

Biography at nobelprize.org Nobel Lecture at nobelprize.org J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
at the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Internet Archive The Lives of Animals, delivered for The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Princeton, 1997 "A Word from J. M. Coetzee", address read by Hugo Weaving
Hugo Weaving
at the opening of the exhibition "Voiceless: I Feel Therefore I am," by Voiceless: The Animal Protection Institute, Feb. 22, 2007, Sherman Galleries, Sydney, Australia J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
at The New York Review of Books J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
at The New York Times An academic blog about writing a dissertation on Coetzee J. M. Coetzee: An Inventory of His Papers at the Harry Ransom Center J. M. Coetzee's page as a member of the Australian Research Council project, 'Other Worlds: Forms of World Literature'


Video: J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
speaking at The University of Texas, Austin Video: J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
speaking at the Jaipur Literature Festival Video: David Malouf
David Malouf
with J.M. Coetzee, Adelaide
Writers Week/You can hear Coetzee introducing himself at the beginning of his speech Video: J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
delivering his Nobel Lecture, "He and His Man," at the Swedish Academy, Stockholm, 7 December 2003

v t e

Works by J. M. Coetzee


(1974) In the Heart of the Country
In the Heart of the Country
(1977) Waiting for the Barbarians
Waiting for the Barbarians
(1980) Life & Times of Michael K (1983) Foe (1986) Age of Iron
Age of Iron
(1990) The Master of Petersburg
The Master of Petersburg
(1994) The Lives of Animals
The Lives of Animals
(1999) Disgrace
(1999) Elizabeth Costello
Elizabeth Costello
(2003) The Nobel Lecture in Literature, 2003: "He and His Man" (2004) Slow Man
Slow Man
(2005) Diary of a Bad Year
Diary of a Bad Year
(2007) The Childhood of Jesus
The Childhood of Jesus
(2013) The Schooldays of Jesus (2016)


Boyhood: Scenes from Provincial Life (1997) Youth: Scenes from Provincial Life II (2002) Summertime (2009)

Criticism and letters

Truth in Autobiography (1984) White Writing: On the Culture of Letters in South Africa (1988) Doubling the Point: Essays and Interviews (1992) Giving Offense: Essays on Censorship (1996) Stranger Shores: Literary Essays, 1986–1999 (2001) Inner Workings: Literary Essays, 2000–2005 (2007) Here and Now: Letters, 2008–2011 (2013)


Dust (film, 1985) The Lives of Animals
The Lives of Animals
(TV film, 2002) Waiting for the Barbarians
Waiting for the Barbarians
(opera, 2006) Disgrace
(film, 2008) Slow Man
Slow Man
(opera, 2014)

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature


1901 Sully Prudhomme 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904 Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906 Giosuè Carducci 1907 Rudyard Kipling 1908 Rudolf Eucken 1909 Selma Lagerlöf 1910 Paul Heyse 1911 Maurice Maeterlinck 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann 1913 Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915 Romain Rolland 1916 Verner von Heidenstam 1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919 Carl Spitteler 1920 Knut Hamsun 1921 Anatole France 1922 Jacinto Benavente 1923 W. B. Yeats 1924 Władysław Reymont 1925 George Bernard Shaw


1926 Grazia Deledda 1927 Henri Bergson 1928 Sigrid Undset 1929 Thomas Mann 1930 Sinclair Lewis 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932 John Galsworthy 1933 Ivan Bunin 1934 Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936 Eugene O'Neill 1937 Roger Martin du Gard 1938 Pearl S. Buck 1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Johannes V. Jensen 1945 Gabriela Mistral 1946 Hermann Hesse 1947 André Gide 1948 T. S. Eliot 1949 William Faulkner 1950 Bertrand Russell


1951 Pär Lagerkvist 1952 François Mauriac 1953 Winston Churchill 1954 Ernest Hemingway 1955 Halldór Laxness 1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957 Albert Camus 1958 Boris Pasternak 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo 1960 Saint-John Perse 1961 Ivo Andrić 1962 John Steinbeck 1963 Giorgos Seferis 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov 1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968 Yasunari Kawabata 1969 Samuel Beckett 1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971 Pablo Neruda 1972 Heinrich Böll 1973 Patrick White 1974 Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975 Eugenio Montale


1976 Saul Bellow 1977 Vicente Aleixandre 1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979 Odysseas Elytis 1980 Czesław Miłosz 1981 Elias Canetti 1982 Gabriel García Márquez 1983 William Golding 1984 Jaroslav Seifert 1985 Claude Simon 1986 Wole Soyinka 1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988 Naguib Mahfouz 1989 Camilo José Cela 1990 Octavio Paz 1991 Nadine Gordimer 1992 Derek Walcott 1993 Toni Morrison 1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 1995 Seamus Heaney 1996 Wisława Szymborska 1997 Dario Fo 1998 José Saramago 1999 Günter Grass 2000 Gao Xingjian


2001 V. S. Naipaul 2002 Imre Kertész 2003 J. M. Coetzee 2004 Elfriede Jelinek 2005 Harold Pinter 2006 Orhan Pamuk 2007 Doris Lessing 2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009 Herta Müller 2010 Mario Vargas Llosa 2011 Tomas Tranströmer 2012 Mo Yan 2013 Alice Munro 2014 Patrick Modiano 2015 Svetlana Alexievich 2016 Bob Dylan 2017 Kazuo Ishiguro

v t e

2003 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize


Peter Agre
Peter Agre
(United States) Roderick MacKinnon
Roderick MacKinnon
(United States)

Economic Sciences

Robert F. Engle
Robert F. Engle
(United States) Clive Granger
Clive Granger
(United Kingdom)


J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
(South Africa)


Shirin Ebadi
Shirin Ebadi


Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov
Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov
(Soviet Union/Russia) Vitaly Ginzburg
Vitaly Ginzburg
(Soviet Union) Anthony James Leggett
Anthony James Leggett
(United Kingdom)

Physiology or Medicine

Paul Lauterbur
Paul Lauterbur
(United States) Peter Mansfield
Peter Mansfield
(United Kingdom)

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Awards received by J. M. Coetzee

v t e

Recipients of the Booker Prize

List of winners and shortlisted authors Booker of Bookers The Best of the Booker The Golden Man Booker Man Booker International Prize

P. H. Newby (1969) Bernice Rubens
Bernice Rubens
(1970) J. G. Farrell
J. G. Farrell
(Lost Man Booker Prize, 1970) V. S. Naipaul
V. S. Naipaul
(1971) John Berger
John Berger
(1972) J. G. Farrell
J. G. Farrell
(1973) Nadine Gordimer
Nadine Gordimer
/ Stanley Middleton
Stanley Middleton
(1974) Ruth Prawer Jhabvala
Ruth Prawer Jhabvala
(1975) David Storey (1976) Paul Scott (1977) Iris Murdoch
Iris Murdoch
(1978) Penelope Fitzgerald
Penelope Fitzgerald
(1979) William Golding
William Golding
(1980) Salman Rushdie
Salman Rushdie
(1981) Thomas Keneally
Thomas Keneally
(1982) J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
(1983) Anita Brookner (1984) Keri Hulme (1985) Kingsley Amis
Kingsley Amis
(1986) Penelope Lively
Penelope Lively
(1987) Peter Carey (1988) Kazuo Ishiguro
Kazuo Ishiguro
(1989) A. S. Byatt
A. S. Byatt
(1990) Ben Okri
Ben Okri
(1991) Michael Ondaatje
Michael Ondaatje
/ Barry Unsworth
Barry Unsworth
(1992) Roddy Doyle
Roddy Doyle
(1993) James Kelman (1994) Pat Barker
Pat Barker
(1995) Graham Swift (1996) Arundhati Roy
Arundhati Roy
(1997) Ian McEwan
Ian McEwan
(1998) J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
(1999) Margaret Atwood
Margaret Atwood
(2000) Peter Carey (2001) Yann Martel
Yann Martel
(2002) DBC Pierre
DBC Pierre
(2003) Alan Hollinghurst
Alan Hollinghurst
(2004) John Banville
John Banville
(2005) Kiran Desai
Kiran Desai
(2006) Anne Enright
Anne Enright
(2007) Aravind Adiga (2008) Hilary Mantel (2009) Howard Jacobson (2010) Julian Barnes (2011) Hilary Mantel (2012) Eleanor Catton
Eleanor Catton
(2013) Richard Flanagan
Richard Flanagan
(2014) Marlon James (2015) Paul Beatty
Paul Beatty
(2016) George Saunders
George Saunders

v t e

Recipients of the Mondello Prize

Single Prize for Literature: Bartolo Cattafi (1975) • Achille Campanile (1976) • Günter Grass
Günter Grass

Jury Prize: Denise McSmith (1975) • Stefano D'Arrigo (1977) • Jurij Trifonov (1978) • Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz
Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz
(1979) • Pietro Consagra (1980) • Ignazio Buttitta, Angelo Maria e Ela Ripellino (1983) • Leonardo Sciascia
Leonardo Sciascia
(1985) • Wang Meng (1987) • Mikhail Gorbaciov (1988) • Peter Carey, José Donoso, Northrop Frye, Jorge Semprún, Wole Soyinka, Lu Tongliu (1990) • Fernanda Pivano
Fernanda Pivano
(1992) • Associazione Scrittori Cinesi (1993) • Dong Baoucum, Fan Boaci, Wang Huanbao, Shi Peide, Chen Yuanbin (1995) • Xu Huainzhong, Xiao Xue, Yu Yougqnan, Qin Weinjung (1996) • Khushwant Singh
Khushwant Singh
(1997) • Javier Marías
Javier Marías
(1998) • Francesco Burdin (2001) • Luciano Erba (2002) • Isabella Quarantotti De Filippo (2003) • Marina Rullo (2006) • Andrea Ceccherini (2007) • Enrique Vila-Matas
Enrique Vila-Matas
(2009) • Francesco Forgione (2010)

First narrative work: Carmelo Samonà (1978) • Fausta Garavini (1979)

First poetic work: Giovanni Giuga (1978) • Gilberto Sacerdoti (1979)

Prize for foreign literature: Milan Kundera
Milan Kundera
(1978) • N. Scott Momaday (1979) • Juan Carlos Onetti (1980) • Tadeusz Konwicki (1981)

Prize for foreign poetry: Jannis Ritsos (1978) • Josif Brodskij (1979) • Juan Gelman
Juan Gelman
(1980) • Gyula Illyés
Gyula Illyés

First work: Valerio Magrelli
Valerio Magrelli
(1980) • Ferruccio Benzoni, Stefano Simoncelli, Walter Valeri, Laura Mancinelli
Laura Mancinelli
(1981) • Jolanda Insana (1982) • Daniele Del Giudice (1983) • Aldo Busi
Aldo Busi
(1984) • Elisabetta Rasy, Dario Villa (1985) • Marco Lodoli, Angelo Mainardi (1986) • Marco Ceriani, Giovanni Giudice (1987) • Edoardo Albinati, Silvana La Spina (1988) • Andrea Canobbio, Romana Petri (1990) • Anna Cascella (1991) • Marco Caporali, Nelida Milani (1992) • Silvana Grasso, Giulio Mozzi (1993) • Ernesto Franco (1994) • Roberto Deidier (1995) • Giuseppe Quatriglio, Tiziano Scarpa (1996) • Fabrizio Rondolino (1997) • Alba Donati (1998) • Paolo Febbraro (1999) • Evelina Santangelo (2000) • Giuseppe Lupo (2001) • Giovanni Bergamini, Simona Corso (2003) • Adriano Lo Monaco (2004) • Piercarlo Rizzi (2005) • Francesco Fontana (2006) • Paolo Fallai (2007) • Luca Giachi (2008) • Carlo Carabba (2009) • Gabriele Pedullà (2010)

Foreign author: Alain Robbe-Grillet
Alain Robbe-Grillet
(1982) • Thomas Bernhard
Thomas Bernhard
(1983) • Adolfo Bioy Casares
Adolfo Bioy Casares
(1984) • Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1985) • Friedrich Dürrenmatt
Friedrich Dürrenmatt
(1986) • Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
(1987) • V. S. Naipaul (1988) • Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz
(1989) • Christa Wolf
Christa Wolf
(1990) • Kurt Vonnegut (1991) • Bohumil Hrabal
Bohumil Hrabal
(1992) • Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
(1993) • J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
(1994) • Vladimir Vojnovič (1995) • David Grossman (1996) • Philippe Jaccottet
Philippe Jaccottet
(1998) • Don DeLillo
Don DeLillo
(1999) • Aleksandar Tišma (2000) • Nuruddin Farah
Nuruddin Farah
(2001) • Per Olov Enquist (2002) • Adunis
(2003) • Les Murray (2004) • Magda Szabó (2005) • Uwe Timm
Uwe Timm
(2006) • Bapsi Sidhwa
Bapsi Sidhwa
(2007) • Viktor Erofeev (2009) • Edmund White
Edmund White
(2010) • Javier Cercas
Javier Cercas
(2011) • Elizabeth Strout
Elizabeth Strout
(2012) • Péter Esterházy
Péter Esterházy
(2013) • Joe R. Lansdale (2014) • Emmanuel Carrère
Emmanuel Carrère
(2015) • Marilynne Robinson (2016) • Cees Nooteboom
Cees Nooteboom

Italian Author: Alberto Moravia
Alberto Moravia
(1982) • Vittorio Sereni
Vittorio Sereni
alla memoria (1983) • Italo Calvino
Italo Calvino
(1984) • Mario Luzi (1985) • Paolo Volponi (1986) • Luigi Malerba (1987) • Oreste del Buono (1988) • Giovanni Macchia (1989) • Gianni Celati, Emilio Villa (1990) • Andrea Zanzotto (1991) • Ottiero Ottieri (1992) • Attilio Bertolucci (1993) • Luigi Meneghello (1994) • Fernando Bandini, Michele Perriera (1995) • Nico Orengo (1996) • Giuseppe Bonaviri, Giovanni Raboni
Giovanni Raboni
(1997) • Carlo Ginzburg
Carlo Ginzburg
(1998) • Alessandro Parronchi (1999) • Elio Bartolini (2000) • Roberto Alajmo (2001) • Andrea Camilleri
Andrea Camilleri
(2002) • Andrea Carraro, Antonio Franchini, Giorgio Pressburger
Giorgio Pressburger
(2003) • Maurizio Bettini, Giorgio Montefoschi, Nelo Risi
Nelo Risi
(2004) • pr. Raffaele Nigro, sec. Maurizio Cucchi, ter. Giuseppe Conte (2005) • pr. Paolo Di Stefano, sec. Giulio Angioni (2006) • pr. Mario Fortunato, sec. Toni Maraini, ter. Andrea Di Consoli (2007) • pr. Andrea Bajani, sec. Antonio Scurati, ter. Flavio Soriga (2008) • pr. Mario Desiati, sec. Osvaldo Guerrieri, ter. Gregorio Scalise (2009) • pr. Lorenzo Pavolini, sec. Roberto Cazzola, ter. (2010) • pr. Eugenio Baroncelli, sec. Milo De Angelis, ter. Igiaba Scego
Igiaba Scego
(2011) • pr. Edoardo Albinati, sec. Paolo Di Paolo, ter. Davide Orecchio (2012) • pr. Andrea Canobbio, sec. Valerio Magrelli, ter. Walter Siti (2013) • pr. Irene Chias, sec. Giorgio Falco, ter. Francesco Pecoraro (2014) • pr. Nicola Lagioia, sec. Letizia Muratori, ter. Marco Missiroli (2015) • pr. Marcello Fois, sec. Emanuele Tonon, ter. Romana Petri (2016) • pr. Stefano Massini, sec. Alessandro Zaccuri, ter. Alessandra Sarchi (2017)

"Five Continents" Award: Kōbō Abe, Tahar Ben Jelloun, Germaine Greer, Wilson Harris, José Saramago
José Saramago
(1992) • Kenzaburō Ōe
Kenzaburō Ōe
(1993) • Stephen Spender
Stephen Spender
(1994) • Thomas Keneally, Alberto Arbasino (1996) • Margaret Atwood, André Brink, David Malouf, Romesh Gunesekera, Christoph Ransmayr
Christoph Ransmayr

"Palermo bridge for Europe" Award: Dacia Maraini
Dacia Maraini
(1999), Premio Palermo ponte per il Mediterraneo Alberto Arbasino
Alberto Arbasino

"Ignazio Buttitta" Award: Nino De Vita (2003) • Attilio Lolini (2005) • Roberto Rossi Precerotti (2006) • Silvia Bre (2007)

Supermondello Tiziano Scarpa (2009) • Michela Murgia (2010) • Eugenio Baroncelli (2011) • Davide Orecchio (2012) • Valerio Magrelli (2013) • Giorgio Falco (2014) • Marco Missiroli (2015) • Romana Petri (2016) • Stefano Massini (2017)

award of the President: Ibrahim al-Koni (2009) • Emmanuele Maria Emanuele (2010) • Antonio Calabrò (2011)

Poetry prize: Antonio Riccardi (2010)

Translation Award: Evgenij Solonovic (2010)

Identity and dialectal literatures award: Gialuigi Beccaria e Marco Paolini (2010)

Essays Prize: Marzio Barbagli (2010)

Mondello for Multiculturality Award: Kim Thúy
Kim Thúy

Mondello Youths Award: Claudia Durastanti (2011) • Edoardo Albinati (2012) • Alessandro Zaccuri (2017)

"Targa Archimede", Premio all'Intelligenza d'Impresa: Enzo Sellerio (2011)

Prize for Literary Criticism: Salvatore Silvano Nigro (2012) • Maurizio Bettini (2013) • Enrico Testa (2014) • Ermanno Cavazzoni (2015) • Serena Vitale (2016) • Antonio Prete (2017)

Award for best motivation: Simona Gioè (2012)

award for travel literature: Marina Valensise (2013)

Award 40 Years of Mondello: Gipi

v t e

Commonwealth Writers' Prize: Best Book Winners


Olive Senior (1987) Festus Iyayi (1988) Janet Frame
Janet Frame


Mordecai Richler
Mordecai Richler
(1990) David Malouf
David Malouf
(1991) Rohinton Mistry (1992) Alex Miller (1993) Vikram Seth
Vikram Seth
(1994) Louis de Bernières
Louis de Bernières
(1995) Rohinton Mistry (1996) Earl Lovelace (1997) Peter Carey (1998) Murray Bail (1999)


J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
(2000) Peter Carey (2001) Richard Flanagan
Richard Flanagan
(2002) Austin Clarke (2003) Caryl Phillips (2004) Andrea Levy (2005) Kate Grenville
Kate Grenville
(2006) Lloyd Jones (2007) Lawrence Hill
Lawrence Hill
(2008) Christos Tsiolkas (2009)


Rana Dasgupta
Rana Dasgupta
(2010) Aminatta Forna
Aminatta Forna

v t e

Animal rights



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Brown Dog affair Cambridge University primates McLibel case Pit of despair Silver Spring monkeys University of California Riverside 1985 laboratory raid Unnecessary Fuss


Academics and writers

Carol Adams James Aspey Tom Beauchamp Marc Bekoff Paola Cavalieri Stephen R. L. Clark Alasdair Cochrane J. M. Coetzee Priscilla Cohn Alice Crary David DeGrazia Sue Donaldson Josephine Donovan Lawrence Finsen Gary Francione Robert Garner Antoine Goetschel John Hadley Will Kymlicka Andrew Linzey Dan Lyons Mary Midgley Martha Nussbaum Siobhan O'Sullivan Clare Palmer Tom Regan Bernard Rollin Mark Rowlands Richard D. Ryder Peter Singer Henry Stephens Salt Steve Sapontzis Gary Steiner Cass Sunstein more...


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Animal Aid Animal Legal Defense Fund Animal Liberation Front British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection Centre for Animals and Social Justice Chinese Animal Protection Network Direct Action Everywhere Farm Animal Rights Movement Great Ape Project Hunt Saboteurs Association In Defense of Animals Korea Animal Rights Advocates Last Chance for Animals Mercy for Animals New England Anti-Vivisection Society Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics Oxford Group People for Animals People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals United Poultry Concerns more...


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Animals' Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress (1894) Animals, Men and Morals
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The Animals Film (1981) A Cow at My Table
A Cow at My Table
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Meet Your Meat
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Forks Over Knives
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 101839018 LCCN: n83166192 ISNI: 0000 0001 2103 4865 GND: 118895117 SELIBR: 181931 SUDOC: 030825105 BNF: cb11984508m (data) BIBSYS: 90114178 MusicBrainz: 9629f694-2d41-4607-8262-3e1989d6769c NLA: 35029346 NDL: 00464705 NKC: jn19990001433 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV00605 BNE: XX835110 CiNii: DA04295