JOHN GORDON MELTON (born September 19, 1942) is an American religious
scholar who was the founding director of the Institute for the Study
Dr. Melton is the author of more than forty-five books, including
several encyclopedias, handbooks, and scholarly textbooks on American
religious history, Methodism, world religions, and new religious
movements (NRMs). His areas of research include major religious
traditions, American Methodism, new and alternative religions ,
Western Esotericism (popularly called occultism ) and parapsychology ,
* 1 Early life * 2 Methodology and writing
* 3 Main areas of research
* 4 Amicus curiae * 5 _Encyclopædia Britannica_ contributor * 6 Aum Shinrikyoinvestigation * 7 Criticism
* 8 Bibliography
* 8.1 Books * 8.2 Scholarly assessments
* 9 See also * 10 References
* 11 External links
* 11.1 Related sites
Melton was born in
In 1964 he graduated from Birmingham Southern Collegewith the B.A. degree and then proceeded to theological studies at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary, from which he received an M.Div. with a concentration in church history in 1968. He married Dorothea Dudley in 1966, with one daughter, Melanie. The marriage ended in divorce in 1979. His second wife is named Suzie.
In 1968, Melton was ordained as an elder in the United Methodist
church, an appointment he retains to this day. He was the pastor of
Melton pursued further graduate studies at Northwestern University
where he received his Ph.D. in 1975 in the History and Literature of
Religions with a specialty in American history. His doctoral
dissertation surveyed some 800 religious groups known to exist in the
METHODOLOGY AND WRITING
Much of Melton's professional career has involved literary and field research into alternative and minority religious bodies. In taking his cue from the writings of Elmer Clark, Melton has spent much of his career identifying, counting and classifying the many different churches, major religious traditions, and new and alternative religions found in North America. His _Encyclopedia of American Religions_, which was originally published in 1978 (ninth ed. 2016), has become the standard reference work in the field.
Other noteworthy reference works include his _Biographical Dictionary
of American Cult and Sect Leaders_, _Encyclopedia of
He is a contributor to academic journals such as _Syzygy_, and _Nova Religio_. He has also contributed chapters to various multi-authored books on new religions, and articles in many other reference works, handbooks and encyclopedias of religion.
MAIN AREAS OF RESEARCH
PHENOMENOLOGY OF RELIGION
Melton's major emphasis has been on collating primary source data on religious groups and movements. His approach to research is shaped by his training both in church and religious history and in the phenomenology of religion. His methodology has followed that of a historian seeking primary source literature, and so he has generally made direct, personal contact with the leaders or official representatives of a church or religious group. The purpose of such contact has been to obtain the group's main religious literature to ascertain their principal teachings and practices. His inquiries also comprise, gathering membership statistics, details of the group's history and so forth. He then incorporates these details profiles that form the basis for reference texts like the _Encyclopedia of American Religions_.
Melton uses a group's religious texts as the essential mainstay for reporting about a group before then proceeding to scholarly questions and analysis about wider social, religious and historical contexts.
CHRISTIAN COUNTERCULT AND SECULAR ANTI-CULT
Melton is one of the first scholars to draw a distinction between the
Christian countercult and the secular anti-cult movements. In his
Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America he articulated the
distinction on the grounds that the two movements operate with very
different epistemologies , motives and methods. He was urged to make
this distinction in the course of a formal dialogue with evangelical
Ronald Enrothand after conversations with Eric Pement of
_Cornerstone _ magazine (Chicago). This distinction has been
subsequently acknowledged by sociologists such as
Douglas E. Cowanand
Melton is a prominent critic of both the anti-cult movement and some
Christian countercult organizations. Some of Melton's criticisms
concerning the secular anti-cult movement revolve around his rejection
of the concept of brainwashing as an explanation of religious
conversion and indoctrination. During the 1970s and 1980s he was a
prominent opponent of the controversial methods of deprogramming . He
argued that deprogramming violated civil liberties and the religious
freedom principles guaranteed in the
Melton has argued that countercult apologists frequently misrepresent the teachings of those they critique:
My encounter with many Evangelical Christians who write about other religions has, to some extent, helped shape my life's work. However, over the years I have been mostly disappointed with the Christian writing in this area. Instead of attempting to understand the teachings of a group, too frequently writers only compared quotes from the group's literature with biblical passages, both often out of context. Then, as I began to visit the groups, I often encountered the anger at the church many members had because of Christian writers who had written supposedly authoritative books but who had distorted members' positions and had condemned them for believing things they had never taught ... I have always thought the church deserved better, and many years ago I committed myself to providing it with the information it needed both to live at peace with its new neighbors and to carry on its missional life with a high level of integrity.
Melton challenges the validity of many anti-NRM sources and testimonies of former members (which he refers to as apostates ) critical of their previous groups. While testifying as an expert witness in a lawsuit, Melton asserted that when investigating groups, one should not rely solely upon the unverified testimony of ex-members, and that hostile ex-members would invariably shade the truth and blow out of proportion minor incidents turning them into major incidents. Melton also follows the argumentation of Lewis Carter and David Bromley and claims that as a result of their study, the treatment (coerced or voluntary) of former members as people in need of psychological assistance largely ceased and that an (alleged) lack of widespread need for psychological help by former members of new religions would in itself be the strongest evidence refuting early sweeping condemnations of new religions as causes of psychological trauma. This view is shared by several religious scholars, and contested by others (see also “Criticism”).
In a paper presented at the conference on "
From his college days, Melton developed an interest in the subject of
vampires, which he has since pursued in his leisure time. Melton has
researched the history of vampires , as well as the study of
contemporary vampiric groups and rites. In 1983 he served as editor
for _Vampires Unearthed_ by Martin Riccardo, the first comprehensive
bibliography of English-language vampire literature. In 1994 he
In 1997, Melton,
Melton, together with a group of scholars and the American Psychological Association , submitted on February 10, 1987 an _amicus curiæ _ brief in a pending case before the California Supreme Court related to the Unification Church. The brief stated that hypotheses of brainwashing and coercive persuasion were uninformed speculations based on skewed data. The brief characterized the theory of brainwashing as not scientifically proven and advanced the position that "commitment to advancing the appropriate use of psychological testimony in the courts carries with it the concomitant duty to be vigilant against those who would use purportedly expert testimony lacking scientific and methodological rigor."
_ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA_ CONTRIBUTOR
Melton is the second most prolific contributor to the _Encyclopædia
Britannica _, after
Christine Sutton. He has contributed 15
Micropædia_ articles, generally on religious organizations or
AUM SHINRIKYO INVESTIGATION
For more details on this topic, see Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway .
In May 1995, in the early stages of investigations into the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway , Melton, fellow scholar James R. Lewis and religious freedom lawyer Barry Fisher flew to Japan to voice concern that police behaviour, including mass detentions without charge and the removal of practitioners' children from the group, might be infringing the civil rights of Aum Shinrikyomembers. They had travelled to Japan at the invitation and expense of Aum Shinrikyo after they had contacted the group to express concern over developments, and met with officials over a period of three days. While not having been given access to the group's chemical laboratories, they held press conferences in Japan stating their belief, based on the documentation they had been given by the group, that the group did not have the ability to produce sarin and was being scapegoated. Melton revised his judgment shortly after, concluding that the group had in fact been responsible for the attack and other crimes. Some felt that the scholars' defense of Aum Shinrikyoled to a crisis of confidence in religious scholarship when the group's culpability was proven.
Melton’s scholarly works concentrate on the phenomenology and not the theology of NRMs. Some Christian countercultists criticize Melton for not critiquing the groups he reports on from an evangelical perspective, arguing that his failure to do so is incompatible with his statements of professed evangelicalism. Some secular anti-cultists who feel that new religious movements are dangerous and that scholars should actively work against them have likewise criticized him. Stephen A. Kentand Theresa Krebs, for example, characterized Gordon Melton, James R. Lewis , and Anson Shupeas biased towards the groups they study. In non-scholarly writings, Melton has recommended that Christian churches should examine new religions in terms of evangelization, and he sees his work as a means to facilitate that end.
_ Wikiquote has quotations related to: J. GORDON MELTON _
* _Log Cabins to Steeples: The
* J. Gordon Melton, ‘The counter-cult monitoring movement in
historical perspective’ in _Challenging Religion: Essays in Honour
* Derek Davis, Review of _The Church of Scientology_, _Journal of Church and State_, 42/4 (Autumn 2000): 851-852. * P. G. Davis, Review of _Biographical Dictionary of American Cult and Sect Leaders_, _Religious Studies and Theology_, 9 (1989): 101-103. * James L. Garrett, Review of _Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America_, _ Southwestern Journal of Theology_, 33 (1990): 69. * Jeffrey Hadden, Review of _Prime-time Religion_, _Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion_, 36 (1997): 634. * Stephen A. Kentand Theresa Krebs, "When Scholars Know Sin: Alternative Religions and Their Academic Supporters," _Skeptic_, 6/3 (1988): 36-44. Also see J. Gordon Melton, Anson D. Shupe and James R. Lewis, "When Scholars Know Sin" Forum Reply to Kent and Krebs, _Skeptic_, 7/1 (1999): 14-21. * Philip Jenkins, _Mystics and Messiahs: Cults and New Religions in American History_ (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).
* ^ _A_ _B_ Baylor University, "J. Gordon Melton, Distinguished
Professor of American Religious History. Retrieved 12 April, 2016
* ^ Melton, J. Gordon (1998). _Finding Enlightenment: Ramtha's
School of Ancient Wisdom_. Hillsboro, OR: Beyond Words Publishing,
Inc. p. 163.
* ^ Melton, J. Gordon (1992). _Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in
America_. New York: Garland. pp. 335–358. He makes a similar
distinction in Richardson, James A.; Richardson, James T. (2003). "The
Couther-cult Monitoring Movement in Historical Perspective".
_Challenging Religion: Essays in Honour of Eileen Barker_: 102–113.
* ^ Enroth, Ronald M.; Melton, J. Gordon (1985). _Why Cults Succeed
Where the Church Fails_. Elgin, IL: Brethren. pp. 25–30.
* ^ Pement, Eric (1993). "Comments on the Directory". In Tolbert,
Keith Edward; Pement, Eric. _The 1993 Directory of Cult Research
Organizations_. Trenton, NJ: American Religions Center. p. x.
* ^ Cowan, Douglas (2003). _Bearing False Witness: An Introduction
to the Christian Countercult_. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
* ^ Barker, Eileen (2002). "Cult-Watching Practices and
Consequences in Europe and North America". In Davis, Derek H.; Besier,
Gerhard. _International Perspectives on Freedom and Equality of