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The IVY LEAGUE is a collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private institutions of higher education in the Northeastern United States
Northeastern United States
. The conference name is also commonly used to refer to those eight schools as a group beyond the sports context. The eight institutions are Brown University
University
, Columbia University
University
, Cornell University
University
, Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
, Harvard
Harvard
University
University
, the University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, Princeton University
University
, and Yale University
University
. The term _Ivy League_ has connotations of academic excellence, selectivity in admissions, and social elitism .

While the term was in use as early as 1933, it only became official after the formation of the NCAA
NCAA
Division I athletic conference in 1954. Seven of the eight schools were founded during the United States colonial period . Cornell was founded in 1865. Ivy League institutions account for seven of the nine Colonial Collegeschartered before the American Revolution
American Revolution
; the other two are Rutgers University and the College of William & Mary
College of William & Mary
.

Ivy League
Ivy League
schools are generally viewed as some of the most prestigious, and are ranked among the best universities worldwide by _ U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report
_. All eight universities place in the top fifteen of the _U.S. News "> Locations of Ivy League
Ivy League
universities

CONTENTS

* 1 Members

* 2 History

* 2.1 Year founded * 2.2 Origin of the name * 2.3 Pre– Ivy League
Ivy League

* 2.4 History of the athletic league

* 2.4.1 19th and early 20th centuries * 2.4.2 Post– World War II
World War II

* 3 Academics

* 3.1 Admissions * 3.2 Prestige * 3.3 Collaboration

* 4 Culture

* 4.1 Fashion and lifestyle * 4.2 Social elitism * 4.3 U.S. presidents in the Ivy League
Ivy League

* 5 Student demographics

* 5.1 Geographic distribution * 5.2 Socioeconomics and social class

* 6 Competition and athletics

* 6.1 Historical results

* 6.2 Rivalries

* 6.2.1 Intra-conference football rivalries * 6.2.2 Extra-conference football rivalries

* 7 NCAA
NCAA
team championships * 8 Athletic facilities

* 9 Other Ivies

* 9.1 Ivy Plus

* 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 External links

MEMBERS

Ivy League
Ivy League
universities have some of the largest university financial endowments in the world, which allows the universities to provide many resources for their academic programs and research endeavors. As of 2014, Harvard
Harvard
University
University
has an endowment of $36.4 billion. Additionally, each university receives millions of dollars in research grants and other subsidies from federal and state governments.

INSTITUTION LOCATION ATHLETIC NICKNAME ENROLLMENT 2015 ENDOWMENT ACADEMIC STAFF COLORS

BROWN UNIVERSITY Providence , Rhode Island
Rhode Island
Bears 7003864900000000000♠8,649 $3.3 billion 7002736000000000000♠736

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY New York City
New York City
, New York Lions 7004229200000000000♠22,920 $9.6 billion 7003376300000000000♠3,763

CORNELL UNIVERSITY Ithaca , New York Big Red 7004206330000000000♠20,633 $6.2 billion 7003290800000000000♠2,908

DARTMOUTH COLLEGE Hanover , New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Big Green 7003614100000000000♠6,141 $4.7 billion 571

HARVARD UNIVERSITY Cambridge , Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Crimson 7004212250000000000♠21,225 $37.6 billion 7003467100000000000♠4,671

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Quakers 7004206430000000000♠20,643 $10.1 billion 7003446400000000000♠4,464

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY Princeton , New Jersey
New Jersey
Tigers 7003759200000000000♠7,592 $22.7 billion 7003117200000000000♠1,172

YALE UNIVERSITY New Haven , Connecticut
Connecticut
Bulldogs 7004116660000000000♠11,666 $25.6 billion 7003414000000000000♠4,140

HISTORY

YEAR FOUNDED

INSTITUTION FOUNDED FOUNDING AFFILIATION

Harvard
Harvard
University
University
1636 as _New College_ Calvinist
Calvinist
(Congregationalist Puritans )

Yale
Yale
University 1701 as _Collegiate School_ Calvinist
Calvinist
(Congregationalist)

University
University
of Pennsylvania 1740 as _Unnamed Charity School_ Nonsectarian, founded by Church of England
Church of England
/ Methodistsmembers

Princeton University 1746 as _College of New Jersey_ Nonsectarian, founded by Calvinist
Calvinist
Presbyterians

Columbia University 1754 as _King's College_ Church of England
Church of England

Brown University 1764 as the _College in the English Colony of Rhode Island
Rhode Island
and Providence Plantations_ Baptist
Baptist
, founding charter promises "no religious tests" and "full liberty of conscience"

Dartmouth College 1769 Calvinist
Calvinist
(Congregationalist)

Cornell University 1865 Nonsectarian

NOTE: Six of the eight Ivy League
Ivy League
universities consider their founding dates to be simply the date that they received their charters and thus became legal corporations with the authority to grant academic degrees. Harvard
Harvard
University
University
uses the date that the legislature of the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony formally allocated funds for the creation of a college. Harvard
Harvard
was chartered in 1650, although classes had been conducted for approximately a decade by then. The University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
initially considered its founding date to be 1750; this is the year which appears on the first iteration of the university seal. Later in Penn's early history, the university changed its officially recognized founding date to 1749, which was used for all of the nineteenth century, including a centennial celebration in 1849. In 1899, Penn's board of trustees formally adopted a third founding date of 1740, in response to a petition from Penn's General Alumni Society. Penn was chartered in 1755, the same year collegiate classes began. "Religious affiliation" refers to financial sponsorship, formal association with, and promotion by, a religious denomination. All of the schools in the Ivy League
Ivy League
are private and not currently associated with any religion.

ORIGIN OF THE NAME

Harvard Yard
Harvard Yard
: left to right, Hollis Hall (1763), Stoughton Hall (1805), and Holworthy Hall (1812) Brown's Front Green: left to right, Hope College (1822), Manning Hall (1834), University
University
Hall (1770), and Slater Hall (1879) Yale's Old Campus
Old Campus
: left to right, Durfee Hall (1871), Battell Chapel (1876), Farnham Hall (1870), and Lawrence Hall (1886) On the Dartmouth Green: left to right, Dartmouth Hall (1784, rebuilt after fire 1905) and Thornton Hall (1829)

Students have long revered the ivied walls of older colleges. "Planting the ivy" was a customary class day ceremony at many colleges in the 1800s. In 1893 an alumnus told _The Harvard Crimson
Harvard Crimson
_, "In 1850, class day was placed upon the University
University
Calendar.... the custom of planting the ivy, while the ivy oration was delivered, arose about this time." At Penn, graduating seniors started the custom of planting ivy at a university building each spring in 1873 and that practice was formally designated as "Ivy Day " in 1874. Ivy planting ceremonies are reported for Yale, Simmons , Bryn Mawr and many others. Princeton's "Ivy Club" was founded in 1879.

The first usage of _Ivy_ in reference to a group of colleges is from sportswriter Stanley Woodward(1895–1965).

A proportion of our eastern ivy colleges are meeting little fellows another Saturday before plunging into the strife and the turmoil. — Stanley Woodward, _ New York Tribune_, October 14, 1933, describing the football season

The first known instance of the term _Ivy League_ being used appeared in _ The Christian Science Monitor_ on February 7, 1935. Several sportswriters and other journalists used the term shortly later to refer to the older colleges, those along the northeastern seaboard of the United States, chiefly the nine institutions with origins dating from the colonial era , together with the United States Military Academy (West Point), the United States Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy
, and a few others. These schools were known for their long-standing traditions in intercollegiate athletics, often being the first schools to participate in such activities. However, at this time, none of these institutions made efforts to form an athletic league.

A common folk etymology attributes the name to the Roman numeral for four (IV), asserting that there was such a sports league originally with four members. The _Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins_ helped to perpetuate this belief. The supposed "IV League" was formed over a century ago and consisted of Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and a fourth school that varies depending on who is telling the story. However, it is clear that Harvard
Harvard
, Princeton , Yale
Yale
and Columbia met on November 23, 1876 at the so-called Massasoit Convention to decide on uniform rules for the emerging game of American football, which rapidly spread.

PRE–IVY LEAGUE

Chancellor Green Library at Princeton and Robinson Hall at Brown (below), contemporary examples of the panoptic principle in library architecture Robinson Hall at Brown, built 1878 A Cornell Big Red
Cornell Big Red
college baseball player from 1908.

Seven out of the eight Ivy League
Ivy League
schools were founded before the American Revolution
American Revolution
; Cornell was founded just after the American Civil War . These seven were the primary colleges in the Northern and Middle Colonies, and their early faculties and founding boards were largely, therefore, drawn from other Ivy League
Ivy League
institutions. There were also some British graduates from the University
University
of Cambridge , the University
University
of Oxford , the University
University
of St. Andrews , the University
University
of Edinburgh , and elsewhere on their boards. Similarly, the founder of The College of William to some degree independent of the actual schools.

After the Second World War , the present Ivy League
Ivy League
institutions slowly widened their selection of their students. They had always had distinguished faculties; some of the first Americans with doctorates had taught for them; but they now decided that they could not both be world-class research institutions and be competitive in the highest ranks of American college sport; in addition, the schools experienced the scandals of any other big-time football programs, although more quietly.

HISTORY OF THE ATHLETIC LEAGUE

Yale
Yale
University's four-oared crew team, posing with the 1876 Centennial Regatta
Regatta
trophy. The 1879 Brown baseball varsity, with W.E. White seated second from right; recent research suggests that White's appearance in an 1879 major league game broke baseball's color line 68 years before Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson
Yale
Yale
rowing team in the annual Harvard- Yale
Yale
Regatta
Regatta
, rowed since 1852. Penn's ICAA track champions in 1907

19th And Early 20th Centuries

The first formal athletic league involving eventual Ivy League schools (or any US colleges, for that matter) was created in 1870 with the formation of the Rowing Association of American Colleges. The RAAC hosted a de facto national championship in rowing during the period 1870–1894. In 1895, Cornell, Columbia, and Penn founded the Intercollegiate Rowing Association, which remains the oldest collegiate athletic organizing body in the US. To this day, the IRA Championship Regatta
Regatta
determines the national champion in rowing and all of the Ivies are regularly invited to compete.

A basketball league was later created in 1902, when Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Yale
Yale
and Princeton formed the Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball
Basketball
League ; they were later joined by Penn and Dartmouth.

In 1906, the organization that eventually became the National Collegiate Athletic Association was formed, primarily to formalize rules for the emerging sport of football. But of the 39 original member colleges in the NCAA, only two of them (Dartmouth and Penn) later became Ivies.

In February 1903, intercollegiate wrestling began when Yale
Yale
accepted a challenge from Columbia, published in the Yale
Yale
News. The dual meet took place prior to a basketball game hosted by Columbia and resulted in a tie. Two years later, Penn and Princeton also added wrestling teams, leading to the formation of the student-run Intercollegiate Wrestling Association, now the Eastern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association (EIWA), the first and oldest collegiate wrestling league in the US.

In 1930, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Penn, Princeton and Yale formed the Eastern Intercollegiate Baseball League; they were later joined by Harvard, Brown, Army and Navy.

Before the formal establishment of the Ivy League, there was an "unwritten and unspoken agreement among certain Eastern colleges on athletic relations". The earliest reference to the "Ivy colleges" came in 1933, when Stanley Woodwardof the New York Herald Tribune
New York Herald Tribune
used it to refer to the eight current members plus Army. In 1935, the Associated Press
Associated Press
reported on an example of collaboration between the schools:

The athletic authorities of the so-called "Ivy League" are considering drastic measures to curb the increasing tendency toward riotous attacks on goal posts and other encroachments by spectators on playing fields. — The Associated Press, _The New York Times_

Despite such collaboration, the universities did not seem to consider the formation of the league as imminent. Romeyn Berry, Cornell's manager of athletics, reported the situation in January 1936 as follows:

I can say with certainty that in the last five years—and markedly in the last three months—there has been a strong drift among the eight or ten universities of the East which see a good deal of one another in sport toward a closer bond of confidence and cooperation and toward the formation of a common front against the threat of a breakdown in the ideals of amateur sport in the interests of supposed expediency.

Please do not regard that statement as implying the organization of an Eastern conference or even a poetic "Ivy League". That sort of thing does not seem to be in the cards at the moment.

Within a year of this statement and having held month-long discussions about the proposal, on December 3, 1936, the idea of "the formation of an Ivy League" gained enough traction among the undergraduate bodies of the universities that the _Columbia Daily Spectator _, _ The Cornell Daily Sun_, _ The Dartmouth_, _The Harvard Crimson _, _ The Daily Pennsylvanian_, _ The Daily Princetonian
The Daily Princetonian
_ and the _ Yale Daily News_ would simultaneously run an editorial entitled "Now Is the Time", encouraging the seven universities to form the league in an effort to preserve the ideals of athletics. Part of the editorial read as follows:

The Ivy League
Ivy League
exists already in the minds of a good many of those connected with football, and we fail to see why the seven schools concerned should be satisfied to let it exist as a purely nebulous entity where there are so many practical benefits which would be possible under definite organized association. The seven colleges involved fall naturally together by reason of their common interests and similar general standards and by dint of their established national reputation they are in a particularly advantageous position to assume leadership for the preservation of the ideals of intercollegiate athletics.

The Ivies have been competing in sports as long as intercollegiate sports have existed in the United States. Rowing teams from Harvard and Yale
Yale
met in the first sporting event held between students of two U.S. colleges on Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
, on August 3, 1852. Harvard's team, "The Oneida", won the race and was presented with trophy black walnut oars from then presidential nominee General Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
. The proposal did not succeed—on January 11, 1937, the athletic authorities at the schools rejected the "possibility of a heptagonal league in football such as these institutions maintain in basketball, baseball and track." However, they noted that the league "has such promising possibilities that it may not be dismissed and must be the subject of further consideration."

Post–World War II

Students in Stell Hall at Dartmouth's Tuck School of Business. Students of Yale
Yale
College in 1866.

In 1945 the presidents of the eight schools signed the first _Ivy Group Agreement_, which set academic, financial, and athletic standards for the football teams. The principles established reiterated those put forward in the Harvard-Yale-Princeton Presidents' Agreement of 1916. The Ivy Group Agreement established the core tenet that an applicant's ability to play on a team would not influence admissions decisions:

The members of the Group reaffirm their prohibition of athletic scholarships. Athletes shall be admitted as students and awarded financial aid only on the basis of the same academic standards and economic need as are applied to all other students.

In 1954, the presidents extended the Ivy Group Agreement to all intercollegiate sports, effective with the 1955–56 basketball season. This is generally reckoned as the formal formation of the Ivy League. As part of the transition, Brown, the only Ivy that hadn't joined the EIBL, did so for the 1954–55 season. A year later, the Ivy League
Ivy League
absorbed the EIBL. The Ivy League
Ivy League
claims the EIBL's history as its own. Through the EIBL, it is the oldest basketball conference in Division I.

As late as the 1960s many of the Ivy League
Ivy League
universities' undergraduate programs remained open only to men, with Cornell the only one to have been coeducational from its founding (1865) and Columbia being the last (1983) to become coeducational . Before they became coeducational, many of the Ivy schools maintained extensive social ties with nearby Seven Sisters women\'s colleges , including weekend visits, dances and parties inviting Ivy and Seven Sisters students to mingle. This was the case not only at Barnard College
Barnard College
and Radcliffe College
Radcliffe College
, which are adjacent to Columbia and Harvard, but at more distant institutions as well. The movie _ Animal House_ includes a satiric version of the formerly common visits by Dartmouth men to Massachusetts
Massachusetts
to meet Smith and Mount Holyoke women, a drive of more than two hours. As noted by Irene Harwarth, Mindi Maline, and Elizabeth DeBra, "The 'Seven Sisters\' was the name given to Barnard, Smith, Mount Holyoke, Vassar , Bryn Mawr , Wellesley , and Radcliffe, because of their parallel to the Ivy League
Ivy League
men’s colleges."

In 1982 the Ivy League
Ivy League
considered adding two members, with Army, Navy, and Northwestern as the most likely candidates; if it had done so, the league could probably have avoided being moved into the recently created Division I-AA (now Division I FCS) for football. In 1983, following the admission of women to Columbia College, Columbia University
University
and Barnard College
Barnard College
entered into an athletic consortium agreement by which students from both schools compete together on Columbia University
University
women's athletic teams, which replaced the women's teams previously sponsored by Barnard.

When Army and Navy departed the Eastern Intercollegiate Baseball League in 1992, all intercollegiate competition involving the eight schools became united under the Ivy League
Ivy League
banner.

ACADEMICS

ADMISSIONS

Admission statistics (Class of 2020)

APPLICANTS ADMISSION RATES

BROWN 32,390 9.01%

COLUMBIA 36,292 6.04%

CORNELL 44,966 13.96%

DARTMOUTH 20,675 10.52%

HARVARD 39,041 5.22%

PENN 38,918 9.4%

PRINCETON 29,303 6.46%

YALE 31,455 6.27%

The Ivy League
Ivy League
schools are highly selective, with acceptance rates since 2000 ranging from 6 to 16 percent at each of the universities. Admitted students come from around the world, although students from New England
New England
and the Northeastern United States
Northeastern United States
make up a significant proportion of students.

PRESTIGE

See also: List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation

Members of the League have been highly ranked by various university rankings .

National academic rankings University (in alphabetical order) ARWU (2014) Forbes
Forbes
(2016) USNWR (2014) Washington Monthly
Washington Monthly
(2014)

BROWN 43 8 16 113

COLUMBIA 7 16 4 51

CORNELL 11 29 15 39

DARTMOUTH 78–104 17 11 54

HARVARD 1 4 2 10

PENN 14 11 8 41

PRINCETON 5 3 1 27

YALE 9 6 3 57

Further, Ivy League
Ivy League
members have produced many Nobel laureates
Nobel laureates
, winners of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences . According to the Nobel Foundation's website, as of 2016 the number of prize-winners affiliated with each Ivy League
Ivy League
university at the time of their awards is: Brown, 2; Columbia, 17; Cornell, 8; Dartmouth, 0; Harvard, 36; Penn, 4; Princeton, 14; and Yale, 8. In addition, each university self-reports their number of affiliated Nobel laureates, but they use varying definitions for which Nobel winners they claim (for example, alumni, active faculty, former faculty, visiting faculty, adjunct faculty, etc.)

COLLABORATION

Collaboration between the member schools is illustrated by the student-led Ivy Councilthat meets in the fall and spring of each year, with representatives from every Ivy League
Ivy League
school. The governing body of the Ivy League
Ivy League
is the Council of Ivy Group Presidents, composed of each university president. During meetings, the presidents often discuss common procedures and initiatives for the universities.

CULTURE

FASHION AND LIFESTYLE

See also: Ivy League (clothes), Preppy, Take Ivy, and Ivy League (haircut) Statue of Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
on the campus of the University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania

Different fashion trends and styles have emerged from Ivy League campuses over time, and fashion trends such as Ivy League
Ivy League
and Preppy are styles often associated with the Ivy League
Ivy League
and its culture.

Ivy League
Ivy League
style is a style of men's dress, popular during the late 1950s, believed to have originated on Ivy League
Ivy League
campuses. The clothing stores J. Pressand Brooks Brothersrepresent perhaps the quintessential Ivy League
Ivy League
dress manner. The Ivy League
Ivy League
style is said to be the predecessor to the preppy style of dress.

Preppyfashion started around 1912 to the late 1940s and 1950s as the Ivy League
Ivy League
style of dress. J. Pressrepresents the quintessential preppy clothing brand, stemming from the collegiate traditions that shaped the preppy subculture. In the mid-twentieth century J. Press and Brooks Brothers, both being pioneers in preppy fashion, had stores on Ivy League
Ivy League
school campuses, including Harvard
Harvard
, Princeton , and Yale
Yale
.

Some typical preppy styles also reflect traditional upper class New England leisure activities, such as equestrian , sailing or yachting , hunting , fencing , rowing , lacrosse , tennis , golf , and rugby . Longtime New England
New England
outdoor outfitters, such as L.L. Bean
L.L. Bean
, became part of conventional preppy style. This can be seen in sport stripes and colours, equestrian clothing, plaid shirts, field jackets and nautical-themed accessories. Vacationing in Palm Beach, Florida
Palm Beach, Florida
, long popular with the East Coast upper class, led to the emergence of bright colour combinations in leisure wear seen in some brands such as Lilly Pulitzer
Lilly Pulitzer
. By the 1980s, other brands such as Lacoste, Izod and Dooney "> The A.D. White Reading Room at Cornell's Uris Library A cartoon portrait of the stereotypical Columbia man in the early 20th century

The Ivy League
Ivy League
is often associated with the upper class White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
Protestant
community of the Northeast , Old Money , or more generally, the American upper middle and upper classes. Although most Ivy League
Ivy League
students come from upper middle and upper class families, the student body has become increasingly more economically and ethnically diverse. The universities provide significant financial aid to help increase the enrollment of lower income and middle class students. Several reports suggest, however, that the proportion of students from less-affluent families remains low.

Phrases such as " Ivy League
Ivy League
snobbery" are ubiquitous in nonfiction and fiction writing of the early and mid-twentieth century. A Louis Auchincloss character dreads "the aridity of snobbery which he knew infected the Ivy League
Ivy League
colleges". A business writer, warning in 2001 against discriminatory hiring, presented a cautionary example of an attitude to avoid (the bracketed phrase is his):

We Ivy Leaguers know that an Ivy League
Ivy League
degree is a mark of the kind of person who is likely to succeed in this organization.

The phrase _Ivy League_ historically has been perceived as connected not only with academic excellence, but also with social elitism. In 1936, sportswriter John Kierannoted that student editors at Harvard
Harvard
, Yale
Yale
, Princeton , Cornell , Columbia , Dartmouth , and Penn were advocating the formation of an athletic association. In urging them to consider "Army and Navy and Georgetown and Fordham and Syracuse and Brown and Pitt " as candidates for membership, he exhorted:

It would be well for the proponents of the Ivy League
Ivy League
to make it clear (to themselves especially) that the proposed group would be inclusive but not "exclusive" as this term is used with a slight up-tilting of the tip of the nose.

Aspects of Ivy stereotyping were illustrated during the 1988 presidential election, when George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
( Yale
Yale
'48) derided Michael Dukakis
Michael Dukakis
(graduate of Harvard
Harvard
Law School) for having "foreign-policy views born in Harvard
Harvard
Yard's boutique." _New York Times_ columnist Maureen Dowdasked "Wasn't this a case of the pot calling the kettle elite?" Bush explained, however, that, unlike Harvard, Yale's reputation was "so diffuse, there isn't a symbol, I don't think, in the Yale
Yale
situation, any symbolism in it.... Harvard boutique to me has the connotation of liberalism and elitism" and said _Harvard_ in his remark was intended to represent "a philosophical enclave" and not a statement about class. Columnist Russell Baker opined that "Voters inclined to loathe and fear elite Ivy League schools rarely make fine distinctions between Yale
Yale
and Harvard. All they know is that both are full of rich, fancy, stuck-up and possibly dangerous intellectuals who never sit down to supper in their undershirt no matter how hot the weather gets." Still, the last five presidents have all attended Ivy League
Ivy League
schools for at least part of their education— George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
( Yale
Yale
undergrad), Bill Clinton ( Yale
Yale
Law School), George W. Bush
George W. Bush
( Yale
Yale
undergrad, Harvard
Harvard
Business School), Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(Columbia undergrad, Harvard
Harvard
Law School), and Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(Penn undergrad).

U.S. PRESIDENTS IN THE IVY LEAGUE

See also: List of Presidents of the United States by education The future President Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
with his Harvard
Harvard
class in 1904.

Of the forty-four men who have served as President of the United States , fifteen have graduated from an Ivy League
Ivy League
university. Of them, eight have degrees from Harvard, five from Yale, three from Columbia, two from Princeton and one from Penn. Twelve presidents have earned Ivy undergraduate degrees. Three of these were transfer students: Donald Trump
Donald Trump
transferred from Fordham University
University
, Barack Obama transferred from Occidental College and John F. Kennedy transferred from another Ivy, Princeton, where he had been class of 1939. John Adams
John Adams
was the first president to graduate from college, graduating from Harvard
Harvard
in 1755.

PRESIDENT SCHOOL(S) GRADUATION YEAR

John Adams
John Adams
Harvard
Harvard
University 1755

James Madison
James Madison
Princeton University 1771

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
Harvard
Harvard
University 1787

Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
Harvard
Harvard
Law School 1845

Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Harvard
Harvard
University Columbia Law School 1880 (withdrew) (Awarded J.D. in 2008, class of 1882)

William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
Yale
Yale
University 1878

Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Princeton University 1879

Franklin D. Roosevelt Harvard
Harvard
University Columbia Law School1903 (withdrew) (Awarded J.D. in 2008, class of 1907)

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Princeton University Harvard
Harvard
University
University
(withdrew) 1940

Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
Yale
Yale
Law School 1941

George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
Yale
Yale
University 1948

Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
Yale
Yale
Law School 1973

George W. Bush
George W. Bush
Yale
Yale
University Harvard
Harvard
Business School 1968 1975

Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Columbia University Harvard
Harvard
Law School 1983 1991

Donald Trump
Donald Trump
University
University
of Pennsylvania 1968

STUDENT DEMOGRAPHICS

Racial and/or ethnic background (2011)

ASIAN BLACK Hispanic (of any race) NON-HISPANIC WHITE OTHER/INTERNATIONAL UNKNOWN

BROWN 14% 6% 10% 45% 14% 11%

COLUMBIA 15% 8% 13% 41% 17% 6%

CORNELL 17% 6% 10% 46% 13% 10%

DARTMOUTH 14% 8% 9% 48% 13% 8%

HARVARD 12% 7% 9% 45% 22% 6%

PENN 19% 7% 8% 46% 13% 7%

PRINCETON 18% 7% 8% 49% 15% 3%

YALE 15% 6% 8% 58% 5% 8%

UNITED STATES 5% 13% 17% 63% 4% NA

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

Students of the Ivy League
Ivy League
largely hail from the Northeast , largely from the New York City
New York City
, Boston
Boston
, and Philadelphia
Philadelphia
areas. As all eight Ivy League
Ivy League
universities are within the Northeast, it is no surprise that most graduates end up working and residing in the Northeast after graduation. An unscientific survey of Harvard
Harvard
seniors from the Class of 2013 found that 42% hailed from the Northeast and 55% overall were planning on working and residing in the Northeast. Boston
Boston
and New York City are traditionally where many Ivy League
Ivy League
graduates end up living.

SOCIOECONOMICS AND SOCIAL CLASS

Harvard
Harvard
Law School students circa 1895

Students of the Ivy League, both graduate and undergraduate, come primarily from upper middle and upper class families. In recent years, however, the universities have looked towards increasing socioeconomic and class diversity, by providing greater financial aid packages to applicants from lower , working , and middle class American families.

In 2013, 46% of Harvard
Harvard
undergraduate students came from families in the top 3.8% of all American households (i.e., over $200,000 annual income). In 2012, the bottom 25% of the American income distribution accounted for only 3–4% of students at Brown, a figure that had remained unchanged since 1992. In 2014, 69% of incoming freshmen students at Yale
Yale
College came from families with annual incomes of over $120,000, putting most Yale
Yale
College students in the upper middle and/or upper class. (The median household income in the U.S. in 2013 was $52,700.)

In the 2011–2012 academic year, students qualifying for Pell Grants (federally funded scholarships on the basis of need) comprised 20% at Harvard, 18% at Cornell, 17% at Penn, 16% at Columbia, 15% at Dartmouth and Brown, 14% at Yale, and 12% at Princeton. Nationally, 35% of American university students qualify for a Pell Grant.

COMPETITION AND ATHLETICS

New students march through Van Wickle Gates at Brown University 's opening Convocation The Yale
Yale
Bowl during The Game , the annual football game played between Harvard
Harvard
and Yale
Yale
since 1875.

Ivy champions are recognized in sixteen men's and sixteen women's sports. In some sports, Ivy teams actually compete as members of another league, the Ivy championship being decided by isolating the members' records in play against each other; for example, the six league members who participate in ice hockey do so as members of ECAC Hockey , but an Ivy champion is extrapolated each year. The Ivy League was the last Division I basketball conference to institute a conference postseason tournament; the first tournaments for men and women will be held at the end of the 2016–17 season. The tournaments will only award the Ivy League
Ivy League
automatic bids for the NCAA
NCAA
Division I Men\'s and Women\'s Basketball
Basketball
Tournaments; the official conference championships will continue to be awarded based solely on regular-season results. Before the 2016–17 season, the automatic bids were based solely on regular-season record, with a one-game playoff (or series of one-game playoffs if more than two teams were tied) held to determine the automatic bid. The Ivy League
Ivy League
is one of only two Division I conferences which award their official basketball championships solely on regular-season results; the other is the Southeastern Conference
Southeastern Conference
. Since its inception, an Ivy League
Ivy League
school has yet to win either the men's or women's Division I NCAA
NCAA
Basketball Tournament.

On average, each Ivy school has more than 35 varsity teams. All eight are in the top 20 for number of sports offered for both men and women among Division I schools. Unlike most Division I athletic conferences, the Ivy League
Ivy League
prohibits the granting of athletic scholarships; all scholarships awarded are need-based (financial aid ). In addition, the Ivies have a rigid policy against redshirting , even for medical reasons; an athlete loses a year of eligibility for every year enrolled at an Ivy institution. Ivy League
Ivy League
teams' non-league games are often against the members of the Patriot League
Patriot League
, which have similar academic standards and athletic scholarship policies (although unlike the Ivies, the Patriot League
Patriot League
allows redshirting).

In the time before recruiting for college sports became dominated by those offering athletic scholarships and lowered academic standards for athletes, the Ivy League
Ivy League
was successful in many sports relative to other universities in the country. In particular, Princeton won 26 recognized national championships in college football (last in 1935), and Yale
Yale
won 18 (last in 1927). Both of these totals are considerably higher than those of other historically strong programs such as Alabama , which has won 15, Notre Dame , which claims 11 but is credited by many sources with 13, and USC , which has won 11. Yale, whose coach Walter Camp
Walter Camp
was the "Father of American Football," held on to its place as the all-time wins leader in college football throughout the entire 20th century, but was finally passed by Michigan on November 10, 2001. Harvard, Yale, Princeton and Penn each have over a dozen former scholar-athletes enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame . Currently Dartmouth holds the record for most Ivy League football titles, with 18, followed closely by Harvard
Harvard
and Penn, each with 17 titles. In addition, the Ivy League
Ivy League
has produced Super Bowl winners Kevin Boothe(Cornell ), two-time Pro Bowler Zak DeOssie (Brown ), Sean Morey (Brown), All-Proselection Matt Birk
Matt Birk
( Harvard
Harvard
), Calvin Hill( Yale
Yale
), Derrick Harmon(Cornell) and 1999 "Mr. Irrelevant " Jim Finn(Penn ).

Beginning with the 1982 football season, the Ivy League
Ivy League
has competed in Division I-AA (renamed FCS in 2006). The Ivy League
Ivy League
teams are eligible for the FCS tournament held to determine the national champion, and the league champion is eligible for an automatic bid (and any other team may qualify for an at-large selection) from the NCAA. However, the Ivy League
Ivy League
has not played any postseason games at all since 1956 due to the league's concerns about the extended December schedule's effects on academics. For this reason, any Ivy League team invited to the FCS playoffs turns down the bid. The Ivy League plays a strict 10-game schedule, compared to other FCS members' schedules of 11 (or, in some seasons, 12) regular season games, plus post-season, which was most recently expanded in 2013 to five rounds with 24 teams, with a bye week for the top eight teams. Football is the only sport in which the Ivy League
Ivy League
declines to compete for a national title.

In addition to varsity football, Penn, Princeton and Cornell also field teams in the eight-team Collegiate Sprint Football League , in which all players must weigh 172 pounds or less. Penn and Princeton are the last remaining founding members of the league from its 1934 debut, and Cornell is the next-oldest, joining in 1937. Yale
Yale
and Columbia previously fielded teams in the league but no longer do so.

TEAMS IN IVY LEAGUE COMPETITION SPORT MEN\'S WOMEN\'S

Baseball 8 -

Basketball
Basketball
8 8

Cross-country 8 8

Fencing
Fencing
6 7

Field hockey
Field hockey
- 8

Football 8 -

Golf
Golf
8 7

Ice hockey
Ice hockey
6 6

Lacrosse
Lacrosse
7 8

Rowing 7 7

Soccer 8 8

Softball - 8

Swimming and diving 7 8

Squash 8 8

Tennis
Tennis
8 8

Track and field (indoor) 8 8

Track and field (outdoor) 8 8

Volleyball
Volleyball
- 8

Wrestling 6 -

The Ivy League
Ivy League
is home to some of the oldest college rugby teams in the United States. Although these teams are not "varsity" sports, they compete annually in the Ivy Rugby Conference.

HISTORICAL RESULTS

Total championships won (1956–2012) INSTITUTION Ivy League Championships NCAA
NCAA
Team Championships

Princeton University
University
Tigers 414 10

Harvard
Harvard
University
University
Crimson 361 4

Cornell University
University
Big Red 208 5

University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Quakers 195 3

Yale
Yale
University
University
Bulldogs 181 3

Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
Big Green 130 3

Brown University
University
Bears 119 7

Columbia University
University
Lions 88 9

The table above includes the number of team championships won from the beginning of official Ivy League
Ivy League
competition (1956–57 academic year) through 2011–12. Princeton and Harvard
Harvard
have on occasion won ten or more Ivy League
Ivy League
titles in a year, an achievement accomplished six times by Harvard
Harvard
and 21 times by Princeton, including a conference-record 15 championships in 2010–11. Only once has one of the other six schools earned more than eight titles in a single academic year (Cornell with nine in 2005–06). In the 33 academic years beginning 1979–80, Princeton has averaged 11 championships per year, one-third of the conference total of 33 sponsored sports.

In the seven academic years beginning 2005–06, Harvard
Harvard
has won Ivy titles in 22 different sports, two-thirds of the league total, and Princeton has won championships in 31 different sports, all except wrestling and men's tennis.

RIVALRIES

Built in 1927, Penn's Palestra
Palestra
has been called the "Cathedral of Basketball" Performance of a Greek play at Harvard
Harvard
Stadium in 1903.

Rivalries run deep in the Ivy League. For instance, Princeton and Penn are longstanding men\'s basketball rivals ; "Puck Frinceton", and "Pennetrate the Puss" t-shirts are worn by Quaker fans at games. In only 11 instances in the history of Ivy League
Ivy League
basketball, and in only seven seasons since Yale's 1962 title, has neither Penn nor Princeton won at least a share of the Ivy League
Ivy League
title in basketball, with Princeton champion or co-champion 26 times and Penn 25 times. Penn has won 21 outright, Princeton 19 outright. Princeton has been a co-champion 7 times, sharing 4 of those titles with Penn (these 4 seasons represent the only times Penn has been co-champion). Harvard won its first title of either variety in 2011, losing a dramatic play-off game to Princeton for the NCAA
NCAA
tournament bid, then rebounded to win outright championships in 2012, 2013, and 2014.

Rivalries exist between other Ivy league teams in other sports, including Cornell and Harvard
Harvard
in hockey , Harvard
Harvard
and Princeton in swimming, and Harvard
Harvard
and Penn in football (Penn and Harvard
Harvard
have won 28 Ivy League
Ivy League
Football Championships since 1982, Penn-16; Harvard-12). During that time Penn has had 8 undefeated Ivy League
Ivy League
Football Championships and Harvard
Harvard
has had 6 undefeated Ivy League
Ivy League
Football Championships. In men\'s lacrosse , Cornell and Princeton are perennial rivals, and they are the only two Ivy League
Ivy League
teams to have won the NCAA
NCAA
tournament. In 2009, the Big Red and Tigers met for their 70th game in the NCAA
NCAA
tournament . No team other than Harvard
Harvard
or Princeton has won the men's swimming conference title outright since 1972, although Yale, Columbia, and Cornell have shared the title with Harvard
Harvard
and Princeton during this time. Similarly, no program other than Princeton and Harvard
Harvard
has won the women's swimming championship since Brown's 1999 title. Princeton or Cornell has won every indoor and outdoor track and field championship, both men's and women's, every year since 2002–03, with one exception (Columbia women won indoor championship in 2012). Harvard
Harvard
and Yale
Yale
are football and crew rivals although the competition has become unbalanced; Harvard
Harvard
has won all but one of the last 15 football games and all but one of the last 13 crew races.

Intra-conference Football Rivalries

TEAMS NAME TROPHY FIRST MET GAMES PLAYED SERIES RECORD

Columbia-Cornell Empire State Bowl Empire Cup 1889 103 games 36–64–3

Cornell-Penn None Trustee's Cup 1893 122 games 46–71–5

Dartmouth-Princeton None Sawhorse Dollar 1897 95 games 48–43–4

Harvard-Yale The Game None 1875 132 games 59–65–8

Princeton-Yale None None 1873 138 games 52–76–10

The Yale-Princeton series is the nation's second longest, exceeded only by "The Rivalry" between Lehigh and Lafayette , which began later in 1884 but included two or three games in each of 17 early seasons. For the first three decades of the Yale-Princeton rivalry, the two played their season-ending game at a neutral site, usually New York City, and with one exception (1890: Harvard), the winner of the game also won at least a share of the national championship that year, covering the period 1869 through 1903. This phenomenon of a finale contest at a neutral site for the national title created a social occasion for the society elite of the metropolitan area akin to a Super Bowl
Super Bowl
in the era prior to the establishment of the NFL in 1920. These football games were also financially profitable for the two universities, so much that they began to play baseball games in New York City as well, drawing record crowds for that sport also, largely from the same social demographic. In a period when the only professional sports were fledgling baseball leagues, these high profile early contests between Princeton and Yale
Yale
played a role in popularizing spectator sports, demonstrating their financial potential and raising public awareness of Ivy universities at a time when few people attended college.

Extra-conference Football Rivalries

TEAMS NAME TROPHY FIRST MET GAMES PLAYED SERIES RECORD

Brown- Rhode Island
Rhode Island
None Governor\'s Cup 1909 98 games 70–26–2

Columbia-Fordham None Liberty Cup 1890 22 games 12–10–0

Cornell-Colgate None None 1896 95 games 48–44–3

Dartmouth- New Hampshire
New Hampshire
Granite Bowl Granite Bowl Trophy 1901 37 games 17–18–2

Harvard-Holy Cross None None 1904 67 games 41–24–2

Penn-Lafayette None None 1882 90 games 63–23–4

Penn-Lehigh None None 1885 56 games 43-13

Princeton-Rutgers None None 1869 71 games 53–17–1

Yale-Army None None 1893 45 games 22–16–8

NCAA
NCAA
TEAM CHAMPIONSHIPS

This list, which is current through July 1, 2015, includes NCAA championships and women's AIAW championships (one each for Yale
Yale
and Dartmouth). Excluded from this list are all other national championships earned outside the scope of NCAA
NCAA
competition , including football titles and retroactive Helms Foundation titles .

SCHOOL TOTAL MEN WOMEN CO-ED NICKNAME

Yale
Yale
University
University
29 26 3 0 Bulldogs

Princeton University
University
24 19 4 1 Tigers

Columbia University
University
14 11 0 3 Lions

Harvard
Harvard
University
University
10 7 2 1 Crimson

Brown University
University
7 0 7 0 Bears

Cornell University
University
5 5 0 0 Big Red

Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College
5 1 1 3 Big Green

University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
4 3 1 0 Quakers

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ The NCAA
NCAA
started sponsoring the intercollegiate golf championship in 1939, but it retained the titles from the 41 championships previously conferred by the National Intercollegiate Golf
Golf
Association in its records. Of these pre- NCAA
NCAA
titles, Yale, Princeton, Harvard
Harvard
and Dartmouth won 20, 11, 6 and 1, respectively.

See also: List of NCAA
NCAA
schools with the most Division I national championships

ATHLETIC FACILITIES

FOOTBALL STADIUM BASKETBALL ARENA BASEBALL FIELD HOCKEY RINK SOCCER STADIUM

SCHOOL NAME CAPACITY YEAR NAME CAPACITY YEAR NAME CAPACITY YEAR NAME CAPACITY YEAR NAME CAPACITY YEAR

BROWN Brown Stadium 7004200000000000000♠20,000 1925 Pizzitola Sports Center
Pizzitola Sports Center
7003280000000000000♠2,800 1989 Murray Stadium
Murray Stadium
7003100000000000000♠1,000 1959 Meehan Auditorium
Meehan Auditorium
7003310000000000000♠3,100 1961 Stevenson Field 7003350000000000000♠3,500 1979

COLUMBIA Wien Stadium 7004170000000000000♠17,000 1984 Levien Gymnasium 7003340800000000000♠3,408 1974 Hal Robertson Field at Phillip Satow Stadium N/A N/A _Non-hockey school_ Columbia Soccer Stadium 7003350000000000000♠3,500 1985

CORNELL Schoellkopf Field 7004255970000000000♠25,597 1915 Newman Arena 7003447200000000000♠4,472 1990 Hoy Field 7002500000000000000♠500 1922 Lynah Rink 7003426700000000000♠4,267 1957 Charles F. Berman Field 7003100000000000000♠1,000 2000

DARTMOUTH Memorial Field 7004156000000000000♠15,600 1923 Leede Arena 7003210000000000000♠2,100 1986 Red Rolfe Field at Biondi Park 7003200000000000000♠2,000 N/A Thompson Arena 7003450000000000000♠4,500 1975 Burnham Field 7003160000000000000♠1,600 2007

HARVARD Harvard
Harvard
Stadium 7004308980000000000♠30,898 1903 Lavietes Pavilion
Lavietes Pavilion
7003219500000000000♠2,195 1926 Joseph J. O\'Donnell Field 7003160000000000000♠1,600 1898 Bright Hockey Center
Bright Hockey Center
7003285000000000000♠2,850 1956 Soldiers Field Soccer Stadium 7003250000000000000♠2,500 2010

PENN Franklin Field
Franklin Field
7004525930000000000♠52,593 1895 The Palestra
Palestra
7003872200000000000♠8,722 1927 Meiklejohn Stadium 7002850000000000000♠850 2000 _Non-hockey school_ Rhodes Field 7003170000000000000♠1,700 2002

PRINCETON Princeton University
University
Stadium 7004278000000000000♠27,800 1998 Jadwin Gymnasium 7003685400000000000♠6,854 1969 Bill Clarke Field N/A 1961 Hobey Baker Memorial Rink 7003209400000000000♠2,094 1923 Roberts Stadium 7003300000000000000♠3,000 2008

YALE Yale
Yale
Bowl 7004642690000000000♠64,269 1914 Payne Whitney Gymnasium 7003310000000000000♠3,100 1932 Yale
Yale
Field 7003620000000000000♠6,200 1927 Ingalls Rink
Ingalls Rink
7003348600000000000♠3,486 1958 Reese Stadium 7003300000000000000♠3,000 1981

OTHER IVIES

The term _Ivy_ is often used to connote a positive comparison to or association with the Ivy League, often along academic lines. The term has been used to describe the Little Ivies, a grouping of small liberal arts colleges in the Northeastern United States
Northeastern United States
. Other uses include the Southern Ivies and the Public Ivies . The 2007 edition of _Newsweek's How to Get Into College Now_, the editors designated 25 schools as "New Ivies".

IVY PLUS

The term _Ivy Plus_ is sometimes used to refer to the Ancient Eight plus several other schools for purposes of alumni associations, university affiliations, or endowment comparisons. In his book _Untangling the Ivy League_, Zawel writes, "The inclusion of non–Ivy League schools under this term is commonplace for some schools and extremely rare for others. Among these other schools, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Stanford University
University
are almost always included. The University
University
of Chicago and Duke University
University
are often included as well." In their 2015 book _Acing Admissions_, Mehta and Dixit write, "The include, but are not limited to: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Stanford University
University
and Northwestern University
University
. Besides selectivity, these Ivy Plus colleges are thought to share similar values around academic and professional excellence, intellectual curiosity, leadership and civil engagement."

SEE ALSO

* _ University
University
portal

* Little Ivies—a grouping of small liberal arts colleges in the Northeastern United States
Northeastern United States
. * Seven Sisters —seven liberal arts colleges all previously open to only enrollment by women considered the Ivy League
Ivy League
of female-only colleges * Little Three
Little Three
—three private liberal arts colleges in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and Connecticut
Connecticut
(Amherst , Wesleyan , and Williams ), in contrast to the Big Three (a term used to refer to Harvard, Yale, and Princeton) of the Ivy League. * Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium—three private liberal arts colleges in Maine (Bates , Bowdoin and Colby ) known as the Maine Big Three contrasting also with the Ivy League's Big Three. * List of Ivy League medical schools—schools of the Ivy League universities that offer medical education (both MDs and PhDs ). * List of Ivy League law schools—schools of the Ivy League universities that offer various law degrees. * List of Ivy League business schools—schools of the Ivy League universities that offer various business degrees, especially the MBA . * Hidden Ivies: Thirty Colleges of Excellence _—complementary use of _Ivy_ to characterize schools in the United States that showcase academic excellence. * Jesuit Ivy—complementary use of _Ivy_ to characterize Boston College . * Black Ivy League—informal list of private historically black colleges that attracted a high number of top African American students.

NOTES

* ^ "Executive Director Robin Harris". Retrieved 2016-04-01. * ^ "Princeton Campus Guide – Ivy League". Retrieved 2007-04-26. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ " Ivy League
Ivy League
History and Timeline". Retrieved 2015-11-13. * ^ "World\'s Best Colleges". Retrieved 2009-07-03. * ^ "National University
University
Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2013-09-11. * ^ Dartmouth and Cornell respectively * ^ National Association of College and University
University
Business Officers (NACUBO), "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value" (published Jan. 28, 2014 at www.nacubo.org) * ^ "10 Private Universities With Largest Financial Endowments". Retrieved 2012-01-09. * ^ Fitzpatrick, Dan (2014-09-23). " Harvard
Harvard
Endowment Earns 15.4% Return for Fiscal 2014". _The Wall Street Journal_. * ^ Michael McDonald, "Brown Posts 16.1 Percent Investment Gain in Year Ended June 30," Bloomberg.com/news, Oct. 1, 2014 (bloomberg.com/news/2014-10-01/brown-posts-16-1-investment-gain-in-year-ended-june-30.html) * ^ "Faculty & Employees". Brown University. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ Christian Zhang, " University
University
announces 17.5 percent return on endowment in 2014," _Columbia Daily Spectator_, Oct. 1, 2014 (columbiaspectator.com/news/2014/10/01/university-announces-175-percent-return-endowment-2014) * ^ http://www.columbia.edu/cu/opir/abstract/opir_faculty_history_1.htm * ^ _A_ _B_ Peter Jacobs, "How All the Ivy League
Ivy League
Endowments Performed," _Business Insider_, Oct. 22, 2014 (businessinsider.com/ivy-league-university-endowments-fiscal-year-2014-returns-2014-10) * ^ "College endowment valued at $4.5 billion," _The Dartmouth_, Sept. 16, 2014 (thedartmouth.com/2014/09/16/news/college-endowment-valued-at-4-5-billio) * ^ Michael McDonald, "Harvard’s 15.4% Gain Trails as Mendillo Successor Sought," Bloomberg.com/news, Sept. 24, 2014 (bloomberg.com/news/2014-09-23/harvard-has-15-4-investment-gain-trailing-dartmouth-penn-1-.html) * ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2014-02-15. * ^ Michael McDonald, " University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Posts 17.5% Investment Return," Bloomberg.com/news, Sept. 18, 2014 (bloomberg.com/news/2014-09-18/university-of-pennsylvania-posts-17-5-investment-return-1-.html) * ^ "Penn: Penn Facts". The University
University
of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ Adrian Rodrigues, " Yale
Yale
endowment rises to all-time high," _ Yale
Yale
Daily News_, Sept. 25, 2014 (yaledailynews.com/blog/2014/09/25/yale-endowment-rises-to-all-time-high) * ^ "About – Facts". Yale
Yale
University. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ The institution, though founded in 1636, did not receive its name until 1639. It was nameless for its first two years * ^ See University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
for details of the circumstances of Penn's origin. Penn considered its founding date to be 1749 for over a century. In 1895, elite universities in the United States agreed that henceforth formal academic processions would place visiting dignitaries and other officials in the order of their institution's founding dates. Penn's periodical "The Alumni Register," published by the General Alumni Society, then began a grassroots campaign to retroactively revise the university's founding date to 1740, in order to appear older than Princeton University
University
, which had been chartered in 1746. In 1899, the Board of Trustees acceded to the alumni initiative and voted to change the founding date to 1740. The rationale offered in 1899 was that, in 1750, founder Benjamin Franklin and his original board of trustees purchased a completed but unused building and assumed an unnamed trust from a group which had hoped to begin a church and charity school in Philadelphia. This edifice was commonly called the "New Building" by local citizens and was referred to by such name in Franklin's memoirs as well as the legal bill of sale in Penn's archives. No name is stated or known for the associated educational trust, hence "Unnamed Charity School" serves as a placeholder to refer to the trust which is the premise for Penn's association with a founding date of 1740. The first named entity in Penn's early history was the 1751 secondary school for boys and charity school for indigent children called "Academy and Charitable School in the Province of Pennsylvania." Undergraduate education began in 1755 and the organization then changed its name to "College, Academy and Charity School of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in Pennsylvania." Operation of the charity school was discontinued a few years later. * ^ Penn's website, like other sources, makes an important point of Penn's heritage being nonsectarian, associated with Benjamin Franklin and the Academy of Philadelphia's nonsectarian board of trustees: "The goal of Franklin's nonsectarian, practical plan would be the education of a business and governing class rather than of clergymen.". Jencks and Riesman (2001) write "The Anglicans who founded the University
University
of Pennsylvania, however, were evidently anxious not to alienate Philadelphia's Quakers, and they made their new college officially nonsectarian." In Franklin's 1749 founding Proposals relating to the education of youth in Pensilvania (page images) Archived 2007-10-18 at the Wayback Machine., religion is not mentioned directly as a subject of study, but he states in a footnote that the study of "_History_ will also afford frequent Opportunities of showing the Necessity of a _Publick Religion,_ from its Usefulness to the Publicks; the Advantage of a Religious Character among private Persons; the Mischiefs of Superstition, since the Methodistsdid not formally break from the Church of England
Church of England
until 1784, Whitefield in 1740 would be labelled Episcopalian , and in fact _Brown_ University, emphasizing its own pioneering nonsectarianism, refers to Penn's origin as "Episcopalian". Penn is sometimes assumed to have Quaker ties (its athletic teams are called "Quakers," and the cross-registration alliance between Penn, Haverford, Swarthmore and Bryn Mawr is known as the "Quaker Consortium.") But Penn's website does not assert any formal affiliation with Quakerism, historic or otherwise, and Haverford College implicitly asserts a non-Quaker origin for Penn when it states that "Founded in 1833, Haverford is the oldest institution of higher learning with Quaker roots in North America.""Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-04. Retrieved 2012-02-19. * ^ " Protestant
Protestant
Episcopal Church – LoveToKnow 1911". 1911encyclopedia.org. 2006-10-06. Retrieved 2011-01-30. * ^ "Brown Admission: Our History". Brown.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-30. * ^ _A_ _B_ " University
University
Chapel: Orange Key Virtual Tour of Princeton University". Princeton University. * ^ Brown's website characterizes it as "the Baptist
Baptist
answer to Congregationalist Yale
Yale
and Harvard; Presbyterian Princeton; and Episcopalian Penn and Columbia," but adds that at the time it was "the only one that welcomed students of all religious persuasions." Brown's charter stated that "into this liberal and catholic institution shall never be admitted any religious tests, but on the contrary, all the members hereof shall forever enjoy full, free, absolute, and uninterrupted liberty of conscience." The charter called for twenty-two of the thirty-six trustees to be Baptists, but required that the remainder be "five Friends, four Congregationalists, and five Episcopalians." * ^ Hughes, Samuel (2002). "Whiskey, Loose Women, and Fig Leaves: The University\'s seal has a curious history". _ Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Gazette_. 100 (3). * ^ "Class Day, New and Old". * ^ "Penn: Ivy day and Ivy Stones, a Penn Tradition". * ^ Boston
Boston
Daily Globe, Jun 27, 1882, p. 4: "CLASS DAY.: Yale Seniors Plant the Ivy, Sing "Blage," and Entertain the Beauty of New Haven;" * ^ Boston
Boston
Evening Transcript, Jun 11, 1912, p. 12, "Simmons Seniors Hosts Class Day Exercises Late in Afternoon, Planting of the Ivy will be One of the Features; * ^ "Play a Romance and Plant Ivy, Pretty Class Day Exercises of the Women\'s College". _The Gazette Times_. June 9, 1907. Retrieved October 22, 2012. * ^ "The Ivy Club: History". * ^ " Yale
Yale
Book of Quotations" (2006) Yale
Yale
University
University
Press edited by Fred R. Shapiro * ^ "The Yale
Yale
Book of Quotations" (2006) Yale
Yale
University
University
Press, edited by Fred R. Shapiro * ^ Oxford English Dictionary entry for "Ivy League" * ^ The Chicago Public Libraryreports the "IV League" explanation, sourced only from the _Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins_. * ^ Various _Ask Ezra_ student columns report the "IV League" explanation, apparently relying on the _Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins_ as the sole source: * ^ "The Penn Current / October 17, 2002 / Ask Benny". Upenn.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-30. * ^ "This according to the Penn history of varsity football". Archives.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-30. * ^ "Robinson Hall" in _SAH Archipedia Classic Buildings_, Society of Architectural Historians (sah-archipedia.org) * ^ "Resource: Student history". Resource.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2011-01-30. * ^ Epstein, Joseph (2003). _Snobbery: The American Version_. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-34073-4 . p. 55, "by WASP Baltzell meant something much more specific; he intended to cover a select group of people who passed through a congeries of elite American institutions: certain eastern prep schools , the Ivy League
Ivy League
colleges, and the Episcopal Church among them." * ^ _A_ _B_ Auchincloss, Louis (2004). _East Side Story_. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-45244-3 . p. 179, "he dreaded the aridity of snobbery which he knew infected the Ivy League
Ivy League
colleges" * ^ McDonald, Janet (2000). _Project Girl_. University
University
of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22345-4 . p. 163 "_Newsweek_ is a morass of incest, nepotism, elitism, racism and utter classic white male patriarchal corruption.... It is completely Ivy League
Ivy League
— a Vassar/Columbia J-School dumping ground... I will always be excluded, regardless of how many Ivy League
Ivy League
degrees I acquire, because of the next level of hurdles: family connections and money." * ^ scandals: James Axtell, _The Making of Princeton University_ (2006), p.274; quoting a former executive director of the Ivy League * ^ Robert Siegel, "Black Baseball Pioneer William White's 1879 Game," National Public Radio, broadcast Jan. 30, 2004 (audio at npr.org); Stefan Fatsis, "Mystery of Baseball: Was William White Game\'s First Black?", _Wall Street Journal_, Jan. 30, 2004; Peter Morris and Stefan Fatsis, "Baseball's Secret Pioneer: William Edward White, the first black player in major-league history," _Slate_, Feb. 4, 2014; "Bill White (whitebi01)", _Baseball-Reference.com_; Rick Harris, _Brown University
University
Baseball: A Legacy of the game_ (Charleston: The History Press, 2012), pp. 41–43 * ^ "Columbia Celebrates College Wrestling Centennial". Columbia College Today. * ^ "Colleges Searching for Check On Trend to Goal Post Riots". _The New York Times_. Associated Press. 1935-12-06. p. 33. * ^ Robert F. Kelley (1936-01-17). "Cornell Club Here Welcomes Lynah". _The New York Times_. p. 22. * ^ "Immediate Formation of Ivy League
Ivy League
Advocated at Seven Eastern Colleges". _The New York Times_. 1936-12-03. p. 33. * ^ "The Harvard Crimson
Harvard Crimson
:: News :: AN EDITORIAL". Thecrimson.com. 1936-12-03. Retrieved 2011-01-30. * ^ "Plea for an Ivy Football League Rejected by College Authorities". _The New York Times_. 1937-01-12. p. 26. * ^ Gwertzman, Bernard M. (October 13, 1956). "Ivy League: Formalizing the Fact". _The Harvard
Harvard
Crimson_. Retrieved 2011-01-30. * ^ “Ivy Group” Archived 2015-01-18 at the Wayback Machine., _Sports-reference.com_ * ^ “Division I Conference Alignment History” in the _2009 NCAA Men’s Basketball
Basketball
Record Book_, p. 221, http://www.ncaapublications.com/productdownloads/BK09.pdf * ^ "Archived: Women\'s Colleges in the United States: History, Issues, and Challenges". Ed.gov. Archived from the original on 2005-02-04. Retrieved 2011-01-30. * ^ White, Gordon S. Jr. (1982-01-10). " Ivy League
Ivy League
Considers Adding 2 Schools". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 18 September 2013. * ^ Nick Anderson, " Ivy League
Ivy League
admission rate: 8-point-something-something-percent", _The Washington Post_ March 28, 2014. Local references for the schools' statistics are footnoted at their entries * ^ Jillian Lanney, "Brown admits record-low 8.6 percent", _The Brown Daily Herald_, March 31, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Jim Miller: 30,432 applied, 2,619 admitted, 8.61 percent * ^ Samantha Cooney, "CC and SEAS admission decisions mailed this afternoon, 6.94 percent of applicants admitted", spectrum.columbiaspectator.com, March 27, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Jessica Marinaccio: 32,952 applied, 2,291 admitted, 6.953 percent. *Nick Anderson, _op cit_, used an applied number of 32,967, giving 6.949 percent * ^ Annie Bui, "Cornell Admits Most Selective Class in University History", _Cornell Daily Sun_, March 28, 2014; sourcing associate vice provost for enrollment Jason C. Locke: 43,041 applied, 6,014 admitted, 13.97 percent * ^ Zac Hardwick, "College accepts 11.5 percent of applicants", _The Dartmouth_, March 28, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Maria Laskaris: 19,296 applied, 2,220 admitted, 11.50 percent * ^ Theodore R. Delwiche, " Harvard
Harvard
Makes Admissions Offers to 5.9 Percent of Applicants to the Class f 2018", _The Harvard
Harvard
Crimson_, March 27, 2014; sourcing admissions dean William R. Fitzsimmons: 34,295 applied, 2,023 admitted, 5.899 percent * ^ Fiona Glisson, "Admission numbers released: The class of 2018 is the most competitive in Penn's history", _The Daily Pennsylvanian_, March 27, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Eric Furda: 35,868 applied, 3,583 admitted, 9.99 percent. *The Penn news-release figure of 9.9 percent (rounded down from 9.99 percent) was disputed in the _Washington Post_ by higher education reporter Nick Anderson ("Ivy League admission rate: 8-point-something-something-percent", _The Washington Post_ March 28, 2014), who published a rounded-up percentage of 10.0, supported by rounded-up figures released by Cornell, Harvard, Princeton, and Yale; Anderson's article was discussed in Penn's CollegeConfidential.com forum " University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Class of 2018 Waitlist" * ^ Corinne Lowe, "Princeton offers admission to 7.28 percent of applicants", _The Daily Princetonian_, March 27, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Janet Rapelye: 26,641 applied, 1,939 admitted, 7.28 percent * ^ Rishabh Bhandari, "6.26 percent of applicants admitted to class of 2018", _ Yale
Yale
Daily News_, March 27, 2014; sourcing admissions dean Jeremiah Quinlan: 30,932 applied, 1,935 admitted, 6.26 percent * ^ Waldman, Peter (4 September 2014). "How to Get Into an Ivy League College—Guaranteed". _Bloomberg.com_. * ^ "National University
University
Rankings". U.S.News & World Report LP. Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2011-05-11. * ^ Annicchiarico, Francesca; Weinstock, Samuel Y. (3 September 2013). "Freshman Survey Part I: Meet Harvard\'s Class of 2017". _The Harvard
Harvard
Crimson_. * ^ " Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
2014". Academic Ranking of World Universities. Archived from the original on 2015-01-19. * ^ "America\'s Top Colleges". _Forbes_. * ^ "National University
University
Rankings – Top National Universities". U.S. News & World Report. * ^ "2014 National Universities Rankings". _Washington Monthly_. Archived from the original on 2014-08-28. * ^ "Nobel Laureates and Research Affiliations". _Nobelprize.org_. * ^ _Elements of Fashion and Apparel Design_. New Age Publishers. p. 25. ISBN 81-224-1371-4 . Ivy League: A popular look for men in the fifties that originated on such campuses as Harvard, Priceton and Yale; a forerunner to the preppie look; a style characterized by button down collar shirts and pants with a small buckle in the back. * ^ _A_ _B_ Zlotnick, Sarah (February 24, 2012). "Your cheat sheet to preppy style". _The Washingtonian _. * ^ Peterson, Amy T.; Ann T. Kellogg (2008). _The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Clothing Through American History 1900 to the Present: 1900–1949_. ABC-CLIO. p. 285. ISBN 9780313043345 . * ^ "The Ultimate Guide to American Style". _Details_. * ^ Rapoport, Adam (31 March 2008). "The American Way". _GQ_. * ^ Epstein, Joseph (2003). _Snobbery: The American Version_. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-34073-4 . p. 55, "by WASP Baltzell meant something much more specific; he intended to cover a select group of people who passed through a congeries of elite American institutions: certain eastern prep schools, the Ivy League
Ivy League
colleges, and the Episcopal Church among them." and Wolff, Robert Paul (1992). _The Ideal of the University_. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-56000-603-X . p. viii: "My genial, aristocratic contempt for Clark Kerr's celebration of the University
University
of California was as much an expression of Ivy League
Ivy League
snobbery as it was of radical social critique." * ^ Greenblatt, Alan (19 September 2012). "The End Of WASP-Dominated Politics". _NPR.org_. * ^ Orlet, Christopher (23 August 2012). "Missing the WASPs". _The American Spectator_. * ^ Feldman, Noah (2010-06-27). "The Triumphant Decline of the WASP". _The New York Times_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Hayes, Robin J. (February 2014). "Why Ivy League Schools Are So Bad at Economic Diversity". _The Atlantic_. * ^ Time magazine, Noliwe M. Rooks, Feb. 27, 2013, The Biggest Barrier to Elite
Elite
Education Isn’t Affordability. It’s Accessibility, Retrieved Aug. 27, 2014, "...accessibility of these schools to students who are poor, minority ... the weight that Ivy League and other highly selective schools...unfortunate set of circumstances ... gifted minority, poor and working class students can benefit most from the educational opportunities..." * ^ August 26, 2014 , Boston
Boston
Globe (via NY Times), A Generation Later, Poor are Still Rare at Elite
Elite
Colleges, Retrieved Aug. 30, 2014, "more elite group of 28 private colleges and universities, including all eight Ivy League
Ivy League
members, ... from 2001 to 2009, ... enrollment of students from the bottom 40 percent of family incomes increased from just 10 percent to 11 percent...." * ^ Wolff, Robert Paul (1992). _The Ideal of the University_. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-56000-603-X . p. viii: "My genial, aristocratic contempt for Clark Kerr's celebration of the University of California was as much an expression of Ivy League
Ivy League
snobbery as it was of radical social critique." * ^ Williams, Mark (2001). _The 10 Lenses: your guide to living and working in a multicultural world_. Capital Books. , p. 85 * ^ Kieran, John (December 4, 1936). "Sports of the Times — The Ivy League". _The New York Times_. p. 36. Retrieved May 30, 2017. There will now be a little test of 'the power of the press' in intercollegiate circles since the student editors at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Cornell, Columbia, Dartmouth and Penn are coming out in a group for the formation of an Ivy League
Ivy League
in football. The idea isn't new.... It would be well for the proponents of the Ivy League
Ivy League
to make it clear (to themselves especially) that the proposed group would be inclusive but not 'exclusive' as this term is used with a slight up-tilting of the tip of the nose." He recommended the consideration of "plenty of institutions covered with home-grown ivy that are not included in the proposed group. Army and Navy and Georgetown and Fordham and Syracuse and Brown and Pitt, just to offer a few examples that come to mind" and noted that "Pitt and Georgetown and Brown and Bowdoin and Rutgers were old when Cornell was shining new, and Fordham and Holy Cross had some building draped in ivy before the plaster was dry in the walls that now tower high about Cayuga's waters. * ^ Webster G. Tarpley; Anton Chaitkin. "George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography: Chapter XXII Bush Takes The Presidency". Webster G. Tarpley. Retrieved 2006-12-17. * ^ Dowd, Maureen (1998), "Bush Traces How Yale
Yale
Differs From Harvard." _The New York Times,_ June 11, 1998, p. 10 * ^ Baker, Russell (1998), "The Ivy Hayseed." _The New York Times,_ June 15, 1988, p. A31 * ^ New York Sun, Presidents Roosevelt Honored With Posthumous Columbia Degrees, September 26, 2008 * ^ Columbia Law School, Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt to Receive Posthumous Law Degrees from Columbia Law School, September 25, 2008 * ^ " Ivy League
Ivy League
Schools Don\'t Reflect U.S. Minority Ratios". _www.nationaljournal.com_. Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ "USA QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". U.S. Department of Commerce. Missing or empty url= (help ); access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ "The Harvard
Harvard
Crimson". The Harvard
Harvard
Crimson, Inc. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ "Here\'s Where Ivy League
Ivy League
Students Go When They Graduate ". _Business Insider_. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ "Why Do So Many Ivy League
Ivy League
Grads Go to Wall Steet?". _The Atlantic_. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ "The Ivy League
Ivy League
in the Age of Obama". _The American Conservative_. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ "The Best and the Greediest? Ivy League
Ivy League
Students Are Still Heading to Wall Street". _Alternet_. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ McGrath, Maggie (November 27, 2013). "The Challenge Of Being Poor At America\'s Richest Colleges". _Forbes_. * ^ Nickens, Margaret; Nussenbaum, Kate (23 April 2012). "How diverse are we?". _The Brown Daily Herald_. * ^ Miele, Adriana (22 January 2014). "MIELE: Wanted, fewer dumb students". _ Yale
Yale
Daily News_. * ^ Zax, David. "Wanted: smart students from poor families". _Yale Alumni Magazine_. * ^ "The Ivy League
Ivy League
Adds Men\'s, Women\'s Basketball
Basketball
Tournaments Beginning in 2017" (Press release). Ivy League. March 10, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2016. * ^ " Yale
Yale
basketball shares Ivy League
Ivy League
title". Yale
Yale
Daily News. 2002-03-06. Retrieved 2010-08-01. * ^ "Through the Years: SEC Champions" (PDF). _2015–2016 SEC Men's Basketball
Basketball
Media Guide_. Southeastern Conference. p. 61. Retrieved March 10, 2016. From 1933–50 the SEC Champion was determined by a tournament, except for 1935. Since 1951, when the round-robin schedule was introduced, the title has been decided by a winning percentage on the conference schedule. * ^ "Through the Years: SEC Champions" (PDF). _2015–2016 SEC Women's Basketball
Basketball
Media Guide_. Southeastern Conference. p. 54. Retrieved March 10, 2016. Since 1986, the SEC champion has been determined by the regular season schedule. * ^ "Timeline". The Ivy League. * ^ Brown, C.L. (October 5, 2016). "Which players injured last season will make the strongest comebacks?". _ESPN.com_. Retrieved October 8, 2016. It's easy to forget what Siyani Chambers has meant to Harvard
Harvard
as a three-time all- Ivy League
Ivy League
player because he wasn't enrolled in school last season. The Ivy League
Ivy League
doesn't allow redshirts, so Chambers was forced to withdraw after a preseason ACL injury if he wanted to return for his senior season. * ^ "Recognized National Championships by Year". College Football Data Warehouse. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ New York Times – 2006-11-17 * ^ "Ivy League". Council of Ivy League
Ivy League
Presidents and The Ivy League. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ " Ivy League
Ivy League
Championships – By School". Council of Ivy League Presidents and The Ivy League. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ " Ivy League
Ivy League
Championships – Women\'s Sports". Council of Ivy League Presidents and The Ivy League. Retrieved 8 October 2014. * ^ "The game: the tables are turned – Penn hoops travel to Jadwin tonight for premier rivalry of Ivy League
Ivy League
basketball". The Daily Princetonian. 2002-02-12. Retrieved 2011-01-30. * ^ "The rivalry? Not with Penn\'s paltry performance this season". The Daily Princetonian. 2002-02-12. Retrieved 2011-01-30. * ^ Ivy League
Ivy League
Basketball
Basketball
Archived June 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Ivy League
Ivy League
Football Archived January 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ New wrinkle in the Cornell Princeton lacrosse rivalry, _The Ithaca Journal _, May 16, 2009. * ^ "The Rivalry: Lehigh vs. Lafayette". _LehigSports.com_. Retrieved 25 April 2013. * ^ Wallace, William N. (16 November 1997). "A Woeful Yale
Yale
Loses To Princeton". _The New York Times_. Retrieved 25 April 2013. * ^ Hyland, Tim. "College Football National Champions: The Complete List". _About.com_. Retrieved 25 April 2013. * ^ Colman, Dan (23 February 2012). "Princeton v. Yale, 1903: The Oldest College Football Game on Film". _OpenCulture.com_. Retrieved 25 April 2013. * ^ "1903 College Football National Championship". _TipTop25.com_. Retrieved 25 April 2013. * ^ "Princeton Beats Yale". _The New York Times_. 19 June 1904. Retrieved 25 April 2013. * ^ http://fs.ncaa.org/Docs/stats/champs_records_book/Overall.pdf * ^ "Ivy Facilities". Archived from the original on March 18, 2006. Retrieved 2006-06-10. * ^ "Rhodes Field – PennAthletics.com—The Official Website of University
University
of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Athletics". Pennathletics.com. Retrieved 2012-03-10. * ^ "NESCAC". _www.nescac.com_. Retrieved 2016-02-09. * ^ "America\'s 25 New Elite
Elite
\'Ivies\'". Newsweek.com. 2006-08-21. Retrieved 2011-01-30. * ^ Babbit, Nory (Fall 2005). " Yale
Yale
Hosts Ivy Plus Conference". The Blue Print. Retrieved 2009-03-25. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Zawel, Marc (September 1, 2005). "Defining the Ivy League". _Untangling the Ivy League_. College Prowler. p. 9. ISBN 1-59658-500-5 . * ^ "Ivy Plus Sustainability Working Group". Yale. Archived from the original on 2008-01-01. Retrieved 2008-11-24. * ^ "ivy plus annual fund". harvard. Retrieved 2008-11-24. * ^ "Ivy + Alumni Relations Conference". Princeton. Retrieved 2008-11-24. * ^ Weisman, Robert (November 2, 2007). "Risk pays off for endowments". The Boston
Boston
Globe. Retrieved 2008-11-24. * ^ Perloff-Giles, Alexandra (March 11, 2008). "Columbia, MIT Fall Into Line on Aid". The Harvard
Harvard
Crimson. Retrieved 2008-11-24. * ^ Bianco, Anthony (November 29, 2007). "The Dangerous Wealth of the Ivy League". Businessweek. Retrieved 2009-03-24. * ^ Lerner, Josh; Antoinette Schoar; Jialan Wang (Summer 2008). "Secrets of the Academy: The Drivers of University
University
Endowment Success". _Journal of Economic Perspectives_. Nashville, TN: The American Economic Association. 22 (3): 207–22. ISSN 0895-3309 . OCLC
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16474127 . doi :10.1257/jep.22.3.207 . * ^ Mehta, Kavita; Dixit, Kimberly Wright (July 1, 2015). "How to Choose a College". _Acing Admissions_. HarperCollins Publishers. p. 85. ISBN 978-93-5106-794-8 . Retrieved December 31, 2016.

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