Ithaca, New York
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Ithaca is a city in the Finger Lakes region of New York,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territor ...
. Situated on the southern shore of Cayuga Lake, Ithaca is the seat of Tompkins County and the largest community in the Ithaca
metropolitan statistical area In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major ...
. It is named after the Greek island of Ithaca. A
college town A college town or university town is a community (often a separate town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably ...
, Ithaca is home to Cornell University and Ithaca College. Nearby is Tompkins Cortland Community College (TC3). These three colleges bring thousands of students to the area, who increase Ithaca's seasonal population during the school year. As of 2020, the city's population was 32,108.


History


Early history

Native Americans lived in this area for thousands of years. When reached by Europeans, this area was controlled by the Cayuga tribe of Indians, one of the Five Nations of the '' Haudenosaunee'' or Iroquois League.
Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , image_size = 175px , caption = ChristogramOfficial seal of the Jesuits , abbreviation = SJ , nickname = Jesuits , formation = , founders ...
missionaries A missionary is a member of a Religious denomination, religious group which is sent into an area in order to promote its faith or provide services to people, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.Tho ...
from
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by Kingdom of France, France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to King ...
(Quebec) are said to have had a mission to convert the Cayuga as early as 1657. Saponi and Tutelo peoples, Siouan-speaking tribes, later occupied lands at the south end of Cayuga Lake. Dependent tributaries of the Cayuga, they had been permitted to settle on the tribe's hunting lands at the south end of Cayuga Lake, as well as in Pony (originally Sapony) Hollow of what is known as present-day Newfield, New York. Remnants of these tribes had been forced from
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and
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by tribal conflicts and European colonial settlement. Similarly, the Tuscarora people, an Iroquoian-speaking tribe from the Carolinas, migrated after defeat in the
Yamasee War The Yamasee War (also spelled Yamassee or Yemassee) was a conflict fought in South Carolina )'' Animis opibusque parati'' ( for, , Latin, Prepared in mind and resources, links=no) , anthem = " Carolina";" South Carolina On My Mind" , For ...
; they settled with the
Oneida people The Oneida people ( autonym: Onʌyoteˀa·ká·, Onyota'a:ka, ''the People of the Upright Stone, or standing stone'', ''Thwahrù·nęʼ'' in Tuscarora) are a Native American tribe and First Nations band. They are one of the five founding ...
and became the sixth nation of the Haudenosaunee, with chiefs stating the migration was complete in 1722. During the Revolutionary War, four of the then six Iroquois nations helped the British attempt to crush the revolution, although bands made decisions on fighting in a highly decentralized way. Conflict with the rebel colonists was fierce throughout the Mohawk Valley and western New York. In retaliation for conflicts to the east and resentment at the way in which the Iroquois made war, the 1779 Sullivan Expedition was conducted against the Iroquois in the west of the state, destroying more than 40 villages and stored winter crops and forcing their retreat from the area."Ithaca: History", The DeWitt Historical Society of Tompkins County Library & Archive It destroyed the Tutelo village of Coregonal, located near what is now the junction of state routes 13 and 13A just south of the Ithaca city limits. Most Iroquois were forced from the state after the Revolutionary War, but some remnants remained. The state sold off the former Iroquois lands to stimulate development and settlement by non-indigenous Americans; lands were also granted as payment to veterans of the war. Within the current boundaries of the City of Ithaca, Native Americans maintained a temporary hunting camp at the base of Cascadilla Gorge. In 1788, eleven men from Kingston, New York, came to the area with two Delaware people (Lenape) guides, to explore what they considered wilderness. The following year Jacob Yaple, Isaac Dumond, and Peter Hinepaw returned with their families and constructed log cabins. That same year Abraham Bloodgood of Albany obtained a patent from the state for 1,400 acres, which included all of the present downtown west of Tioga Street. In 1790, the federal government and state began an official program to grant land in the area, known as the Central New York Military Tract, as payment for service to the American soldiers of the Revolutionary War, as the government was cash poor. Most local land titles trace back to these Revolutionary war grants. However the Bloodgood tract was not part of the state bounties to veterans. It was granted originally to a member of the state militia, Martinus Zielie, as a bounty under a different law for recruiting men to enlist in the Continental Army.


Partition of the Military Tract

As part of this process, the Central New York Military Tract, which included northern Tompkins County, was surveyed under the direction of Simeon De Witt, Bloodgood's son-in-law and the Surveyor General of New York. Simeon commissioned his first cousin, Moses De Witt (after whom DeWitt, New York, Is named) to survey the area around the south end of Cayuga Lake. Both Simeon and Moses were first cousins of DeWitt Clinton through his mother, Mary De Witt, who married James Clinton, brother of Governor George Clinton. The Commissioners of Lands of New York State (chairman Gov. George Clinton) met in 1790. The Military Tract township in which Ithaca is located was named the Town of Ulysses. A few years later De Witt moved to Ithaca, then called variously "The Flats," "The City," or "Sodom"; he renamed it for the Greek island home of Ulysses in the spirit of the multitude of settlement names in the region derived from classical literature, such as Aurelius,
Ovid Pūblius Ovidius Nāsō (; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known in English as Ovid ( ), was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 Oct ...
, and especially of Ulysses, New York, the town that contained Ithaca at the time. Around 1791, De Witt surveyed what is now the downtown area into lots and sold them at modest prices. That same year John Yaple built a grist mill on Cascadilla Creek. The first frame house was erected in 1800 by Abram Markle. In 1804, the village had a postmaster and, in 1805, a tavern.


Growth

Ithaca became a transshipping point for salt from curing beds near Salina, New York, to buyers south and east. This prompted construction in 1810 of the Owego Turnpike. When the War of 1812 cut off access to Nova Scotia gypsum, used for fertilizer, Ithaca became the center of trade in Cayuga gypsum. The Cayuga Steamboat Company was organized in 1819 and, in 1820, launched the first steamboat on Cayuga Lake, the ''Enterprise.'' In 1821, the village was incorporated at the same time the Town of Ithaca was organized and separated from the parent Town of Ulysses. In 1834, the Ithaca and Owego Railroad's first (horse-drawn) train began service, connecting traffic on the east–west
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a historic canal in upstate New York that runs east-west between the Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York. It originates in the Adirondack Moun ...
(completed in 1825) with the Susquehanna River to the south to expand the trade network. With the depression of 1837, the Ithaca and Owego RR was re-organized as the Cayuga & Susquehanna. It was re-engineered with switchbacks downhill into Ithaca in the late 1840s. In the late 20th century, a short section of its abandoned right-of-way in the city and town of Ithaca was used for the South Hill Recreation Way. However, easier early railroad routes were constructed that bypassed Ithaca, such as that of the Syracuse, Binghamton & New York (1854). In the decade following the Civil War, railroads were built from Ithaca to the surrounding points of Auburn;
Geneva Geneva ( ; french: Genève ) frp, Genèva ; german: link=no, Genf ; it, Ginevra ; rm, Genevra is the second-most populous city in Switzerland ). Swiss law does not designate a ''capital'' as such, but the federal parliament and government ...
; Cayuga; Cortland; Elmira, New York and Athens, Pennsylvania, mainly with financing from Ezra Cornell. These were all branch-lines, as the geography of the city, on a steep hill by the lake, had prevented it from being directly connected to a major transportation artery. Several decades later, when the Lehigh Valley Railroad built its main, double-track freight line from Van Etten Junction to Geneva (and on to
Buffalo, New York Buffalo is the second-largest city in the U.S. state of New York (behind only New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population o ...
), opened in 1892, it bypassed Ithaca and Auburn to the west (running via Burdett and eastern Schuyler County on easier grades), as the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad had also done with its own, new Binghamton-Buffalo mainline extension to the south and west, via Owego, Waverly, Bath and Dansville, in 1882. Two of three daily New York-Buffalo round-trip passenger trains served Ithaca on the older, original LV "Ithaca Branch" between Van Etten Junction and Geneva, until discontinuance of the "Black Diamond" daylight train, on May 11, 1959. On May 25, 1959, the overnight "Maple Leaf" train was shifted back to the Ithaca Branch from the main line via Burdett, and operated on this route until the LV discontinued this last passenger service on February 4, 1961. In the late 19th century, more industry developed in Ithaca. In 1883, William Henry Baker and his partners started the Ithaca Gun Company, making shotguns. The original factory was located in the Fall Creek neighborhood of the city, on a slope later known as Gun Hill, where the nearby waterfall supplied the main source of energy for the plant. The company became an icon in the hunting and shooting world, its shotguns famous for their fine decorative work. Wooden gunstocks with knots or other imperfections were donated to the high school woodworking shop to be made into lamps. John Philip Sousa and trick-shooter Annie Oakley favored Ithaca guns. In 1937, the company began producing the Ithaca 37, based on a 1915 patent by noted firearms designer
John Browning John Moses Browning (January 23, 1855 – November 26, 1926) was an American firearm designer who developed many varieties of military and civilian firearms, cartridges, and gun mechanisms many of which are still in use around the world. He ...
. Its 12-gauge shotguns were the standard used for decades by the
New York City Police Department The New York City Police Department (NYPD), officially the City of New York Police Department, established on May 23, 1845, is the primary municipal law enforcement agency within the New York City, City of New York, the largest and one of ...
and
Los Angeles Police Department The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), officially known as the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the municipal Police, police department of Los Angeles, California. With 9,974 police officers and 3,000 civilian staff, it is the thir ...
. In 1885, Ithaca Children's Home was established on West Seneca Street. The orphanage had two programs at the time: a residential home for both orphaned and destitute children, and a day nursery. The village established its first trolley in 1887. Ithaca developed as a small manufacturing and retail center and was incorporated as a city in 1888. The largest industrial company in the area was Morse Chain, elements of which were absorbed into Emerson Power Transmission on South Hill and Borg Warner Automotive in Lansing, New York. Ithaca claims to be the birthplace of the ice cream sundae, created in 1892 when fountain shop owner Chester Platt "served his local priest vanilla ice cream covered in cherry syrup with a dark candied cherry on top. The priest suggested the dessert be named after the day, Sunday—although the spelling was later changed out of fear some would find it offensive." The local Unitarian church, where the priest, Rev. John Scott, preached, has an annual "Sundae Sunday" every September in commemoration. Ithaca's claim has long been disputed by Two Rivers, Wisconsin. Also in 1892, the Ithaca Kitty became one of the first mass-produced stuffed animal toys in the United States. In 1903, a typhoid
epidemic An epidemic (from Ancient Greek, Greek ἐπί ''epi'' "upon or above" and δῆμος ''demos'' "people") is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of patients among a given population within an area in a short period of time. Epidemics ...
resulting from poor sanitation infrastructure devastated the city. Not having access to unpolluted water was one suspicion to the cause of the outbreak because " fuse and the contents of the early sewer system dumped directly into the inlet". One out of ten citizens fell ill or died. Local residents lost fifty-one people to the illness that year, but there was “an average of thirty-nine cases each year” for the consecutive ten years following. In 1900, Cornell anatomy professor G. S. Moler made an early movie using frame-by-frame technology. For ''The Skeleton Dance,'' he took single-frame photos of a human skeleton in varying positions, giving the illusion of a dancing skeleton. During the early 20th century, Ithaca was an important center in the silent film industry. These films often featured the local natural scenery. Many of these films were the work of Leopold Wharton and his brother Theodore; The Whartons Studio was on the site of what is now Stewart Park. The Star Theatre on East Seneca Street was built in 1911 and became the most popular vaudeville venue in the region. Wharton movies were also filmed and shown there. After the film industry centralized in Hollywood, production in Ithaca effectively ceased. Few of the silent films made in Ithaca have been preserved. After World War II, the Langmuir Research Labs of
General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate founded in 1892, and incorporated in New York state and headquartered in Boston Boston (), officially the City of Boston, is the state capital and most popu ...
developed as a major employer; the defense industry continued to expand. GE's headquarters were in Schenectady, New York, to the northeast in the Mohawk Valley. Although Ithaca has a history of Ku Klux Klan activity, including a cross-burning in 1923 and 1924, "the peak years of Klan activity in Ithaca were 1923-1925" and it represented only a fraction of the population. Ithaca is known for its political activism regarding civil rights and environmental issues. “Martin Luther King Jr. came to speak twice in Ithaca, in 1960 and 1961”. The annual Ithaca Festival, which often takes place on the Ithaca Commons or Stewart Park, frequently centers around themes promoting "a political statement into a cultural and festive event”


Recent history

For decades, the Ithaca Gun Company tested their shotguns behind the plant on Lake Street; the shot fell into the Fall Creek gorge at the base of Ithaca Falls. Lead accumulated in the soil in and around the factory and gorge. A major lead clean-up effort sponsored by the United States Superfund took place from 2002 to 2004, managed through the Environmental Protection Agency. The old Ithaca Gun building has been dismantled. It was scheduled to be replaced by the development of an apartment complex on the cleaned land. The former Morse Chain company factory on South Hill, now owned by Emerson Power Transmission, was the site of extensive groundwater and soil contamination from its industrial operations. Emerson Power Transmission has been working with the state and South Hill residents to determine the extent and danger of the contamination and aid in cleanup. In 2004, Gayraud Townsend, a 20-year-old senior in Cornell's School of Industrial and Labor Relations, was sworn in as alderman of the city council: the first black male to be elected to the council and the youngest African American to be elected to office in the United States. "Gayraud Townsend" Young Elected Officials Network, Inaugural National Convening, Washington, DC, January 13–15, 2006, People of the American Way Foundation He served his full term and has mentored other student politicians.Susan Hoffman, "The Sun Speaks to Gayraud Townsend '05"
''Cornell Sun'' blog, May 2, 2007, accessed September 14, 2014
In 2011 Cornell Class of 2009 graduate Svante Myrick was elected as the youngest mayor of the city of Ithaca.Teri Weaver, "Svante Myrick: How a child of modest means became Ithaca's youngest mayor-elect"
Syracuse.com, November 20, 2011, accessed September 14, 2014


Geography and climate


Geography

The valley in which Cayuga Lake is located is long and narrow with a north–south orientation. Ithaca is located at the southern end (the "head") of the lake, but the valley continues to the southwest behind the city. Originally a river valley, it was deepened and widened by the action of
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the '' Ice age'') is the geological epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the Earth's most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change was finally confirmed ...
ice sheets over the last several hundred thousand years. These ice sheets gouged the land crosswise to preexisting streams, producing hanging valleys. Once the last ice sheets receded — around twenty or thirty thousand years ago — these streams cut deep into the steep hillsides, forming the many distinctive gorges, rapids, and waterfalls seen in the region; examples include Fall and Cascadilla Creeks in Ithaca, and nearby Buttermilk Falls, Enfield Gorge, and Taughannock Falls. Cayuga Lake is the most recent lake in a long series of lakes which developed as the ice retreated northward. The lake drains to the north, and was formed behind a dam of glacial debris called a moraine. Rock in the region is predominantly
Devonian The Devonian ( ) is a period (geology), geologic period and system of the Paleozoic era, spanning 60.3 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya. It is named after Dev ...
shale Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at Earth's surface, followed by cementation. Sedimentation is the ...
and
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) silicate grains. Sandstones comprise about 20–25% of all sedimentary rock Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accu ...
. North of Ithaca, it is relatively fossil rich. The world-renowned fossils found in this area can be examined at the Museum of the Earth. Glacial erratics can also be found in the area. Ithaca was founded on flat land just south of the lake — land that formed in fairly recent geological times when silt filled the southern end of the lake. The city ultimately spread to the adjacent hillsides, which rise several hundred feet above the central flats: East Hill, West Hill, and South Hill. The Cornell campus is loosely bounded to the north and south by Fall and Cascadilla Creeks, respectively. The natural vegetation of the Ithaca area is northern temperate broadleaf forest. It is dominated by deciduous trees, including maple, sycamore, black walnut, birch, and oak; coniferous trees include white pine, Norway spruce, and eastern hemlock. The city of Ithaca has a rich diversity of tree plantings, with over 190 species, including cherry, southern magnolia, and ginkgo. In addition to visual beauty, this species diversification helps reduce the impact of arboreal epidemics, such as that caused by the emerald ash borer.


Climate

According to the
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climate science, climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by ...
method, Ithaca experiences a warm-summer humid continental climate, also known as a hemiboreal climate (''Dfb''). Summers are warm but brief, and it is cool-to-cold the rest of the year, with long, snowy winters; an average of of snow falls per year. In addition, frost may occur any time of year except mid-summer. Winter is typically characterized by freezing temperatures, cloudy skies and light-to-moderate snows, with some heavier falls; the largest snowfall in one day was on February 14, 1914. But the season is also variable; there can be short mild periods with some rain, but also outbreaks of frigid air with night temperatures down to or lower. Summers usually bring sunshine, along with moderate heat and humidity, but also frequent afternoon thunderstorms. Nights are pleasant and sometimes cool. Occasionally, there can be heatwaves, with temperatures rising into the to range, but they tend to be brief. The average date of the first freeze is October 5, and the average date of the last freeze is May 15, giving Ithaca a
growing season A season A season is a division of the year based on changes in weather, ecology Ecology () is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and wides ...
of 141 days. The average date of the first and last snowfalls are November 12 and April 7, respectively. The hardiness zone is between 5b and 6a. Extreme temperatures range from as recently as February 2, 1961, up to on July 9, 1936. The valley flatland has slightly cooler weather in winter, and occasionally Ithaca residents experience simultaneous snow on the hills and rain in the valley. The phenomenon of mixed precipitation (rain, wind, and snow), common in the late fall and early spring, is known tongue-in-cheek as ''ithacation'' to many of the local residents. Due to the microclimates created by the impact of the lakes, the region surrounding Ithaca ( Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area) experiences a short but adequate growing season for winemaking similar to the Rhine Valley wine district of Germany. As such, the region is home to many wineries.


Demographics

Ithaca is the principal city of the Ithaca-Cortland Combined Statistical Area, which includes the Ithaca Metropolitan Statistical Area ( Tompkins County) and the Cortland Micropolitan Statistical Area ( Cortland County), which had a combined population of 145,100 at the 2000 census. As of the census of 2000, there were 29,287 people, 10,287 households, and 2,962 families residing in the city. The
population density Population density (in agriculture Agriculture or farming is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock Livestock are the domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to provide labor and produce diversified products ...
was 5,360.9 people per square mile (2,071.0/km2). There were 10,736 housing units at an average density of 1,965.2 per square mile (759.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 73.97% White, 13.65% Asian, 6.71% Black or
African American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans and Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group consisting of Americans with partial or total ancestry from sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area and region ...
, 0.39% Native American, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.86% from other races, and 3.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.31% of the population. There were 10,287 households, out of which 14.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 19.0% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 71.2% were non-families. 43.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.81. In the city, the population was spread out, with 9.2% under the age of 18, 53.8% from 18 to 24, 20.1% from 25 to 44, 10.6% from 45 to 64, and 6.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,441, and the median income for a family was $42,304. Males had a median income of $29,562 versus $27,828 for females. The
per capita income Per capita income (PCI) or total income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita i ...
for the city was $13,408. About 13.2% of individuals and 4.2% of families were below the
poverty line The poverty threshold, poverty limit, poverty line or breadline is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country. The poverty line is usually calculated by estimating the total cost of one year's worth of necessities for ...
.


Greater Ithaca

The term "Greater Ithaca" encompasses both the City and Town of Ithaca, as well as several smaller settled places within or adjacent to the Town: Municipalities * Village of Groton * Village of Lansing * the southern part of the Town of Lansing * Village of Cayuga Heights * Hamlet of Forest Home * Hamlet of South Hill
Census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical ...
s * East Ithaca * Northeast Ithaca * Northwest Ithaca


Local government

There are two governmental entities in the area: the Town of Ithaca and the City of Ithaca. The Town of Ithaca is one of the nine towns comprising Tompkins County. The City of Ithaca is surrounded by, but legally independent of, the Town. The City of Ithaca has a mayor–council government. The charter of the City of Ithaca provides for a full-time mayor and city judge, each independent and elected at-large. Since 1995, the mayor has been elected to a four-year term, and since 1989, the city judge has been elected to a six-year term. Since 1983, the city has been divided into five wards. Each elects two representatives to the city council, known as the Common Council, for staggered four-year terms. In March 2015, the Common Council unanimously adopted a resolution recognizing freedom from domestic violence as a fundamental human right. Since students won the right to vote where they attend colleges, some have become more active in local politics. In 2004, Gayraud Townsend, a 20-year-old senior in Cornell's School of Industrial and Labor Relations, was sworn in as alderman of the city council, representing the fourth Ward. He is the first black male to be elected to the council and was then the youngest African American to be elected to office in the United States. He served his full term and has mentored other young student politicians. In 2011, Cornell graduate Svante Myrick was elected Mayor of the City of Ithaca, becoming the youngest mayor in the city's history. In December, 2005, the City and Town governments began discussing opportunities for increased government consolidation, including the possibility of joining the two into a single entity. This topic had been previously discussed in 1963 and 1969. Cayuga Heights, a village adjacent to the city on its northeast, voted against annexation into the city of Ithaca in 1954.


Politics

Politically, the majority of the city's voters (many of them students) have supported
liberalism Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on the rights of the individual, liberty, consent of the governed, political equality and equality before the law."political rationalism, hostility to autocracy, cultural distaste ...
and the Democratic Party. A November 2004 study by ePodunk lists it as New York's most liberal city. This contrasts with the more
conservative Conservatism is a Philosophy of culture, cultural, Social philosophy, social, and political philosophy that seeks to promote and to preserve traditional institutions, practices, and values. The central tenets of conservatism may vary in r ...
leanings of the generally rural Upstate New York region; the city's voters are also more liberal than those in the rest of Tompkins County. In 2008,
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chie ...
, running against New York State's US Senator Hillary Clinton, won Tompkins County in the Democratic Presidential Primary, the only county that he won in New York State. Obama won Tompkins County (including Ithaca) by a wide margin of 41% over his opponent John McCain in the November 2008 election.


Sister city

Ithaca is a sister city of: * Eldoret, Kenya


Education


Colleges

Ithaca is a major educational center in Central New York. The two major post-secondary educational institutions located in Ithaca were each founded in the late nineteenth century. In 1865, Ezra Cornell founded Cornell University, which overlooks the town from East Hill. It was opened as a coeducational institution. Women first enrolled in 1870. Ezra Cornell also established a public library for the city. Ithaca College was founded as the Ithaca Conservatory of Music in 1892. Ithaca College was originally located in the downtown area but relocated to South Hill in the 1960s. In 2018, there were 23,600 students enrolled at Cornell and 6,700 at Ithaca College. Tompkins Cortland Community College is located in the neighboring town of Dryden, and has an extension center in downtown Ithaca. Empire State College offers non-traditional college courses to adults in downtown Ithaca.


Public schools

The Ithaca City School District, based in Ithaca, encompasses the city and its surrounding area and enrolls about 5,500 K-12 students in eight elementary schools (roughly one for every neighborhood), two middle schools (Boynton and Dewitt), Ithaca High School and the Lehman Alternative Community School, a combined middle and high school. Several private elementary and secondary schools are located in the Ithaca area, including the Roman Catholic Immaculate Conception School, the Cascadilla School, the New Roots Charter School, the Elizabeth Ann Clune Montessori School, the Namaste Montessori School (in the Trumansburg area) and the Ithaca Waldorf School. Ithaca has two networks for supporting its home-schooling families: Loving Education At Home (LEAH) and the Northern Light Learning Center (NLLC). TST BOCES is located in Tompkins County.


Library

The Tompkins County Public Library, located at 101 East Green Street, serves as the public library for Tompkins County and is the Central Library for the Finger Lakes Library System. The library serves over 38,000 registered borrowers and contains nearly 260,000 items in its circulating collection, and circulates about 800,000 items annually.


Economy

The economy of Ithaca is based on education and further supported by agriculture, technology and tourism. As of 2006, Ithaca has continued to have one of the few expanding economies in New York State outside New York City. It draws commuters for work from the neighboring rural counties of Cortland, Tioga, and Schuyler, as well as from the more urbanized Chemung County. Ithaca has tried to maintain its traditional downtown shopping area with its pedestrian orientation; this includes the Ithaca Commons pedestrian mall and Center Ithaca, a small mixed-use complex built at the end of the urban renewal era. Another commercial center, Collegetown, is located next to the Cornell campus. It features a number of restaurants, shops and bars, and an increasing number of high-rise apartments. It is primarily frequented by Cornell University students. Ithaca has many of the businesses characteristic of small American university towns: bookstores, art-house cinemas, craft stores and vegetarian-friendly restaurants. The collective Moosewood Restaurant, founded in 1973, published a number of vegetarian cookbooks. '' Bon Appetit'' magazine ranked it among the thirteen most influential restaurants of the 20th century. Ithaca has many local restaurants and chains, both in the city and town, with a range of ethnic foods and has been regarded as having more restaurants per capita than New York City. It has become a destination and residence for retirees. The Ithaca Farmers Market, a cooperative with 150 vendors who live within 30 miles of Ithaca, first opened for business on Saturdays in 1973. It is located at Steamboat Landing, where steamboats from Cayuga Lake used to dock. The South Hills Business Campus originally opened in 1957 as the regional headquarters of the National Cash Register Company. Running three full factory shifts, NCR was a major employer. Although it was sold in 1991 to American Telephone and Telegraph and later acquired by Cognitive TPG, it remains a major tenant of the South Hill Business Campus, which is now owned by a group of private investors.


Agriculture

Ithaca, home to the Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, has a deep connection to Central New York's farming and dairy industries. About 60 small farms are located in the greater Ithaca/Trumansburg area, including a number of research farms managed by the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station. Cornell's Dairy Research Facility is a center of research and support for New York's large and growing milk and yogurt industries.


Media

The '' Ithaca Journal'' was founded in 1815 and is a morning daily newspaper that has been owned by Gannett since 1912. The '' Ithaca Voice'' is a nonprofit digital news site with a mission to improve civic and political understanding in Ithaca and Tompkins County. The '' Ithaca Times'' is a free alternative weekly newspaper that's published every Wednesday. The '' Cornell Daily Sun'' is also published in Ithaca, operating since 1880. Other media outlets include the online magazine ''14850.com''. Ithaca is home to several radio stations: * WICB 91.7 FM is a non-commercial, student-run station owned by Ithaca College. * WPIE 1160 AM/107.1 FM "ESPN Ithaca" is a sports talk station locally owned by Taughannock Media. * WQNY "Q-Country" 103.7 FM, owned by The Cayuga Radio Group, a subsidiary of Saga Communications, Inc. * WRFI 88.1 FM, Ithaca Community Radio, has a studio and offices in the Clinton House, and also broadcasts at 91.9 FM in Watkins Glen. * WVBR-FM 93.5 FM/105.5 FM, affiliated with Cornell University, is a student-owned and operated commercial station with music, sports including Cornell hockey, and community members hosting specialty programming. * WYXL "Lite Rock" 97.3 FM * News/talk WHCU 870 AM * Progressive talk WNYY 1470 AM * Classic rock "I-100" WIII 99.9 FM Public radio: * WSQG 90.9 FM, WSKG-FM's Ithaca frequency, provides NPR and classical music programming. * WITH 90.1 FM is the local translator for public radio and AAA station WRUR-FM in Rochester. Other FM stations include: Saga's "98.7 The Vine", a low-powered translator station; WFIZ "Z95.5", airing a top-40 (CHR) format; contemporary Christian music station WCII 88.9; and classic rock "The Wall" WLLW 99.3 and 96.3, based in Seneca Falls with a transmitter in Ithaca.


Culture

Founded in 1983, the Sciencenter is a non-profit hands-on science museum, accredited by the American Alliance of Museums (AAM). It is a member of the Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) and Association of Children's Museums (ACM). The Museum of the Earth is a
natural history museum A natural history museum or museum of natural history is a scientific institution with natural history collections that include current and historical records of animal Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms in the biolog ...
created in 2003 by the Paleontological Research Institution (PRI). The PRI was founded in Ithaca in 1932 and is the publisher of the oldest journal of
paleontology Paleontology (), also spelled palaeontology or palæontology, is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene The Holocene ( ) is the current geological epoch. It began approximate ...
in the
western hemisphere The Western Hemisphere is the half of the planet A planet is a large, rounded astronomical body that is neither a star A star is an astronomical object comprising a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its gravity. The ...
. Exhibits cover the 4.5-billion-year history of the earth in an accessible manner, including interactive displays. As of 2004, the PRI is now formally affiliated with Cornell. The Cayuga Nature Center occupies the site of the 1914 Cayuga Preventorium, a facility for children with
tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by '' Mycobacterium tuberculosis'' (MTB) bacteria Bacteria (; singular: bacterium) are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one biological cell ...
; treatment of what was then considered an incurable disease was based on rest and good nutrition. In 1981, the Cayuga Nature Center was incorporated as an independent, private, non-profit educational organization, offering environmental education to local school districts. In 2011, the PRI merged with the Cayuga Nature Center, making it a sister organization to the Museum of the Earth. The Cornell Lab of Ornithology is located in the Imogene Powers Johnson Center for Birds and Biodiversity. The Lab's Visitors' Center and observation areas are open to the public. Displays include a surround-sound theater, object-theater presentation, sound studio and informational kiosks featuring bird sounds and information. The Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art houses one of the finest collections of art in upstate New York. Special exhibitions are mounted each year, plus selections from a global permanent collection, which is displayed on six public floors. The collection includes art from throughout Asia, Africa, Europe, the Americas, graphic arts, medallic art and Tiffany glass, ranging from the ancient to the contemporary. The Center for the Arts at Ithaca, Inc., operates the " Hangar Theatre". Opened in 1975 in a renovated municipal airport hangar, the Hangar hosts a summer season and brings a range of theatre to regional audiences including students, producing a school tour and Artists-in-the-Schools programs. Ithaca is also the home to Kitchen Theatre Company, a non-profit professional company with a theatre on West State Street, and Civic Ensemble, a creative collaborative ensemble staging emerging playwrights' work and community-based original productions. Ithaca is noted for its annual community celebration, The Ithaca Festival. The Constance Saltonstall Foundation for the Arts provides grants and summer fellowships at the Saltonstall Arts Colony for New York State artists and writers. Ithaca also hosts one of the largest used-book sales in the United States. Founded in 1992, the Namgyal Monastery in Ithaca is the North American seat of the
Dalai Lama Dalai Lama (, ; ) is a title given by the Tibetan people The Tibetan people (; ) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Tibet. Their current population is estimated to be around 6.7 million. In addition to the majority living in Tibet A ...
's Namgyal Monastery. The city and town also sponsor The Apple Festival in the fall, the Chili Fest in February, the Finger Lakes International Dragon Boat Festival in July, Porchfest in late September and the Ithaca Brew Fest in Stewart Park in September. Ithaca has also pioneered the Ithaca Health Fund, a popular cooperative health insurance. Ithaca is home to Ithaca Hours, one of the first local currency systems in the United States. It was developed by Paul Glover.


Music

Ithaca is the home of the Cayuga Chamber Orchestra. The Cornell Concert Series has been hosting musicians and ensembles of international stature since 1903. For its initial 84 years, the series featured Western classical artists exclusively. In 1987, however, the series broke with tradition to present Ravi Shankar and has since grown to encompass a broader spectrum of the world's great music. Now, it balances a mix of Western classical music, traditions from around the world, jazz, and new music in these genres. In a single season, Cornell Concert Series presents performers ranging from the Leipzig Tomanerchor and Danish Quartet to Simon Shaheen, Vida Guitar Quartet, and Eighth Blackbird. The School of Music at Ithaca College was founded in 1892 by William Egbert as a music conservatory on Buffalo Street. Among the degree programs offered are those in Performance, Theory, Music Education and Composition. Since 1941, the School of Music has been accredited by the National Association of Schools of Music. Ithaca's Suzuki school, Ithaca Talent Education, provides musical training for children of all ages and also teacher training for undergraduate and graduate-level students. The Community School of Music and Art uses an extensive scholarship system to offer classes and lessons to any student, regardless of age, background, economic status or artistic ability. A number of musicians call Ithaca home, most notably
Samite Samite was a luxurious and heavy silk Silk is a natural protein Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within ...
of Uganda, The Burns Sisters, The Horse Flies, Johnny Dowd, Mary Lorson, cellist Hank Roberts, Anna Coogan, John Brown's Body, Kurt Riley, X Ambassadors, and Alex Kresovich. Old-time music is a staple, and folk music is featured weekly on WVBR-FM's ''Bound for Glory'', North America's longest-running live folk concert broadcast. The Finger Lakes GrassRoots Festival of Music and Dance, hosted by local band Donna the Buffalo, is held annually during the third week in July in the nearby village of Trumansburg, with more than 60 local, national and international acts. Ithaca is the center of a thriving live music scene, featuring more than 200 groups playing most genres of American popular and world music, the predominant genres being folk, rock, blues, jazz, country, lo-fi and reggae. There are more than 80 live music venues within a 40-mile radius of the city, including cafes, pubs, clubs and concert halls.


Transportation

In 2009, the Ithaca metropolitan statistical area (MSA) ranked as the highest in the United States for the percentage of commuters who walked to work (15.1 percent). In 2013, the Ithaca MSA ranked as the second-lowest in the United States for percentage of commuters who traveled by private vehicle (68.7 percent). During the same year, 17.5 percent of commuters in the Ithaca MSA walked to work.


Roads

Ithaca is in the rural Finger Lakes region about northwest of New York City; the nearest larger cities, Binghamton and Syracuse, are an hour's drive away by car, Rochester and Scranton are two hours, Buffalo and Albany are three.
New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the U ...
,
Philadelphia Philadelphia, often called Philly, is the List of municipalities in Pennsylvania#Municipalities, largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the List of United States cities by population, sixth-largest city i ...
,
Toronto Toronto ( ; or ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,794,356 in 2021, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most pop ...
, and
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian French: ) is the capital city of Canada Canada is a country in North America North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It is borde ...
are about four hours away. Ithaca lies at over a half-hour's drive from any
interstate highway The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States. T ...
, and all car trips to Ithaca involve some driving on two-lane state rural highways. The city is at the convergence of many regional two-lane state highways: Routes 13, 13A, 34, 79, 89, 96, 96B and 366. These are usually not congested except in Ithaca proper. However, Route 79 between the I-81 access at Whitney Point and Ithaca receives a significant amount of Ithaca-bound congestion right before Ithaca's colleges reopen after breaks. In July, 2008, a non-profit called Ithaca Carshare began a carsharing service in Ithaca. Ithaca Carshare has a fleet of vehicles shared by over 1500 members as of July, 2015 and has become a popular service among both city residents and the college communities. Vehicles are located throughout Ithaca downtown and at the two major institutions. With Ithaca Carshare as the first locally-run carsharing organization in New York State, others have since launched in Buffalo, Albany, and Syracuse. Rideshare services to promote carpooling and vanpooling are operated by ZIMRIDE and VRIDE. A community mobility education program, Way2Go, is operated by Cornell Cooperative Extension of Tompkins County. Way2Go's website provides consumer information and videos. Way2Go works collaboratively to help people save money, stress less, go green and improve mobility options. The 2-1-1 Tompkins/Cortland Help line connects people with services, including transportation, in the community, by telephone and web on a 24/7 basis. The information and referral service is operated by the Human Services Coalition of Tompkins County, Inc. Together, 2-1-1 Information and Referral and Way2Go are a one-call, one-click resource designed to mobility services information for Ithaca and throughout Tompkins County. As a growing urban area, Ithaca is facing steady increases in levels of vehicular traffic on the city grid and on the state highways. Outlying areas have limited bus service, and many people consider a car essential. However, many consider Ithaca a walkable and bikeable community. One positive trend for the health of downtown Ithaca is the new wave of increasing urban density in and around the Ithaca Commons. Because the downtown area is the region's central business district, dense mixed-use development that includes housing may increase the proportion of people who can walk to work and recreation and mitigate the likely-increased pressure on already-busy roads as Ithaca grows. The downtown area is also the area best-served by frequent public transportation. Still, traffic congestion around the Commons is likely to progressively increase.


Bus

There is frequent intercity bus service by
Greyhound Lines Greyhound Lines, Inc. (commonly known as simply Greyhound) operates the largest intercity bus service in North America, including Greyhound Mexico. It also operates charter bus services, Amtrak Thruway services, commuter bus services, and ...
, New York Trailways, OurBus, FlixBus, and Shortline (Coach USA), particularly to Binghamton and New York City, with limited service to Rochester, Buffalo and Syracuse, and (via connections in Binghamton) to Utica and Albany. OurBus also provides limited holiday services to Allentown, Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia Philadelphia, often called Philly, is the List of municipalities in Pennsylvania#Municipalities, largest city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the List of United States cities by population, sixth-largest city i ...
, and Washington, DC. Cornell University runs a premium campus-to-campus bus between its Ithaca campus and its medical school in Manhattan, New York City which is open to the public. Starting in September, 2019, intercity buses serving Ithaca operate from the downtown bus stop at 131 East Green Street, as the former Greyhound bus station on West State Street closed due to staff retirement and building maintenance issues. However, OurBus now picks up and drops off on Seneca Street, near the downtown Starbucks and Hilton Garden Inn. Ithaca is the center of an extensive bus public transportation network. Tompkins Consolidated Area Transit, Inc. (TCAT, Inc.) is a not-for-profit corporation that provides public transportation for Tompkins County, New York. TCAT was reorganized as a non-profit corporation in 2004 and is primarily supported locally by Cornell University, the City of Ithaca and Tompkins County. TCAT's ridership increased from 2.7 million in 2004 to 4.4 million in 2013. TCAT operates 34 routes, many running seven days a week. It has frequent service to downtown, Cornell University, Ithaca College, and the Shops at Ithaca Mall in the Town of Lansing, but less-frequent service to many residential and rural areas, including Trumansburg and Newfield. Chemung County Transit (C-TRAN) runs weekday commuter service from Chemung County to Ithaca. Cortland Transit runs commuter service to Cornell University. Tioga County Public Transit operated three routes to Ithaca and Cornell, but ceased operations on November 30, 2014. GADABOUT Transportation Services, Inc. provides demand-response paratransit service for seniors over 60 and people with disabilities. Ithaca Dispatch provides local and regional taxi service. In addition, Ithaca Airline Limousine and IthaCar Service connect to the local airports.


Airports

Ithaca is served by Ithaca Tompkins International Airport, located about three miles to the northeast of the city center. In late 2019, the airport completed a major $34.8 million renovation which included a larger terminal with additional passenger gates and jet bridges, expanded passenger amenities and a customs facility that enables it to receive international charter and private flights.
American Airlines American Airlines is a major US-based airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas Fort Worth is the List of cities in Texas by population, fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Texas and the List of United States cities by population, 13 ...
pulled out of Ithaca on September 7, 2022, citing pilot shortages. Delta Connection provides service to its hub at Detroit Metro airport, operated by its commuter partner Endeavor Air, using the Bombardier CRJ200 commuter-jet. United Express offers daily flights to its hub at Newark Liberty airport, operated by its commuter partner GoJet Airlines, using the two-class Bombardier CRJ550 commuter-jet.


Railways

Into the mid-twentieth century, it was possible to reach Ithaca by passenger rail. At least two trains per day serviced Ithaca along either the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad (until March 31, 1942) or the Lehigh Valley Railroad. The trip took "about seven hours" from New York City, "about eight hours" from Philadelphia, and "about three hours" from Buffalo. There has been no passenger rail service since February 4, 1961. From the 1870s-on, there were trains to Buffalo via Geneva, New York; to New York City via Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania (both Lehigh Valley Railroad); to Hoboken, New Jersey, with a train-change in Owego and a routing via Binghamton and Scranton, Pennsylvania (until March 31, 1942) ( DL&W); and to the US northeast via Cortland, New York (Lehigh Valley Railroad). The Lehigh Valley's top New York City-Ithaca-Buffalo passenger train, the daylight '' Black Diamond,'' was optimistically publicized as 'The Handsomest Train in the World', perhaps to compensate for its roundabout route to New York City (south to Waverly, New York; southeast to Wilkes-Barre and Easton, Pennsylvania; then east across New Jersey). It was named after the railroad's largest commodity,
anthracite Anthracite, also known as hard coal, and black coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as stratum, rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable ...
coal, and made its last run on May 11, 1959. Until March 31, 1942, the Lackawanna Railroad operated two shuttle trains a day between Ithaca and Owego, where passengers could transfer to trains to Buffalo and Chicago to the west and eastbound to Binghamton, Scranton, Pennsylvania and Hoboken, New Jersey: across the Hudson River from New York City. Until September 15, 1958, the Lackawanna maintained Syracuse-Binghamton service through nearby Cortland, to the east. Until May 11, 1959, two Lehigh Valley trains a day made both westbound and eastbound stops in Ithaca. The last passenger train making stops in Ithaca was the Lehigh Valley's overnight '' Maple Leaf,'' discontinued on February 4, 1961. Within Ithaca, electric railways ran along Stewart Avenue and Eddy Street. In fact, Ithaca was the fourth community in New York state with a street railway; streetcars ran from 1887 until the summer of 1935. On December 8, 2018, the Ithaca Central Railroad, a Watco subsidiary, took over operation via lease of the Norfolk Southern Ithaca Secondary line from Sayre, Pennsylvania to the Cargill Salt mine site on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake, near Myers Point. Unit coal trains carrying bituminous coal were delivered to the Ithaca Central at Sayre by Norfolk Southern for less than eight months afterward, traveling to the Ridge site of the Cayuga Operating Company: a coal-burning power plant (known as Milliken Station during NYSEG ownership). Unit trains of coal are now gone, as the power plant closed on August 29, 2019, when it ran out of coal, and was officially retired in October, 2019. (As of 2022, there are ambitious, proposed plans to convert its brownfield site into a major data center.) The main rail freight traffic is now salt from the Cargill salt mine farther north. The Norfolk Southern tracks, headed north on the former Lehigh Valley Auburn and Ithaca Branch, include a distinctive section in Ithaca that runs along the side of Fulton St. (NY13 southbound), although not in the street itself.


Points of interest

* Buttermilk Falls State Park * Carl Sagan's Grave * Cayuga Nature Center * Cornell Botanic Gardens * Cornell University * EcoVillage at Ithaca * Finger Lakes Trail * Ithaca College * Ithaca Commons * Ithaca Dog Park * Ithaca Falls * Ithaca Farmers Market * Paleontological Research Institution's Museum of the Earth * Robert H. Treman State Park * Sagan Planet Walk * Sapsucker Woods Sanctuary * Sciencenter * Stewart Park * Taughannock Falls State Park WaterfallIthacaNY.jpg, The falls of Buttermilk Falls State Park F.R. Newman Arboretum, Cornell University.jpg, F.R. Newman Arboretum, Cornell University Hdr-Ithacafalls2.jpg IthacaDiner.jpg BW-IthacaAlley.jpg


Notable people


Reputation

In addition to its liberal politics, Ithaca is commonly listed among the most culturally liberal of American small cities. The '' Utne Reader'' named Ithaca "America's most enlightened town" in 1997. According to ePodunk's Gay Index, Ithaca has a score of 231, versus a national average score of 100. Like many small college towns, Ithaca has also received accolades for having a high overall quality of life. In 2004, ''Cities Ranked and Rated'' named Ithaca the best "emerging city" to live in the United States. In 2006, the Internet realty website "Relocate America" named Ithaca the fourth-best city in the country to relocate to. In July, 2006, Ithaca was listed as one of the "12 Hippest Hometowns for Vegetarians" by '' VegNews Magazine'' and chosen by '' Mother Earth News'' as one of the "12 Great Places You've Never Heard Of." In 2012, the city was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the U.S. by U.S. News. Ithaca was also ranked 13th among America's Best College Towns by '' Travel + Leisure'' in 2013 and ranked as the #1 Best College Town in America in the American Institute for Economic Research's 2013–2014 College Destination Index. Ithaca was also named fourth-smartest city in 2015. In its earliest years, during the frontier days, what is now Ithaca was briefly known by the names "The Flats" and "Sodom," the name of the Biblical city of sin, due to its reputation as a town of "notorious immorality":See, e.g., 1811 article in local paper, a

or Town of Ithaca History project, availabl
online
(click on "History Project", then "Historical maps..." and finally "famous for its notorious immorality").
a place of horse racing, gambling, profanity, Sabbath-breaking and readily-available liquor. These names did not last long; Simeon De Witt renamed the town Ithaca in the early 19th century, though nearby Robert H. Treman State Park still contains Lucifer Falls. Today, Ithaca is primarily known for its growing wineries and microbreweries, live music, colleges and small dairy farms.


See also

* Ezra Cornell * List of Registered Historic Places in New York


References


External links


Official City website
* {{Authority control Populated places established in 1790 County seats in New York (state) Cities in New York (state) Cities in Tompkins County, New York 1790 establishments in New York (state)