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The ITALO-NORMANS, or SICULO-NORMANS when referring to Sicily
Sicily
and Southern Italy
Southern Italy
, are the Italian -born descendants of the first Norman conquerors to travel to southern Italy
Italy
in the first half of the eleventh century. While maintaining much of their distinctly Norman piety and customs of war, they were shaped by the diversity of southern Italy, by the cultures and customs of the Greeks , Lombards , and Arabs
Arabs
in Sicily.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Italo-Norman
Italo-Norman
families * 3 Further reading * 4 Notes * 5 See also

HISTORY

Normans
Normans
first arrived in Italy
Italy
as pilgrims probably either on their way or returning from Rome
Rome
or Jerusalem
Jerusalem
also visiting the shrine at Monte Gargano in the late tenth and early eleventh century. In 1017, the Lombard lords in Apulia
Apulia
recruited their assistance against the dwindling power of the Byzantine Catapanate of Italy
Italy
. They soon established vassal states of their own and began to expand their conquests until they were encroaching on the Lombard principalities of Benevento and Capua , Saracen
Saracen
controlled territories, and territory under papal allegiance, as well as Greek. They began the conquest of Sicily
Sicily
in 1061 and it was complete by 1091.

Indeed, Italo- Normans
Normans
were the primary Norman mercenaries in the employ of the Byzantine emperors
Byzantine emperors
. Many found service in Rome
Rome
, under the pope, and some went to Spain
Spain
to join the Reconquista
Reconquista
. In 1096, the Normans
Normans
of Bohemond of Taranto joined the First Crusade
First Crusade
and set up the principality of Antioch in the Levant
Levant
. The "Kingdom of Africa" (Regno d'Africa) of Italo-Norman
Italo-Norman
Roger II
Roger II
, pinpointed in red

In 1130, under Roger II
Roger II
, they created the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
, encompassing the whole of their conquests in the peninsula and the island. From 1135 to 1155 Roger II
Roger II
even created the Italo-Norman Kingdom of Africa
Kingdom of Africa
in coastal Tunisia
Tunisia
and Tripolitania
Tripolitania
. He planned to unite this African kingdom to his Kingdom of Sicily, but his death in 1154 stopped him.

This Italo-Norman
Italo-Norman
kingdom in southern Italy, when founded in 1130, united the whole of southern Italy
Italy
under the same rule for the first time since the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
fell. The Roger II
Roger II
dynasty continued with William I and William II . After the latter's death without heirs in 1189 and the brief reign of his illegitimate cousin Tancred of Lecce, the German Emperor Henry VI of Swabia, who had married Constance aunt and legitimate successor of William II, conquered the kingdom in 1194 from William III of Sicily
Sicily
, son of Tancred, putting an end to the Italo-Norman
Italo-Norman
dynasty.

ITALO-NORMAN FAMILIES

* Hauteville family
Hauteville family
* Drengot family * Filangieri * Lucia family * Pellegrino - baroni di San Demetrio * Parisi or Parisio - conti di Aderno

FURTHER READING

* Loud, Graham A. The Age of Robert Guiscard: Southern Italy
Southern Italy
and the Norman Conquest (series The Medieval World) Essex: Longman 2000.

NOTES

* ^ The Norman leader Rainulf Drengot
Rainulf Drengot
was granted a base in the fortress of Aversa
Aversa
in 1029.

SEE ALSO

* Normandy portal

* Norman conquest of southern Italy
Italy
* Anglo-Norman
Anglo-Norman
, the Normans
Normans
in England * Cambro-Norman , the Normans
Normans
in Wales * Hiberno-Norman
Hiberno-Norman
, the Normans
Normans
in Ireland * Scoto-Norman , the Normans
Normans
in Scotland

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Italo-Norman
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