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The Italic peoples
Italic peoples
are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages.

Contents

1 Classification 2 Origins 3 History

3.1 Copper Age 3.2 Early and Middle Bronze Age 3.3 Late Bronze Age 3.4 Iron Age

4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography

Classification[edit]

Indo-European language tree (diagram) according to Gray and Atkinson (2003); Italisch=Italic

Ethnolinguistic map of Italy
Italy
in the Iron Age.

The Italics were all the peoples who spoke an idiom belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and had settled in the Italian peninsula. The first Italic tribes, the Latino-Falisci (or "Latino-Veneti", if the membership of the ancient Veneti is also accepted), entered Italy
Italy
across the eastern Alpine passes into the plain of the Po River
Po River
about 1200 BC. Later, they crossed the Apennine Mountains and eventually occupied the region of Latium, which included the area of Rome. Before 1000 BC, the Osco-Umbrians followed, which later divided into various groups and gradually moved to central and southern Italy. The Italics were, therefore, the set of all Indo-Europeans present exclusively in Italy
Italy
in antiquity, not Indo-European peoples who were present also in other areas of Europe, such as the Cisalpine Gauls
Gauls
(a Continental Celtic people) or the Messapians
Messapians
(related to the Illyrians). The term is sometimes used improperly, especially in nonspecialised literature, to refer to all pre-Roman people of Italy, including those not of Indo-European lineages, such as the Etruscans, the Raetians and the Elymians. Origins[edit] See also: Indo-European migrations

Indo-European Migrations. Source David Anthony (2007), The Horse, The Wheel and Language

According to David W. Anthony, between 3100–2800/–2600 BCE, a real folk migration of Proto-Indo-European speakers from the Yamna culture took place into the Danube
Danube
Valley. These migrations probably split off Pre-Italic, Pre-Celtic and Pre-Germanic from Proto-Indo-European.[1] Hydronymy
Hydronymy
shows that Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
homeland is in Central Germany, which would be very close to the homeland of Italic and Celtic languages as well.[2] The origin of a hypothetical ancestral "Italo-Celtic" people is to be found in today's eastern Hungary, "kurganized" around 3100 BC by the Yamna culture. Subsequently, the Urnfield culture, also native of the Hungarian plain, expanding to the west would have brought this people in Bavaria
Bavaria
and in Austria, where it evolved in the Proto-Celtic people, while the proto-Italic people would have formed from the "Italo-Celtic" tribes who remained in Hungary, then penetrating in Italy
Italy
during the late 2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC
through the Proto-Villanovan culture.[3] This hypothesis is to some extent supported by the observation that Italic shares a large number of isoglosses and lexical terms with Celtic and Germanic, some of which are more likely to be attributed to the Bronze Age.[4] In particular, using Bayesian phylogenetic methods, Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson argued that proto-Italic speakers separated from proto-Germanic ones 5500 years before present, i.e. roughly the start of the Bronze Age.[5] This is further confirmed by the fact that Germanic language family shares more vocabulary with the Italic family than with the Celtic language family.[6] History[edit]

Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus
Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus
known as the “Census frieze”. Marble, Roman artwork of the late 2nd century BCE. From the Campo Marzio, Rome

Samnite soldiers from a tomb frieze in Nola, 4th century BCE; The Samnites
Samnites
were descended from the Sabines, who were descended from the Umbri.[7]

Contemporary Italy
Italy
in 400 BC

Copper Age[edit] Remains of the later prehistoric age have been found in Liguria
Liguria
and Lombardy
Lombardy
(stone carvings in Val Camonica). The most famous is perhaps that of Ötzi
Ötzi
the Iceman, the mummy of a mountain hunter found in the Similaun
Similaun
glacier in South Tyrol, dating to c. 3300 BC. During the Copper Age, at the same time as metalworking appeared, Indo-European people migrated to Italy. Approximatively four waves of population from north of the Alps
Alps
have been hypothesized on the basis of archaeological evidence.[8] The Remedello culture is associated by some with the first identified wave of Proto-Indo-Europeans
Proto-Indo-Europeans
who entered Italy
Italy
and took over the Po Valley.[9] Early and Middle Bronze Age[edit] From the late 3rd to the early 2nd millennium BC, tribes coming both from the north and from Franco-Iberia brought the Beaker culture[10] and the use of bronze smithing, to the Po Valley, to Tuscany
Tuscany
and to the coasts of Sardinia
Sardinia
and Sicily. In the mid-2nd millennium BC, the Terramare culture[11] developed in the Po Valley. The Terramare culture
Terramare culture
takes its name from the black earth (terra marna) residue of settlement mounds, which have long served the fertilizing needs of local farmers. These people were still hunters, but had domesticated animals; they were fairly skillful metallurgists, casting bronze in moulds of stone and clay, and they were also agriculturists, cultivating beans, the vine, wheat and flax. The Latino-Faliscan people have been associated with this culture, especially by the archaeologist Luigi Pigorini. Late Bronze Age[edit] From the late 2nd millennium to the early 1st millennium BC, the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Proto-Villanovan culture, related to the Central European Urnfield culture, dominated the peninsula and replaced the preceding Apennine culture. The Proto-Villanovans practiced cremation and buried the ashes of their dead in pottery urns of a distinctive double-cone shape. Generally speaking, Proto-Villanovan settlements have been found in almost the whole Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
from Veneto
Veneto
to eastern Sicily, although they were most numerous in the northern-central part of Italy. The most important settlements excavated are those of Frattesina in Veneto
Veneto
region, Bismantova in Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
and near the Monti della Tolfa, north of Rome. The Osco-Umbrians, the Veneti, and possibly the Latino-Faliscans too, have been associated with this culture. In the 13th century BC, Proto- Celts
Celts
(probably the ancestors of the Lepontii
Lepontii
people), coming from the area of modern-day Switzerland, eastern France and south-western Germany (RSFO Urnfield group), entered Northern Italy
Italy
( Lombardy
Lombardy
and eastern Piedmont), starting the Canegrate culture, who not long time after, merging with the indigenous Ligurians, produced the mixed Golasecca culture. Iron Age[edit] In the early Iron Age, the relatively homogeneous Proto-Villanovan culture shows a process of fragmentation. In Tuscany
Tuscany
and in part of Emilia-Romagna, Latium
Latium
and Campania, the Proto-Villanovan culture
Proto-Villanovan culture
was followed by the Villanovan culture. The Villanovan culture
Villanovan culture
is closely associated with the Celtic Halstatt culture
Halstatt culture
of Alpine Austria, and is characterised by the introduction of iron-working, the practice of cremation coupled with the burial of the ashes in distinctive pottery. The earliest remains of Villanovan culture
Villanovan culture
date back to approx. 1100 BC. In the region south of the Tiber
Tiber
( Latium
Latium
Vetus), the Latial culture
Latial culture
of the Latins emerges, while in the north-east of the peninsula the Este culture of the Veneti appeared. Roughly in the same period, from their core area in central Italy
Italy
(modern-day Umbria
Umbria
and Sabina region), the Osco-Umbrians began to emigrate in various waves, through the process of Ver sacrum, the ritualized extension of colonies, in southern Latium, Molise
Molise
and the whole southern half of the peninsula, replacing the previous tribes, such as the Opici and the Oenotrians. This corresponds with the emergence of the Terni
Terni
culture, which had strong similarities with the Celtic cultures of Hallstatt and La Tène.[12] The Umbrian necropolis of Terni, which dates back to the 10th century BC, was identical under every aspect, to the Celtic necropolis of the Golasecca culture.[13] See also[edit]

Golasecca culture Villanovan culture Roman Republic List of ancient Italic peoples

References[edit]

^ David W. Anthony - The Horse, The Wheel and Language pg.344 ^ Hans, Wagner. "Anatolien war nicht Ur-Heimat der indogermanischen Stämme". eurasischesmagazin. Retrieved 20 July 2016.  ^ David W. Anthony - The Horse, The Wheel and Language pg.367 ^ Douglas Q., Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. pp. 316–317.  ^ "Language evolution and human history: what a difference a date makes, Russell D. Gray, Quentin D. Atkinson and Simon J. Greenhill (2011)".  ^ "A Grammar of Proto-Germanic, Winfred P. Lehmann Jonathan Slocum" (PDF).  ^ Salmon 1967, p. 29. ^ J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Italic languages
Italic languages
pg. 315-319 ^ Remedello culture map ^ p144, Richard Bradley The prehistory of Britain and Ireland, Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-521-84811-3 ^ Pearce, Mark (December 1, 1998). "New research on the terramare of northern Italy". Antiquity.  ^ Leonelli, Valentina. La necropoli delle Acciaierie di Terni: contributi per una edizione critica (Cestres ed.). p. 33.  ^ Farinacci, Manlio. Carsulae svelata e Terni
Terni
sotterranea. Associazione Culturale UMRU - Terni. 

Bibliography[edit]

Villar, Francisco (1997). Gli Indoeuropei e le origini dell'Europa. Bologna: Il Mulino. ISBN 88-15-05708-0.  Devoto, Giacomo; Buti, Gianna G. (1974). Preistoria e storia delle regioni d'Italia. Florence: Sansoni.  Devoto, Giacomo (1951). Gli antichi Italici. Florence: Vallechi.  Pigorini, Luigi (1910). Gli abitanti primitivi dell'Italia. Rome: Bertero.  Moscati, Sabatino (1998). Così nacque l'Italia: profili di popoli riscoperti. Turin: Società Editrice Internazionale. 

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