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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

_Pontic Steppe_

* Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture

* Steppe cultures

* Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk

* Yamna

* Mikhaylovka culture

_Caucasus_

* Maykop

East-Asia

* Afanasevo

_Eastern Europe_

* Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni

_Northern Europe_

* Corded ware

* Baden * Middle Dnieper

------------------------- Bronze Age
Bronze Age

_Pontic Steppe_

* Chariot
Chariot
* Yamna * Catacomb * Multi-cordoned ware * Poltavka * Srubna

_Northern/Eastern Steppe_

* Abashevo culture
Abashevo culture
* Andronovo * Sintashta

_Europe_

* Beaker * Globular Amphora culture * Corded ware * Tumulus * Unetice * Urnfield * Lusatian * Nordic Bronze Age
Bronze Age
* Terramare * Trzciniec

_South-Asia_

* BMAC * Yaz * Gandhara grave

------------------------- Iron Age
Iron Age

_Steppe_

* Chernoles

_Europe_

* Thraco-Cimmerian * Hallstatt * Jastorf

_Caucasus_

* Colchian

_India_

* Painted Grey Ware * Northern Black Polished Ware

Peoples and societies Bronze Age
Bronze Age

* Anatolians * Armenians
Armenians
* Mycenaean Greeks
Greeks
* Indo-Iranians

Iron Age
Iron Age

_Indo-Aryans_

* Indo-Aryans

_Iranians_

* Iranians

* Scythians * Persians * Medes

_Europe_

* Celts
Celts

* Gauls
Gauls
* Celtiberians * Insular Celts
Celts

* Hellenic peoples * Italic peoples * Germanic peoples

* Paleo-Balkans /Anatolia :

* Thracians * Dacians
Dacians
* Illyrians * Phrygians

Middle Ages
Middle Ages

_East-Asia_

* Tocharians

_Europe_

* Balts * Slavs * Albanians * Medieval Europe

_Indo-Aryan_

* Medieval India

_Iranian_

* Greater Persia

Religion and mythology _Reconstructed_

* Proto-Indo-European religion
Proto-Indo-European religion
* Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

------------------------- _Historical_

* Hittite

_Indian_

* Vedic

* Hinduism

* Buddhism
Buddhism
* Jainism
Jainism

_Iranian_

* Persian

* Zoroastrianism

* Kurdish

* Yazidism * Yarsanism

* Scythian

* Ossetian

_Other_

* Armenian

_Europe_

* Paleo-Balkans * Greek * Roman

* Celtic

* Irish * Scottish * Breton * Welsh * Cornish

* Germanic

* Anglo-Saxon * Continental * Norse

* Baltic

* Latvian * Lithuanian

* Slavic * Albanian

_Practices_

* Fire-sacrifice * Horse sacrifice * Sati * Winter solstice / Yule

Indo-European studies _Scholars_

* Marija Gimbutas * J.P. Mallory

_Institutes_

* Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European

_Publications_

* _ Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture _ * _ The Horse, the Wheel and Language _ * _ Journal of Indo-European Studies _ * _ Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch _ * _ Indo-European Etymological Dictionary _

* v * t * e

The ITALIC PEOPLES were an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages .

CONTENTS

* 1 Classification * 2 Origins

* 3 History

* 3.1 Copper Age * 3.2 Early and Middle Bronze Age
Bronze Age
* 3.3 Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
* 3.4 Iron Age
Iron Age

* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography

CLASSIFICATION

Indo-European language tree (diagram) according to Gray and Atkinson (2003); ITALISCH=Italic Ethnolinguistic map of Italy in the Iron Age.

The Italics were all the peoples who spoke an idiom belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages and had settled in the Italian peninsula . The first Italic tribes, the Latino-Falisci (or "Latino-Veneti", if the membership of the ancient Veneti is also accepted), entered Italy
Italy
across the eastern Alpine passes into the plain of the Po River about 1200 BC. Later, they crossed the Apennine Mountains and eventually occupied the region of Latium , which included the area of Rome. Before 1000 BC, the Osco-Umbrians followed, which later divided into various groups and gradually moved to central and southern Italy.

The Italics were, therefore, the set of all Indo-Europeans present exclusively in Italy
Italy
in antiquity, not Indo-European peoples who were present also in other areas of Europe, such as the Cisalpine Gauls
Gauls
(a Continental Celtic people) or the Messapians
Messapians
(related to the Illyrians ).

The term is sometimes used improperly, especially in nonspecialised literature, to refer to all pre-Roman people of Italy, including those not of Indo-European lineages, such as the Etruscans , the Raetians and the Elymians
Elymians
.

ORIGINS

See also: Indo-European migrations
Indo-European migrations
Indo-European Migrations. Source David Anthony (2007), The Horse, The Wheel and Language

According to David W. Anthony, between 3100–2800/–2600 BCE, a real folk migration of Proto-Indo-European speakers from the Yamna culture took place into the Danube
Danube
Valley . These migrations probably split off Pre-Italic , Pre-Celtic and Pre-Germanic from Proto-Indo-European . Hydronymy shows that Proto-Germanic homeland is in Central Germany, which would be very close to the homeland of Italic and Celtic languages as well.

The origin of a hypothetical ancestral "Italo-Celtic" people is to be found in today's eastern Hungary
Hungary
, "kurganized" around 3100 BC by the Yamna culture . Subsequently, the Urnfield culture , also native of the Hungarian plain, expanding to the west would have brought this people in Bavaria
Bavaria
and in Austria
Austria
, where it evolved in the Proto-Celtic people , while the proto-Italic people would have formed from the "Italo-Celtic" tribes who remained in Hungary, then penetrating in Italy
Italy
during the late 2nd millennium BC
2nd millennium BC
through the Proto-Villanovan culture .

This hypothesis is to some extent supported by the observation that Italic shares a large number of isoglosses and lexical terms with Celtic and Germanic, some of which are more likely to be attributed to the Bronze Age. In particular, using Bayesian phylogenetic methods, Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson argued that proto-Italic speakers separated from proto-Germanic ones 5500 years before present, i.e. roughly the start of the Bronze Age. This is further confirmed by the fact that Germanic language family shares more vocabulary with the Italic family than with the Celtic language family.

HISTORY

Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus known as the “Census frieze”. Marble, Roman artwork of the late 2nd century BCE. From the Campo Marzio, Rome
Rome
Samnite soldiers from a tomb frieze in Nola
Nola
, 4th century BCE; The Samnites were descended from the Sabines , who were descended from the Umbri . Contemporary Italy
Italy
in 400 BC

COPPER AGE

Remains of the later prehistoric age have been found in Liguria
Liguria
and Lombardy
Lombardy
(stone carvings in Val Camonica
Val Camonica
). The most famous is perhaps that of Ötzi the Iceman, the mummy of a mountain hunter found in the Similaun glacier in South Tyrol, dating to c. 3300 BC. During the Copper Age , at the same time as metalworking appeared, Indo-European people migrated to Italy. Approximatively four waves of population from north of the Alps
Alps
have been hypothesized on the basis of archaeological evidence. The Remedello culture is associated by some with the first identified wave of Proto-Indo-Europeans who entered Italy
Italy
and took over the Po Valley.

EARLY AND MIDDLE BRONZE AGE

From the late 3rd to the early 2nd millennium BC, tribes coming both from the north and from Franco-Iberia brought the Beaker culture and the use of bronze smithing, to the Po Valley , to Tuscany
Tuscany
and to the coasts of Sardinia
Sardinia
and Sicily
Sicily
.

In the mid-2nd millennium BC, the Terramare culture
Terramare culture
developed in the Po Valley. The Terramare culture
Terramare culture
takes its name from the black earth (_terra marna_) residue of settlement mounds, which have long served the fertilizing needs of local farmers. These people were still hunters, but had domesticated animals; they were fairly skillful metallurgists, casting bronze in moulds of stone and clay, and they were also agriculturists, cultivating beans , the vine , wheat and flax . The Latino-Faliscan people have been associated with this culture, especially by the archaeologist Luigi Pigorini .

LATE BRONZE AGE

From the late 2nd millennium to the early 1st millennium BC, the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Proto-Villanovan culture , related to the Central European Urnfield culture , dominated the peninsula and replaced the preceding Apennine culture
Apennine culture
. The Proto-Villanovans practiced cremation and buried the ashes of their dead in pottery urns of a distinctive double-cone shape. Generally speaking, Proto-Villanovan settlements have been found in almost the whole Italian peninsula from Veneto
Veneto
to eastern Sicily, although they were most numerous in the northern-central part of Italy. The most important settlements excavated are those of Frattesina in Veneto
Veneto
region, Bismantova in Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
and near the Monti della Tolfa
Monti della Tolfa
, north of Rome
Rome
. The Osco-Umbrians , the Veneti , and possibly the Latino-Faliscans too, have been associated with this culture.

In the 13th century BC, Proto- Celts
Celts
(probably the ancestors of the Lepontii people), coming from the area of modern-day Switzerland, eastern France and south-western Germany (_RSFO_ Urnfield group), entered Northern Italy
Italy
( Lombardy
Lombardy
and eastern Piedmont
Piedmont
), starting the Canegrate culture , who not long time after, merging with the indigenous Ligurians , produced the mixed Golasecca culture
Golasecca culture
.

IRON AGE

In the early Iron Age, the relatively homogeneous Proto-Villanovan culture shows a process of fragmentation. In Tuscany
Tuscany
and in part of Emilia-Romagna, Latium and Campania, the Proto-Villanovan culture was followed by the Villanovan culture . The Villanovan culture is closely associated with the Celtic Halstatt culture of Alpine Austria, and is characterised by the introduction of iron-working, the practice of cremation coupled with the burial of the ashes in distinctive pottery. The earliest remains of Villanovan culture date back to approx. 1100 BC.

In the region south of the Tiber (_ Latium Vetus_), the Latial culture of the Latins emerges, while in the north-east of the peninsula the Este culture of the Veneti appeared. Roughly in the same period, from their core area in central Italy
Italy
(modern-day Umbria
Umbria
and Sabina region), the Osco-Umbrians began to emigrate in various waves, through the process of Ver sacrum , the ritualized extension of colonies, in southern Latium, Molise and the whole southern half of the peninsula, replacing the previous tribes, such as the Opici and the Oenotrians . This corresponds with the emergence of the Terni culture, which had strong similarities with the Celtic cultures of Hallstatt and La Tène . The Umbrian necropolis of Terni , which dates back to the 10th century BC, was identical under every aspect, to the Celtic necropolis of the Golasecca culture.

SEE ALSO

* Golasecca culture
Golasecca culture
* Villanovan culture * Roman Republic
Roman Republic
* List of ancient Italic peoples

REFERENCES

* ^ David W. Anthony - The Horse, The Wheel and Language pg.344 * ^ Hans, Wagner. "Anatolien war nicht Ur-Heimat der indogermanischen Stämme". eurasischesmagazin. Retrieved 20 July 2016.

* ^ David W. Anthony - The Horse, The Wheel and Language pg.367 * ^ Douglas Q., Adams (1997). _Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture_. Taylor & Francis. pp. 316–317. * ^ "Language evolution and human history: what a difference a date makes, Russell D. Gray, Quentin D. Atkinson and Simon J. Greenhill (2011)". * ^ "A Grammar of Proto-Germanic, Winfred P. Lehmann Jonathan Slocum" (PDF). * ^ Salmon 1967 , p. 29. * ^ J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture , Italic languages pg. 315-319 * ^ Remedello culture map * ^ p144, Richard Bradley _The prehistory of Britain and Ireland,_ Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-521-84811-3 * ^ Pearce, Mark (December 1, 1998). "New research on the terramare of northern Italy". _Antiquity_. * ^ Leonelli, Valentina. _La necropoli delle Acciaierie di Terni: contributi per una edizione critica_ (Cestres ed.). p. 33. * ^ Farinacci, Manlio. _Carsulae svelata e Terni sotterranea_. Associazione Culturale UMRU - Terni.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Villar, Francisco (1997). _Gli Indoeuropei e le origini dell'Europa_. Bologna: Il Mulino. ISBN 88-15-05708-0 . * Devoto, Giacomo ; Buti, Gianna G. (1974). _Preistoria e storia delle regioni d'Italia_. Florence: Sansoni. * Devoto, Giacomo (1951). _Gli antichi Italici_. Florence: Vallechi.

* Pigorini, Luigi (1910). _Gli abitanti primitivi dell'Italia_. Rome: Bertero. * Moscati, Sabatino (1998). _Così nacque l'Italia: profili di popoli riscoperti_. Turin: Società Editrice Internazionale.

* v * t * e

Italy
Italy
articles

HISTORY

CHRONOLOGY

* Prehistory

* Italic peoples * Ancient Italian peoples * Pre-Nuragic Sardinia
Sardinia
* Nuragic peoples

* Etruscan Civilization * Nuragic Civilization * Phoenician / Carthaginian colonies * Magna Graecia

* Ancient Rome
Rome

* Kingdom * Republic * Empire

* Middle Ages
Middle Ages

* Italy
Italy
under Odoacer * Ostrogoths * Lombards * Regnum Italiae * Arabs * Normans * Guelphs and Ghibellines * Italian city-states * Maritime republics

* Renaissance

* Italian Wars
Italian Wars

* Early Modern period * Unification

* Monarchy and the World Wars

* Kingdom of Italy
Italy
* Colonial Empire * World War I * Fascist Italy
Italy
* World War II * Resistance * Civil War

* Republic

* Economic Boom * Years of Lead * Years of Mud * Mani pulite

BY TOPIC

* Citizenship * Currency * Economy * Fashion * Flags * Genetic * Historic states * Military * Music * Postal * Railways

GEOGRAPHY

* Peninsula

* Northern

* Northwest * Northeast

* Central

* Southern

* South * Insular

* Fauna * Flora

* Volcanology

* Volcanoes

* Mountains

* Prealps * Alps
Alps
* Apennines

* Beaches * Canals * Caves * Earthquakes * Islands * Lakes * National parks * Rivers * Valleys

POLITICS

* Constitution * Elections * Referendums

* Foreign relations

* Missions

* Judiciary * Law enforcement * Military

* Parliament

* Chamber of Deputies * Senate

* Political parties * President * Prime Minister * Council of Ministers * Regions * Provinces * Metropolitan cities * Municipalities * Cities

ECONOMY

* Economic history

* Milan * Naples * Rome
Rome
* Turin

* Regions by GDP * Automotive industry

* Banking

* Central Bank

* Companies * Energy * Government debt * Science and technology * Stock exchange * Taxation

* Telecommunications

* Internet

* Tourism * Trade unions * Transportation * Welfare

SOCIETY

* Abortion * Adoption * Billionaires * Capital punishment * Corruption * Crime * Demographics

* Education

* Secondary * Higher * Universities

* Emigration * Fathers\' rights movement * Feminism * Gambling * Health * Healthcare * Immigration * LGBT rights * Nobility * Prostitution * Racism * Religion * Smoking * Social class * Terrorism * Women

CULTURE

* Duecento
Duecento
* Trecento * Quattrocento
Quattrocento
* Cinquecento * Seicento * Settecento

* Architecture * Art * Castles * Cinema

* Cuisine

* Wine

* Decorations * Design * Fashion * Festivals * Folklore * Italophilia * Italophobia

* Languages and dialects

* Italian

* Literature

* Media

* Newspapers * Radio * TV

* Monuments * Mythology

* Music

* Classical * Folk * Opera * Popular

* National symbols

* Anthem * Emblem

* Flag

* Regions

* Personification

* People * Philosophy * Public holidays * Sculpture * Sport * Traditions * World Heritage Sites

* Italy
Italy
portal * WikiProject * Commons * Quotes * News * Travel * Category
Category

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