HOME
The Info List - Italianization





Italianization
Italianization
(Italian: Italianizzazione; Croatian: talijanizacija; Slovene: poitaljančevanje; German: Italianisierung; Greek: Ιταλοποίηση) is the spread of Italian culture, people, or language, either by integration or assimilation. It is most known for a process organized by the Kingdom of Italy to force cultural and ethnic assimilation, primarily, of the native populations living in the former Austro-Hungarian territories that were transferred to Italy after World War I
World War I
in exchange for Italy having joined the Triple Entente
Triple Entente
in 1915. This process was conducted during the period of Fascist rule between 1922 and 1943.

Contents

1 Regions and populations affected

1.1 Istria, Julian March
Julian March
and Dalmatia 1.2 South Tyrol 1.3 Ionian Islands

2 References

Regions and populations affected[edit] Between 1922 and the beginning of World War II, the affected people were the German-speaking population of Trentino-Alto Adige, and Slovenes and Croats in the Julian March. The program was later extended to areas annexed during World War II, affecting Slovenes in the Province of Ljubljana, and Croats in Gorski Kotar
Gorski Kotar
and coastal Dalmatia, and, to a lesser extent, toward the French and French-provençal speaking regions of western Alps (like the Aosta valley). Istria, Julian March
Julian March
and Dalmatia[edit] The former Austrian Littoral
Austrian Littoral
(later renamed Julian March) was occupied by the Italian army after the Armistice with Austria. Following the annexation, 400[1] cultural, sporting (for example Sokol), youth, social and professional Slavic organisations, and libraries ("reading rooms"), three political parties, 31 newspapers and journals, and 300 co-operatives and financial institutions had been forbidden, and specifically so later with the Law on Associations (1925), the Law on Public Demonstrations (1926) and the Law on Public Order (1926), the closure of the classical lyceum in Pazin, of the high school in Volosko
Volosko
(1918), the closure of the 488[1] Slovene and Croat primary schools followed. The period of violent persecution of Slovenes in Trieste
Trieste
began with riots in April 13, 1920, which were organized as a retaliation for the assault on Italian occupying troops in July 11 Split incident by the local Croatian population. Many Slovene-owned shops and buildings were destroyed during the riots, which culminated when a group of Italian Fascists, led by Francesco Giunta, burned down the Narodni dom ("National House"), the community hall of the Triestine Slovenes.[2] Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
praised this action as a "masterpiece of the Triestine fascism"; in two years he would become prime minister of Italy.[3] In September 1920, Mussolini said:

When dealing with such a race as Slavic - inferior and barbaric - we must not pursue the carrot, but the stick policy. We should not be afraid of new victims. The Italian border should run across the Brenner Pass, Monte Nevoso and the Dinaric Alps. I would say we can easily sacrifice 500,000 barbaric Slavs for 50,000 Italians. — Benito Mussolini, speech held in Pula, 20 September 1920[4]

This expressed a common Fascist opinion against the Croatian and Slovene minority in the Julian March.[3] Italian teachers were assigned to schools and the use of Croat and Slovene languages in the administration and in the courts restricted. After March 1923 these languages were prohibited in administration, and after October 1925 in law courts, as well. In 1923, in the context of the organic school reform prepared by the fascist minister Giovanni Gentile, teaching in languages different from Italian was abolished. In the Julian March
Julian March
this meant the end of teaching in Croatian and Slovenian. Anyway, in Šušnjevica
Šušnjevica
(it: Valdarsa) the use of Istro-Rumanian language
Istro-Rumanian language
was granted since 1923.[5] In 1926, claiming that it was restoring surnames to their original Italian form, the Italian government announced the Italianization
Italianization
of German, Slovene and Croat surnames.[6][7] In the Province of Trieste alone, 3,000 surnames were modified and 60,000 people had their surnames amended to an Italian-sounding form.[1] First or given names were also Italianized. Slovene and Croat societies and sporting and cultural associations had to cease every activity in line with a decision of provincial fascist secretaries dated 12 June 1927. On a specific order from the prefect of Trieste
Trieste
on 19 November 1928, the Edinost political society was also dissolved. Croat and Slovene financial co-operatives in Istria, which at first were absorbed by the Pula
Pula
or Trieste
Trieste
savings banks, were gradually liquidated.[8] In 1927, Giuseppe Cobolli Gigli, the minister for public works in fascist Italy, wrote in Gerarchia magazine, a Fascist publication, that "The Istrian muse named as Foibe those places suitable for burial of enemies of the national [Italian] characteristics of Istria".[9][10][11][12] The Slovene militant anti-Fascist organization TIGR
TIGR
emerged in 1927. It co-ordinated the Slovene resistance against Fascist Italy until its dismantlement by the Fascist secret police in 1941. At the time, some TIGR
TIGR
ex-members joined the Slovene Partisans. Among the notable Slovene émigrés from Trieste
Trieste
were the writers Vladimir Bartol
Vladimir Bartol
and Josip Ribičič, the legal theorist Boris Furlan, and the architect Viktor Sulčič. During World War II, Italy occupied almost all of Dalmatia, and the Italian government made stringent efforts to Italianize the region. Italian occupying forces were accused of committing war crimes in order to transform occupied territories into ethnic Italian territories.[13] The Italian government operated concentration camps[14] for Slavic citizens, such as Rab concentration camp
Rab concentration camp
and one on the island of Molat. Survivors received no compensation from Italy after the war. Mario Roatta
Mario Roatta
was the commander of the 2nd Italian Army in Yugoslavia. To suppress the mounting resistance led by the Slovene partisans, he adopted tactics of "summary executions, hostage-taking, reprisals, internments and the burning of houses and villages."[15] After the war the Yugoslav government sought unsuccessfully to have him extradited for war crimes from Spain, where he was protected by Francisco Franco. [16] Mario Robotti issued an order in line with a directive received from Mussolini in June 1942: "I would not be opposed to all (sic) Slovenes being imprisoned and replaced by Italians. In other words, we should take steps to ensure that political and ethnic frontiers coincide."[16] South Tyrol[edit] Main article: Italianization
Italianization
of South Tyrol In 1919, at the time of its annexation, the southern part of Tyrol was inhabited by almost 90% German speakers.[17] In October 1923, the use of the Italian language
Italian language
became mandatory (although not exclusive) on all levels of federal, provincial and local government.[18] Regulations by the fascist authorities required that all kinds of signs and public notices had to be in Italian only. Maps, postcards and other graphic material had to show Italian place names.[18] In September 1925, Italian became the sole permissible language in courts of law.[18] Illegal Katakombenschulen ("Catacomb schools") were set up by the local German-speaking minority to teach children the German language. The government created incentives to encourage immigration of native Italians to the South Tyrol. Several factors limited the effects of the Italian policy, namely the adverse nature of the territory (mainly mountains and valleys of difficult access), the difficulty for the Italians from southern Italy to adapt to a completely different environment and, later on, the alliance between Germany and Italy. Under the 1939 South Tyrol Option Agreement, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
determined the status of the German people
German people
living in the province. They either had to opt for emigration to Germany or stay in Italy and become fully Italianized. Because of the outbreak of World War II, this agreement was never fully implemented and most ethnic Germans remained or returned at the end of the war. In the 21st century, almost 100 years after the Italian annexation of South Tyrol,[19] 64% of the population of South Tyrol still speak German as their first language. Ionian Islands[edit] The cultural remnants of the Venetian period were Mussolini's pretext to incorporate the Ionian Islands into the Kingdom of Italy.[20] Even before the outbreak of World War II
World War II
and the Greek-Italian 1940-1941 Winter War, Mussolini had expressed his wish to annex the Ionian Islands as an Italian province.[21] After the fall of Greece in early April 1941, the Italians occupied much of the country, including the Ionians. Mussolini informed General Carlo Geloso that the Ionian Islands would form a separate Italian province through a de facto annexation, but the Germans would not approve it. Nevertheless, the Italian authorities continued to prepare the ground for the annexation. Finally, on 22 April 1941, after discussions between the German and Italian rulers, Hitler agreed that Italy could proceed with a de facto annexation of the islands. Thus on 10 August 1941 the islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, Zakynthos, Lefkada
Lefkada
and some minor islands were officially annexed by Italy as part of the Grande Communità del Nuovo Impero Romano (Great Community of the New Roman Empire). [20][22][23] As soon as the fascist governor Pietro Parini had installed himself on Corfu
Corfu
he vigorously began a forced Italianization
Italianization
policy that lasted until the end of the war.[23] The islands passed through a phase of Italianization
Italianization
in all areas, from their administration to their economy. Italian was designated the islands' only official language; a new currency, the Ionian drachma, was introduced with the aim to hamper trade with the rest of Greece, which was forbidden by Parini. Transportation with continental Greece was limited; in the courts, judges had to apply Italian law, and schooling followed the educational model of the Italian mainland. Greek administrative officials were replaced by Italian ones, administrative officials of non-Ionic origin were expelled, the local gendarmes were partially replaced by Italian Carabinieri, although Parini initially allowed the Greek judges to continue their work, they were ultimately replaced by an Italian Military Court based in Corfu. The "return to the Venetian order" and the italianization as pursued by Parini were even more drastic than the italianization policies elsewhere, as their aim was a forced and abrupt cessation of all cultural and historical ties with the old mother country. The only newspaper on the islands was the Italian language
Italian language
"Giornale del Popolo".[23][24][25][26] By early 1942 pre-war politicians in the Ionian Islands began to protest Parini's harsh policies. Parini reacted by opening a concentration camp on the island of Paxi, to which two more camps were added on Othonoi
Othonoi
and Lazaretto islands. Parini's police troops arrested about 3,500 people, which were imprisoned at these three camps.[23] The Italianization efforts in the Ionian islands ended in September 1943, when Italy switched sides and began to back the Allies. References[edit]

^ a b c Cresciani, Gianfranco (2004) Clash of civilisations, Italian Historical Society Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, p. 4 ^ "90 let od požiga Narodnega doma v Trstu" [90 Years From the Arson of the National Hall in Trieste]. Primorski dnevnik [The Littoral Daily] (in Slovenian). 2010. pp. 14–15. COBISS 11683661. Retrieved 28 February 2012.  chapter= ignored (help) ^ a b Sestani, Armando, ed. (10 February 2012). "Il confine orientale: una terra, molti esodi" [The Eastern Border: One Land, Multiple Exoduses]. Gli esuli istriani, dalmati e fiumani a Lucca [The Istrian, Dalmatian and Rijeka Refugees in Lucca] (in Italian). Instituto storico della Resistenca e dell'Età Contemporanea in Provincia di Lucca. pp. 12–13.  ^ Verginella, Marta (2011). "Antislavismo, razzismo di frontiera?". Aut aut (in Italian). ISBN 9788865761069.  ^ PUŞCARIU, Sextil. Studii istroromâne. Vol. II, Bucureşti: 1926 ^ Regio decreto legge 10 Gennaio 1926, n. 17: Restituzione in forma italiana dei cognomi delle famiglie della provincia di Trento ^ Mezulić, Hrvoje; R. Jelić (2005) Fascism, baptiser and scorcher (O Talijanskoj upravi u Istri i Dalmaciji 1918-1943.: nasilno potalijančivanje prezimena, imena i mjesta), Dom i svijet, Zagreb, ISBN 953-238-012-4 ^ A Historical Outline Of Istria Archived 2008-01-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Gerarchia, vol. IX, 1927: "La musa istriana ha chiamato Foiba
Foiba
degno posto di sepoltura per chi nella provincia d'Istria minaccia le caratteristiche nazionali dell'Istria"(in Serbian)[1] ^ (in Serbian)http://www.danas.rs/20050217/dijalog1.html ^ (in Italian) http://www.lavocedifiore.org/SPIP/article.php3?id_article=1692 ^ (in Italian)http://www.osservatoriobalcani.org/article/articleview/3901/1/176/ ^ Z. Dizdar: "Italian Policies Toward Croatians In Occupied Territories During The Second World War", Review of Croatian History Issue no.1 /2005 ^ Elenco Dei Campi Di Concentramento Italiani ^ General Roatta's War against the Partisans in Yugoslavia: 1942, IngentaConnect ^ a b Tommaso Di Francesco and Giacomo Scotti, "Sixty Years of Ethnic Cleansing", Le Monde Diplomatique, 8 May 1999 ^ Oscar Benvenuto (ed.): "South Tyrol in Figures 2008", Provincial Statistics Institute of the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol, Bozen/Bolzano 2007, p. 19, Table 11 ^ a b c Steininger, Rolf (2003), p. 23-24 ^ "astat info Nr. 38" (PDF). Table 1 — Declarations of which language group belong to/affiliated to — Population Census 2011. Retrieved 2012-06-12.  ^ a b Rodogno, Davide (2003). Il nuovo ordine mediterraneo : le politiche di occupazione dell'Italia fascista in Europa (1940 - 1943) (1. ed.). Torino: Bollati Boringhieri. p. 586. ISBN 978-8833914329.  ^ MacGregor, Knox (1986). Mussolini Unleashed, 1939-1941: Politics and Strategy in Fascist Italy's Last War. Cambridge University Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0521338356.  ^ Corvaja, Santi (2008). MacGregor Knox. Enigma Books. p. 170. ISBN 978-1929631421.  ^ a b c d Commissione Italiana di Storia Militare (1993). L'Italia in Guerra - Il Terzo Anno 1942. Rome: Italian Ministry of Defense. p. 370. Retrieved 5 November 2016.  ^ Vallianatos, Markos (2014). The untold history of Greek collaboration with Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
(1941-1944). p. 74. ISBN 978-1304845795.  ^ Commissione Italiana di Storia Militare (1993). L'Italia in Guerra - Il Terzo Anno 1942. Rome: Italian Ministry of Defense. p. 370. Retrieved 5 November 2016.  ^ Rodogno, Davide (3 August 2006). Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation During the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521845151. 

v t e

Fascism

Theory

Core tenets

Nationalism Imperialism Authoritarianism One-party state Dictatorship Social Darwinism Social interventionism Proletarian nation Propaganda Eugenics Heroism Militarism Economic interventionism Anti-communism

Topics

Definitions Economics Fascism
Fascism
and ideology Fascism
Fascism
worldwide Symbolism

Ideas

Actual Idealism Class collaboration Corporatism Heroic capitalism National Socialism National syndicalism State capitalism Supercapitalism Third Position Totalitarianism Social order

Variants

Italian National Socialism Japanese fascism Islamofascism Falangism British Austrian Metaxism National Radicalism Rexism Clerical Legionarism Integralism

Movements

Africa

Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging Greyshirts Ossewabrandwag

Asia

Brit HaBirionim Ganap Party Sakurakai Tōhōkai Blue Shirts Society

Northern / Northwestern Europe

Ailtirí na hAiséirghe Black Front (Netherlands) Blueshirts Breton Social-National Workers' Movement British Fascists British People's Party (1939) British Union of Fascists La Cagoule Clerical People's Party Faisceau Flemish National Union French Popular Party General Dutch Fascist League Imperial Fascist League Lapua Movement Nasjonal Samling National Corporate Party
National Corporate Party
(Greenshirts) National Fascisti Nationalist Party (Iceland) National Socialist Bloc National Socialist Dutch Workers Party National Socialist League National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands National Socialist Movement of Norway National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden) New Party (UK) Patriotic People's Movement (Finland) Pērkonkrusts Rexism

Central Europe

Arrow Cross Party Austrian National Socialism Fatherland Front (Austria) Hungarian National Socialist Party National Front (Switzerland) Nazism Nazi Party Sudeten German Party

Southern Europe

Albanian Fascist Party Democratic Fascist Party Falange Greek National Socialist Party Italian Fascism Italian Social Republic Metaxism National Fascist Party National Union (Portugal) Republican Fascist Party Sammarinese Fascist Party Ustaše ZBOR

Eastern and Southeastern Europe

Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party Crusade of Romanianism Iron Guard National Fascist Community National Fascist Movement National Italo-Romanian Cultural and Economic Movement National Social Movement (Bulgaria) National Radical Camp Falanga National Romanian Fascio National Renaissance Front Ratniks
Ratniks
(Bulgaria) Romanian Front Russian Fascist Party Russian Women's Fascist Movement Slovak People's Party Union of Bulgarian National Legions Vlajka

North America

Fascism
Fascism
in Canada

Canadian Union of Fascists Parti national social chrétien

Gold shirts German American Bund Silver Legion of America

South America

Falangism
Falangism
in Latin America Brazilian Integralism Bolivian Socialist Falange National Socialist Movement of Chile Revolutionary Union

People

Abba Ahimeir Nimio de Anquín Sadao Araki Marc Augier Maurice Bardèche Jacques Benoist-Méchin Henri Béraud Zoltán Böszörmény Giuseppe Bottai Robert Brasillach Alphonse de Châteaubriant Corneliu Zelea Codreanu Gustavs Celmiņš Enrico Corradini Carlo Costamagna Richard Walther Darré Marcel Déat Léon Degrelle Pierre Drieu La Rochelle Gottfried Feder Giovanni Gentile Joseph Goebbels Hans F. K. Günther Heinrich Himmler Adolf Hitler Ikki Kita Fumimaro Konoe Vihtori Kosola Agostino Lanzillo Dimitrije Ljotić Leopoldo Lugones Curzio Malaparte Ioannis Metaxas Robert Michels Oswald Mosley Benito Mussolini Eoin O'Duffy Gearóid Ó Cuinneagáin Sergio Panunzio Giovanni Papini Ante Pavelić William Dudley Pelley Alfred Ploetz Robert Poulet Vidkun Quisling José Antonio Primo de Rivera Lucien Rebatet Dionisio Ridruejo Alfredo Rocco Konstantin Rodzaevsky Alfred Rosenberg Plínio Salgado Rafael Sánchez Mazas Margherita Sarfatti Carl Schmitt Ardengo Soffici Othmar Spann Ugo Spirito Ferenc Szálasi Hideki Tojo Gonzalo Torrente Ballester Georges Valois Anastasy Vonsyatsky

Works

Literature

The Doctrine of Fascism Fascist Manifesto Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals Mein Kampf My Life The Myth of the Twentieth Century Zweites Buch Zaveshchanie russkogo fashista

Periodicals

La Conquista del Estado Das Reich Der Angriff Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung Deutsche Zeitung in Norwegen Deutsche Zeitung in den Niederlanden Figli d'Italia Fronten Gândirea Gioventù Fascista Je suis partout La France au travail Münchener Beobachter Novopress NS Månedshefte Norsk-Tysk Tidsskrift Das Schwarze Korps Der Stürmer Il Popolo d'Italia Sfarmă-Piatră Signal Vlajka Völkischer Beobachter Nash Put' Fashist l'Alba

Film

Der Sieg des Glaubens Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht Triumph of the Will

Sculpture

Allach

Related topics

Art of the Third Reich Fascist architecture Heroic realism Nazi architecture Nazism
Nazism
and cinema Nazi plunder Syndicalism Conservatism

Organizations

Institutional

Ahnenerbe Chamber of Fasci and Corporations Grand Council of Fascism Imperial Way Faction Italian Nationalist Association Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen Quadrumvirs

Activist

Fascist Union of Youth German American Bund National Youth Organisation (Greece) Russian Fascist Organization Union of Fascist Little Ones Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (boys) Union of Young Fascists – Vanguard (girls)

Paramilitary

Albanian Militia Black Brigades Blackshirts Blueshirts Einsatzgruppen Gold shirts Greenshirts Greyshirts Hitler Youth Heimwehr Iron Wolf (organization) Lăncieri Makapili Silver Legion of America Schutzstaffel Sturmabteilung Waffen-SS Werwolf

International

Axis powers NSDAP/AO ODESSA

History

1910s

Arditi Fascio

1920s

Aventine Secession Acerbo Law Corfu
Corfu
incident March on Rome Beer Hall Putsch Italian economic battles

1930s

March of the Iron Will German federal election, November 1932 German federal election, March 1933 Enabling Act 6 February 1934 crisis 1934 Montreux Fascist conference Spanish Civil War 4th of August Regime Anti-Comintern Pact

1940s

World War II The Holocaust End in Italy Denazification Nuremberg Trials

Lists

Anti-fascists Books about Hitler British fascist parties Fascist movements by country (A-F G-M N-T U-Z) Nazi ideologues Nazi leaders Speeches by Hitler SS personnel

Related topics

Alt-right Anti-fascism Anti-Nazi League Christofascism Clerical fascism Cryptofascism Esoteric Nazism Fascist (epithet) Fascist mysticism Germanisation Glossary of Nazi Germany Hitler salute Italianization Italianization
Italianization
of South Tyrol Islamofascism Japanization Ku Klux Klan National Bolshevism Neo-fascism Neo-Nazism Roman salute Social fascism Synarchism Unite Against Fascism Völkisch movement Women in Nazi Germany

Category Portal

v t e

Cultural assimilation

Africanization Albanisation Americanization

Native Americans names

Anglicisation Arabization

Armenians Berbers Blacks Jews

Araucanization Batavianization Belarusization Bosniakization Bulgarization Castilianization Celticisation Chilenization Christianization Creolization Croatisation Cyrillization Czechization Estonianization Europeanisation Finnicization Francization

Brussels

Gaelicisation Germanisation Globalization Hawaiianize Hellenization Hispanicization Indianisation

placenames

Indigenization Indo-Aryanisation Indonesation Islamization Israelization

names

Italianization Japanization Javanisation Judaization Kurdification Lithuanization Magyarization
Magyarization
or hungarization Malayisation Montenegrization Norwegianization Pakistanisation Pashtunization Persianization

societies

Polonization Romanianization Romanization or latinization

names

Russification Saffronisation Sanskritisation Serbianisation Sinhalization Sinicization Slavicisation Slovakization Sovietization Swahilization Swedification Taiwanization Tamilisation Thaification Turkification

placenames

Turkmenization Ukrainisation Uzbekization Westernization

Opposite trends

Dehellenization De-Russification De-Sinicization Korenizatsiya

Related concepts

Cultural globalization Cultural imperialism Dominant culture Forced assimilation Identity politics Internal colonialism Jewish assimilation Language shift Melting pot Monoculturalism

Authority control

GN

.