HOME
The Info List - Italian Renaissance


--- Advertisement ---



Transition from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the Modern era

Renaissance
Renaissance
spreads to the rest of Europe Development of capitalism, banking, merchantilism and accounting: beginning of the European Great Divergence Explorers from the Italian maritime republics serve under the auspices of European monarchs ushering the Age of discovery Rediscovery of Humanism
Humanism
and Greco-Roman
Greco-Roman
culture Renaissance
Renaissance
literature, painting, sculpture, architecture and music have profound impact on the evolution of the arts Renaissance
Renaissance
wars lead to significant changes in the history of diplomacy and warfare Italian universities play a significant role in the beginning of the scientific revolution Increase of Papal temporal power leads to the Reformation, the Counter-Reformation, the Roman Inquisition
Roman Inquisition
and the European wars of religion.

Renaissance

"The School of Athens", Raphael, 1509–1511

Topics

Humanism Age of Discovery Architecture Dance Fine arts Literature Music Philosophy Science Technology Warfare

Regions

Bengal England France Germany Italy Poland Portugal Spain Scotland Northern Europe Low Countries

Criticism

Criticism outside of Fine Arts

v t e

Part of a series on the

History of Italy

Ancient

Prehistoric Italy Etruscan civilization
Etruscan civilization
(12th–6th c. BC) Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
(8th–7th c. BC) Ancient Rome
Rome
(Roman Italy) (753 BC–476 AD)

Medieval

Italy
Italy
in the Middle Ages

Kingdom

Odoacer's Ostrogothic Vandal Lombard

Byzantine reconquest of Italy
Italy
(6th–8th c.) Italy
Italy
in the Carolingian Empire and HRE Islam and Normans in southern Italy Maritime Republics
Maritime Republics
and Italian city-states Guelphs and Ghibellines

Early modern

Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
(14th–16th c.) Italian Wars
Italian Wars
(1494–1559) Foreign domination
Foreign domination
(1559–1814) Italian unification
Italian unification
(1815–1861)

Modern

Monarchy (1861–1945) Italy
Italy
in World War I (1914–1918) Fascism and Colonial Empire (1918–1945) Italy
Italy
in World War II (1940–1945) Social Republic (1943–1945) Republic (1945–present) Years of Lead (1970s–1980s)

By topic

List of historic states

Citizenship Currency Economy Fashion Genetic Military Music Postage Railway

Timeline Italy
Italy
portal

v t e

The Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
(Italian: Rinascimento [rinaʃʃiˈmento]) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe. The French word renaissance (Rinascimento in Italian) means "Rebirth" and defines the period as one of renewed interest in the culture of classical antiquity after the centuries labeled the Dark Ages by Renaissance
Renaissance
humanists, as well as an era of economic revival after the Black Death
Black Death
of 1348. The Renaissance
Renaissance
author Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
used the term "Rebirth" in his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects but the concept became widespread only in the 19th century, after the works of scholars such as Jules Michelet
Jules Michelet
and Jacob Burckhardt. The European Renaissance
Renaissance
began in Tuscany
Tuscany
(Central Italy), and centred in the city of Florence.[1] Florence, one of the several city-states of the peninsula, rose to economic prominence by providing credit for European monarchs and laying down the groundwork for capitalism and banking.[2] The Renaissance
Renaissance
later spread to Venice, heart of a mediterranean empire and in control of the trade routes with the east since the end of the crusades and the voyages of Marco Polo, where the remains of ancient Greek culture were brought together and provided humanist scholars with new texts. Finally the Renaissance
Renaissance
had a significant effect on the Papal States
Papal States
and Rome, largely rebuilt by Humanist and Renaissance
Renaissance
popes (such as Alexander VI
Alexander VI
and Julius II), who were frequently involved in Italian politics, in arbitrating disputes between competing colonial powers and in opposing the Reformation. The Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
is best known for its achievements in painting, architecture, sculpture, literature, music, philosophy, science and exploration. Italy
Italy
became the recognized European leader in all these areas by the late 15th century, during the Peace of Lodi (1454-1494) agreed between Italian states. The Italian Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th century as domestic disputes and foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of the Italian Wars (1494-1559). Following this conflict, smaller Italian states lost their independence and entered a period known as "foreign domination". However, the ideas and ideals of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
endured and spread into the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance. Italian explorers from the maritime republics served under the auspices of European monarchs, ushering the Age of discovery. The most famous among them are Cristopher Columbus
Cristopher Columbus
who served for Spain, Giovanni da Verrazzano
Giovanni da Verrazzano
for France, Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
for Portugal, and John Cabot
John Cabot
for England. Italian universities attracted polymaths and scholars such as Copernicus, Vesalius, Galileo
Galileo
and Torricelli, playing a key role in the scientific revolution. Various events and dates of the 17th century, such as the conclusion of the European Wars of Religion
Religion
in 1648, have been proposed for the end of the Renaissance.[3] Accounts of Renaissance
Renaissance
literature usually begin with the three great poets of the 14th century: Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(Divine Comedy), Petrarch (Canzoniere) and Boccaccio
Boccaccio
(Decameron). Famous vernacular poets of the Renaissance
Renaissance
include the renaissance epic authors Luigi Pulci (author of Morgante), Matteo Maria Boiardo
Matteo Maria Boiardo
(Orlando Innamorato), Ludovico Ariosto (Orlando Furioso) and Torquato Tasso
Torquato Tasso
(Jerusalem Delivered). 15th century writers such as the poet Poliziano
Poliziano
and the Platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino
Marsilio Ficino
made extensive translations from both Latin
Latin
and Greek. In the early 16th century, Castiglione laid out his vision of the ideal gentleman and lady in The Book of the Courtier, while Machiavelli
Machiavelli
cast a jaundiced eye on "la verità effettuale della cosa"—the actual truth of things—in The Prince, composed, in humanistic style, chiefly of parallel ancient and modern examples of Virtù. Historians of the period include Machiavelli
Machiavelli
himself, his friend and critic Francesco Guicciardini
Francesco Guicciardini
and Giovanni Botero
Giovanni Botero
(The Reason of State). The Aldine Press, founded by the printer Aldo Manuzio, active in Venice, developed Italic type
Italic type
and portable printed books that could be carried in one's pocket, as well as being the first to publish editions of books in Ancient Greek. Venice
Venice
also became the birthplace of the Commedia dell'Arte. Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
art exercised a dominant influence on subsequent European painting and sculpture for centuries afterwards, with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello, Giotto
Giotto
di Bondone, Masaccio, Fra Angelico, Piero della Francesca, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Botticelli, and Titian. The same is true for architecture, as practiced by Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Palladio, and Bramante. Their works include, to name only a few, the Florence
Florence
Cathedral, St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
in Rome, and the Tempio Malatestiano
Tempio Malatestiano
in Rimini, as well as several private residences. The musical era of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
was defined by the Roman School and later by the Venetian School and the birth of Opera
Opera
in Florence. In philosophy, thinkers such as Galileo, Machiavelli, Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno
and Pico della Mirandola, emphasized naturalism and humanism, thus rejecting dogma and scholasticism.

Contents

1 Origins and background

1.1 Northern and Central Italy
Italy
in the Late Middle Ages 1.2 Thirteenth-century 1.3 Fourteenth-century collapse

2 Development

2.1 International relationships 2.2 Florence
Florence
under the Medici 2.3 Spread 2.4 Wider population 2.5 Renaissance
Renaissance
end

3 Culture

3.1 Literature and poetry 3.2 Philosophy 3.3 Science 3.4 Sculpture and painting 3.5 Architecture 3.6 Music

4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Origins and background[edit] Northern and Central Italy
Italy
in the Late Middle Ages[edit] By the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(circa 1300 onward), Latium, the former heartland of the Roman Empire, and southern Italy
Italy
were generally poorer than the North. Rome
Rome
was a city of ancient ruins, and the Papal States were loosely administered, and vulnerable to external interference such as that of France, and later Spain. The Papacy was affronted when the Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
was created in southern France as a consequence of pressure from King Philip the Fair of France. In the south, Sicily
Sicily
had for some time been under foreign domination, by the Arabs and then the Normans. Sicily
Sicily
had prospered for 150 years during the Emirate of Sicily
Sicily
and later for two centuries during the Norman Kingdom and the Hohenstaufen Kingdom, but had declined by the late Middle Ages. In contrast, Northern and Central Italy
Italy
had become far more prosperous, and it has been calculated that the region was among the richest of Europe. The Crusades
Crusades
had built lasting trade links to the Levant, and the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
had done much to destroy the Byzantine Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as a commercial rival to the Venetians and Genoese. The main trade routes from the east passed through the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
or the Arab lands and onward to the ports of Genoa, Pisa, and Venice. Luxury goods bought in the Levant, such as spices, dyes, and silks were imported to Italy
Italy
and then resold throughout Europe. Moreover, the inland city-states profited from the rich agricultural land of the Po valley. From France, Germany, and the Low Countries, through the medium of the Champagne fairs, land and river trade routes brought goods such as wool, wheat, and precious metals into the region. The extensive trade that stretched from Egypt
Egypt
to the Baltic generated substantial surpluses that allowed significant investment in mining and agriculture. Thus, while northern Italy
Italy
was not richer in resources than many other parts of Europe, the level of development, stimulated by trade, allowed it to prosper. In particular, Florence became one of the wealthiest of the cities of Northern Italy, mainly due to its woolen textile production, developed under the supervision of its dominant trade guild, the Arte della Lana. Wool
Wool
was imported from Northern Europe
Europe
(and in the 16th century from Spain)[4] and together with dyes from the east were used to make high quality textiles. The Italian trade routes that covered the Mediterranean and beyond were also major conduits of culture and knowledge. The recovery of lost Greek classics (and, to a lesser extent, Arab advancements on them) following the Crusader conquest of the Byzantine heartlands, revitalized medieval philosophy in the Renaissance
Renaissance
of the 12th century, just as the refugee Byzantine scholars who migrated to Italy during and following the Ottomans conquest of the Byzantines between the 12th and 15th centuries were important in sparking the new linguistic studies of the Renaissance, in newly created academies in Florence
Florence
and Venice. Humanist scholars searched monastic libraries for ancient manuscripts and recovered Tacitus
Tacitus
and other Latin
Latin
authors. The rediscovery of Vitruvius
Vitruvius
meant that the architectural principles of Antiquity could be observed once more, and Renaissance
Renaissance
artists were encouraged, in the atmosphere of humanist optimism, to excel the achievements of the Ancients, like Apelles, of whom they read. Thirteenth-century[edit] In the 13th century, much of Europe
Europe
experienced strong economic growth. The trade routes of the Italian states linked with those of established Mediterranean ports and eventually the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
of the Baltic and northern regions of Europe
Europe
to create a network economy in Europe
Europe
for the first time since the 4th century. The city-states of Italy
Italy
expanded greatly during this period and grew in power to become de facto fully independent of the Holy Roman Empire; apart from the Kingdom of Naples, outside powers kept their armies out of Italy. During this period, the modern commercial infrastructure developed, with double-entry book-keeping, joint stock companies, an international banking system, a systematized foreign exchange market, insurance, and government debt.[5] Florence
Florence
became the centre of this financial industry and the gold florin became the main currency of international trade. The new mercantile governing class, who gained their position through financial skill, adapted to their purposes the feudal aristocratic model that had dominated Europe
Europe
in the Middle Ages. A feature of the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in Northern Italy
Italy
was the rise of the urban communes which had broken from the control by bishops and local counts. In much of the region, the landed nobility was poorer than the urban patriarchs in the High Medieval money economy whose inflationary rise left land-holding aristocrats impoverished. The increase in trade during the early Renaissance
Renaissance
enhanced these characteristics. The decline of feudalism and the rise of cities influenced each other; for example, the demand for luxury goods led to an increase in trade, which led to greater numbers of tradesmen becoming wealthy, who, in turn, demanded more luxury goods. This atmosphere of assumed luxury of the time created a need for the creation of visual symbols of wealth, an important way to show a family’s affluence and taste. This change also gave the merchants almost complete control of the governments of the Italian city-states, again enhancing trade. One of the most important effects of this political control was security. Those that grew extremely wealthy in a feudal state ran constant risk of running afoul of the monarchy and having their lands confiscated, as famously occurred to Jacques Coeur
Jacques Coeur
in France. The northern states also kept many medieval laws that severely hampered commerce, such as those against usury, and prohibitions on trading with non-Christians. In the city-states of Italy, these laws were repealed or rewritten.[6] Fourteenth-century collapse[edit] The 14th century saw a series of catastrophes that caused the European economy to go into recession. The Medieval Warm Period
Medieval Warm Period
was ending as the transition to the Little Ice Age
Little Ice Age
began.[7] This change in climate saw agricultural output decline significantly, leading to repeated famines, exacerbated by the rapid population growth of the earlier era. The Hundred Years' War
Hundred Years' War
between England and France disrupted trade throughout northwest Europe, most notably when, in 1345, King Edward III of England repudiated his debts, contributing to the collapse of the two largest Florentine banks, those of the Bardi and Peruzzi. In the east, war was also disrupting trade routes, as the Ottoman Empire began to expand throughout the region. Most devastating, though, was the Black Death
Black Death
that decimated the populations of the densely populated cities of Northern Italy
Italy
and returned at intervals thereafter. Florence, for instance, which had a pre-plague population of 45,000 decreased over the next 47 years by 25–50%.[8] Widespread disorder followed, including a revolt of Florentine textile workers, the ciompi, in 1378. It was during this period of instability that the Renaissance
Renaissance
authors such as Dante and Petrarch
Petrarch
lived, and the first stirrings of Renaissance
Renaissance
art were to be seen, notably in the realism of Giotto. Paradoxically, some of these disasters would help establish the Renaissance. The Black Death
Black Death
wiped out a third of Europe's population. The resulting labour shortage increased wages and the reduced population was therefore much wealthier, better fed, and, significantly, had more surplus money to spend on luxury goods. As incidences of the plague began to decline in the early 15th century, Europe's devastated population once again began to grow. The new demand for products and services also helped create a growing class of bankers, merchants, and skilled artisans. The horrors of the Black Death and the seeming inability of the Church to provide relief would contribute to a decline of church influence. Additionally, the collapse of the Bardi and Peruzzi
Peruzzi
banks would open the way for the Medici
Medici
to rise to prominence in Florence. Roberto Sabatino Lopez argues that the economic collapse was a crucial cause of the Renaissance.[9] According to this view, in a more prosperous era, businessmen would have quickly reinvested their earnings in order to make more money in a climate favourable to investment. However, in the leaner years of the 14th century, the wealthy found few promising investment opportunities for their earnings and instead chose to spend more on culture and art. Another popular explanation for the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
is the thesis, first advanced by historian Hans Baron,[10] that states that the primary impetus of the early Renaissance
Renaissance
was the long-running series of wars between Florence
Florence
and Milan. By the late 14th century, Milan had become a centralized monarchy under the control of the Visconti family. Giangaleazzo Visconti, who ruled the city from 1378 to 1402, was renowned both for his cruelty and for his abilities, and set about building an empire in Northern Italy. He launched a long series of wars, with Milan
Milan
steadily conquering neighbouring states and defeating the various coalitions led by Florence
Florence
that sought in vain to halt the advance. This culminated in the 1402 siege of Florence, when it looked as though the city was doomed to fall, before Giangaleazzo suddenly died and his empire collapsed. Baron's thesis suggests that during these long wars, the leading figures of Florence
Florence
rallied the people by presenting the war as one between the free republic and a despotic monarchy, between the ideals of the Greek and Roman Republics and those of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and Medieval kingdoms. For Baron, the most important figure in crafting this ideology was Leonardo Bruni. This time of crisis in Florence
Florence
was the period when the most influential figures of the early Renaissance were coming of age, such as Ghiberti, Donatello, Masolino, and Brunelleschi. Inculcated with this republican ideology they later went on to advocate republican ideas that were to have an enormous impact on the Renaissance. Development[edit] International relationships[edit] Main article: Italian Wars

Pandolfo Malatesta (1417–1468), lord of Rimini, by Piero della Francesca. Malatesta was a capable condottiere, following the tradition of his family. He was hired by the Venetians to fight against the Turks (unsuccessfully) in 1465, and was patron of Leone Battista Alberti, whose Tempio Malatestiano
Tempio Malatestiano
at Rimini
Rimini
is one of the first entirely classical buildings of the Renaissance.

Northern Italy
Italy
and upper Central Italy
Italy
were divided into a number of warring city-states, the most powerful being Milan, Florence, Pisa, Siena, Genoa, Ferrara, Mantua, Verona
Verona
and Venice. High Medieval Northern Italy
Italy
was further divided by the long-running battle for supremacy between the forces of the Papacy and of the Holy Roman Empire: each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties, Guelfs and Ghibellines. Warfare
Warfare
between the states was common, invasion from outside Italy
Italy
confined to intermittent sorties of Holy Roman Emperors. Renaissance
Renaissance
politics developed from this background. Since the 13th century, as armies became primarily composed of mercenaries, prosperous city-states could field considerable forces, despite their low populations. In the course of the 15th century, the most powerful city-states annexed their smaller neighbors. Florence
Florence
took Pisa
Pisa
in 1406, Venice
Venice
captured Padua
Padua
and Verona, while the Duchy of Milan annexed a number of nearby areas including Pavia
Pavia
and Parma. The first part of the Renaissance
Renaissance
saw almost constant warfare on land and sea as the city-states vied for preeminence. On land, these wars were primarily fought by armies of mercenaries known as condottieri, bands of soldiers drawn from around Europe, but especially Germany and Switzerland, led largely by Italian captains. The mercenaries were not willing to risk their lives unduly, and war became one largely of sieges and maneuvering, occasioning few pitched battles. It was also in the interest of mercenaries on both sides to prolong any conflict, to continue their employment. Mercenaries
Mercenaries
were also a constant threat to their employers; if not paid, they often turned on their patron. If it became obvious that a state was entirely dependent on mercenaries, the temptation was great for the mercenaries to take over the running of it themselves—this occurred on a number of occasions.[11] At sea, Italian city-states
Italian city-states
sent many fleets out to do battle. The main contenders were Pisa, Genoa, and Venice, but after a long conflict the Genoese succeeded in reducing Pisa. Venice
Venice
proved to be a more powerful adversary, and with the decline of Genoese power during the 15th century Venice
Venice
became pre-eminent on the seas. In response to threats from the landward side, from the early 15th century Venice developed an increased interest in controlling the terrafirma as the Venetian Renaissance
Renaissance
opened. On land, decades of fighting saw Florence, Milan
Milan
and Venice
Venice
emerge as the dominant players, and these three powers finally set aside their differences and agreed to the Peace of Lodi
Peace of Lodi
in 1454, which saw relative calm brought to the region for the first time in centuries. This peace would hold for the next forty years, and Venice's unquestioned hegemony over the sea also led to unprecedented peace for much of the rest of the 15th century. In the beginning of the 15th century, adventurer and traders such as Niccolò Da Conti (1395–1469) traveled as far as Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and back, bringing fresh knowledge on the state of the world, presaging further European voyages of exploration in the years to come. Florence
Florence
under the Medici[edit] Main article: House of Medici Until the late 14th century, prior to the Medici, Florence's leading family were the House of Albizzi. In 1293 the Ordinances of Justice were enacted which effectively became the constitution of the republic of Florence
Florence
throughout the Italian Renaissance.[12] The city's numerous luxurious palazzi were becoming surrounded by townhouses, built by the ever prospering merchant class.[13] In 1298, one of the leading banking families of Europe, the Bonsignoris, were bankrupted and so the city of Siena
Siena
lost her status as the banking center of Europe
Europe
to Florence.[14] The main challengers of the Albizzi family were the Medicis, first under Giovanni de' Medici, later under his son Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici. The Medici
Medici
controlled the Medici
Medici
bank—then Europe's largest bank—and an array of other enterprises in Florence
Florence
and elsewhere. In 1433, the Albizzi managed to have Cosimo exiled.[15] The next year, however, saw a pro- Medici
Medici
Signoria elected and Cosimo returned. The Medici
Medici
became the town's leading family, a position they would hold for the next three centuries. Florence
Florence
remained a republic until 1537, traditionally marking the end of the High Renaissance
Renaissance
in Florence, but the instruments of republican government were firmly under the control of the Medici
Medici
and their allies, save during the intervals after 1494 and 1527. Cosimo and Lorenzo rarely held official posts, but were the unquestioned leaders. Cosimo de' Medici
Medici
was highly popular among the citizenry, mainly for bringing an era of stability and prosperity to the town. One of his most important accomplishments was negotiating the Peace of Lodi
Peace of Lodi
with Francesco Sforza
Francesco Sforza
ending the decades of war with Milan
Milan
and bringing stability to much of Northern Italy. Cosimo was also an important patron of the arts, directly and indirectly, by the influential example he set. Cosimo was succeeded by his sickly son Piero de' Medici, who died after five years in charge of the city. In 1469 the reins of power passed to Cosimo's twenty-one-year-old grandson Lorenzo, who would become known as "Lorenzo the Magnificent." Lorenzo was the first of the family to be educated from an early age in the humanist tradition and is best known as one of the Renaissance's most important patrons of the arts. Under Lorenzo, the Medici
Medici
rule was formalized with the creation of a new Council of Seventy, which Lorenzo headed. The republican institutions continued, but they lost all power. Lorenzo was less successful than his illustrious forebears in business, and the Medici
Medici
commercial empire was slowly eroded. Lorenzo continued the alliance with Milan, but relations with the papacy soured, and in 1478, Papal agents allied with the Pazzi
Pazzi
family in an attempt to assassinate Lorenzo. Although the plot failed, Lorenzo's young brother, Giuliano, was killed, and the failed assassination led to a war with the Papacy and was used as justification to further centralize power in Lorenzo's hands.[16][17]

Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
Man

Vitruvian Man
Vitruvian Man
by Leonardo da Vinci

Spread[edit] Renaissance
Renaissance
ideals first spread from Florence
Florence
to the neighbouring states of Tuscany
Tuscany
such as Siena
Siena
and Lucca. The Tuscan culture soon became the model for all the states of Northern Italy, and the Tuscan variety of Italian came to predominate throughout the region, especially in literature. In 1447 Francesco Sforza
Francesco Sforza
came to power in Milan
Milan
and rapidly transformed that still medieval city into a major centre of art and learning that drew Leone Battista Alberti. Venice, one of the wealthiest cities due to its control of the Adriatic Sea, also became a centre for Renaissance
Renaissance
culture, especially architecture. Smaller courts brought Renaissance
Renaissance
patronage to lesser cities, which developed their characteristic arts: Ferrara, Mantua
Mantua
under the Gonzaga, and Urbino
Urbino
under Federico da Montefeltro. In Naples, the Renaissance
Renaissance
was ushered in under the patronage of Alfonso I who conquered Naples
Naples
in 1443 and encouraged artists like Francesco Laurana and Antonello da Messina
Antonello da Messina
and writers like the poet Jacopo Sannazaro and the humanist scholar Angelo Poliziano. In 1417 the Papacy returned to Rome, but that once imperial city remained poor and largely in ruins through the first years of the Renaissance.[18] The great transformation began under Pope Nicholas V, who became pontiff in 1447. He launched a dramatic rebuilding effort that would eventually see much of the city renewed. The humanist scholar Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini became Pope Pius II
Pope Pius II
in 1458. As the papacy fell under the control of the wealthy families, such as the Medici
Medici
and the Borgias the spirit of Renaissance
Renaissance
art and philosophy came to dominate the Vatican. Pope Sixtus IV
Pope Sixtus IV
continued Nicholas' work, most famously ordering the construction of the Sistine Chapel. The popes also became increasingly secular rulers as the Papal States
Papal States
were forged into a centralized power by a series of "warrior popes". The nature of the Renaissance
Renaissance
also changed in the late 15th century. The Renaissance
Renaissance
ideal was fully adopted by the ruling classes and the aristocracy. In the early Renaissance
Renaissance
artists were seen as craftsmen with little prestige or recognition. By the later Renaissance
Renaissance
the top figures wielded great influence and could charge great fees. A flourishing trade in Renaissance
Renaissance
art developed. While in the early Renaissance
Renaissance
many of the leading artists were of lower- or middle-class origins, increasingly they became aristocrats.[18] Wider population[edit] As a cultural movement, the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
affected only a small part of the population. Italy
Italy
was the most urbanized region of Europe, but three quarters of the people were still rural peasants.[19] For this section of the population, life remained essentially unchanged from the Middle Ages.[20] Classic feudalism had never been prominent in Northern Italy, and most peasants worked on private farms or as sharecroppers. Some scholars see a trend towards refeudalization in the later Renaissance
Renaissance
as the urban elites turned themselves into landed aristocrats.[21] The situation differed in the cities. These were dominated by a commercial elite; as exclusive as the aristocracy of any Medieval kingdom. This group became the main patrons of and audience for Renaissance
Renaissance
culture. Below them there was a large class of artisans and guild members who lived comfortable lives and had significant power in the republican governments. This was in sharp contrast to the rest of Europe
Europe
where artisans were firmly in the lower class. Literate and educated, this group did participate in the Renaissance culture.[22] The largest section of the urban population was the urban poor of semi-skilled workers and the unemployed. Like the peasants, the Renaissance
Renaissance
had little effect on them. Historians debate how easy it was to move between these groups during the Italian Renaissance. Examples of individuals who rose from humble beginnings can be instanced, but Burke notes two major studies in this area that have found that the data do not clearly demonstrate an increase in social mobility. Most historians feel that early in the Renaissance
Renaissance
social mobility was quite high, but that it faded over the course of the 15th century.[23] Inequality in society was very high. An upper-class figure would control hundreds of times more income than a servant or labourer. Some historians see this unequal distribution of wealth as important to the Renaissance, as art patronage relies on the very wealthy.[24] The Renaissance
Renaissance
was not a period of great social or economic change, only of cultural and ideological development. It only touched a small fraction of the population, and in modern times this has led many historians, such as any that follow historical materialism, to reduce the importance of the Renaissance
Renaissance
in human history. These historians tend to think in terms of "Early Modern Europe" instead. Roger Osborne[25] argues that "The Renaissance
Renaissance
is a difficult concept for historians because the history of Europe
Europe
quite suddenly turns into a history of Italian painting, sculpture and architecture." Renaissance
Renaissance
end[edit] Further information: Northern Renaissance

Giulio Clovio, Adoration of the Magi
Adoration of the Magi
and Solomon
Solomon
Adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours, 1546

The end of the Renaissance
Renaissance
is as imprecisely marked as its starting point. For many, the rise to power in Florence
Florence
of the austere monk Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
in 1494-1498 marks the end of the city's flourishing; for others, the triumphant return of the Medici
Medici
marks the beginning of the late phase in the arts called Mannerism. Other accounts trace the end of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
to the French invasions of the early 16th century and the subsequent conflict between France and Spanish rulers for control of Italian territory.[26] Savonarola rode to power on a widespread backlash over the secularism and indulgence of the Renaissance
Renaissance
–[27] his brief rule saw many works of art destroyed in the "Bonfire of the Vanities" in the centre of Florence. With the Medici
Medici
returned to power, now as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, the counter movement in the church continued. In 1542 the Sacred Congregation of the Inquisition
Sacred Congregation of the Inquisition
was formed and a few years later the Index Librorum Prohibitorum
Index Librorum Prohibitorum
banned a wide array of Renaissance
Renaissance
works of literature, which marks the end of the illuminated manuscript together with Giulio Clovio, who is considered the greatest illuminator of the Italian High Renaissance, and arguably the last very notable artist in the long tradition of the illuminated manuscript, before some modern revivals. Equally important was the end of stability with a series of foreign invasions of Italy
Italy
known as the Italian Wars
Italian Wars
that would continue for several decades. These began with the 1494 invasion by France that wreaked widespread devastation on Northern Italy
Italy
and ended the independence of many of the city-states. Most damaging was the May 6, 1527, Spanish and German troops' sacking Rome
Rome
that for two decades all but ended the role of the Papacy as the largest patron of Renaissance art and architecture.[18] While the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
was fading, the Northern Renaissance adopted many of its ideals and transformed its styles. A number of Italy's greatest artists chose to emigrate. The most notable example was Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
who left for France in 1516, but teams of lesser artists invited to transform the Château de Fontainebleau
Château de Fontainebleau
created the school of Fontainebleau that infused the style of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
in France. From Fontainebleau, the new styles, transformed by Mannerism, brought the Renaissance
Renaissance
to Antwerp
Antwerp
and thence throughout Northern Europe. This spread north was also representative of a larger trend. No longer was the Mediterranean Europe's most important trade route. In 1498, Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
reached India, and from that date the primary route of goods from the Orient was through the Atlantic ports of Lisbon, Seville, Nantes, Bristol, and London. Culture[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Literature and poetry[edit] Main article: Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
literature The thirteenth-century Italian literary revolution helped set the stage for the Renaissance. Prior to the Renaissance, the Italian language was not the literary language in Italy. It was only in the 13th century that Italian authors began writing in their native language rather than Latin, French, or Provençal. The 1250s saw a major change in Italian poetry as the Dolce Stil Novo (Sweet New Style, which emphasized Platonic rather than courtly love) came into its own, pioneered by poets like Guittone d'Arezzo
Guittone d'Arezzo
and Guido Guinizelli. Especially in poetry, major changes in Italian literature had been taking place decades before the Renaissance
Renaissance
truly began.

Niccolò Machiavelli
Machiavelli
(1469–1527), the author of The Prince
The Prince
and prototypical Renaissance
Renaissance
man. Detail from a portrait by Santi di Tito.

With the printing of books initiated in Venice
Venice
by Aldus Manutius, an increasing number of works began to be published in the Italian language in addition to the flood of Latin
Latin
and Greek texts that constituted the mainstream of the Italian Renaissance. The source for these works expanded beyond works of theology and towards the pre-Christian eras of Imperial Rome
Rome
and Ancient Greece. This is not to say that no religious works were published in this period: Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
reflects a distinctly medieval world view. Christianity
Christianity
remained a major influence for artists and authors, with the classics coming into their own as a second primary influence. In the early Italian Renaissance, much of the focus was on translating and studying classic works from Latin
Latin
and Greek. Renaissance
Renaissance
authors were not content to rest on the laurels of ancient authors, however. Many authors attempted to integrate the methods and styles of the ancient Greeks into their own works. Among the most emulated Romans are Cicero, Horace, Sallust, and Virgil. Among the Greeks, Aristotle, Homer, and Plato
Plato
were now being read in the original for the first time since the 4th century, though Greek compositions were few. The literature and poetry of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was largely influenced by the developing science and philosophy. The humanist Francesco Petrarch, a key figure in the renewed sense of scholarship, was also an accomplished poet, publishing several important works of poetry. He wrote poetry in Latin, notably the Punic War
Punic War
epic Africa, but is today remembered for his works in the Italian vernacular, especially the Canzoniere, a collection of love sonnets dedicated to his unrequited love Laura. He was the foremost writer of sonnets in Italian, and translations of his work into English by Thomas Wyatt established the sonnet form in that country, where it was employed by William Shakespeare and countless other poets. Petrarch's disciple, Giovanni Boccaccio, became a major author in his own right. His major work was the Decameron, a collection of 100 stories told by ten storytellers who have fled to the outskirts of Florence
Florence
to escape the black plague over ten nights. The Decameron
Decameron
in particular and Boccaccio's work in general were a major source of inspiration and plots for many English authors in the Renaissance, including Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
and William Shakespeare. Aside from Christianity, classical antiquity, and scholarship, a fourth influence on Renaissance
Renaissance
literature was politics. The political philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli's most famous works are Discourses on Livy, Florentine Histories and finally The Prince, which has become so well known in Western society that the term "Machiavellian" has come to refer to the realpolitik advocated by the book. However, what is ordinarily called "Machiavellianism" is a simplified textbook view of this single work rather than an accurate term for his philosophy. Further, it is not at all clear that Machiavelli
Machiavelli
himself was the apologist for immorality as whom he is often portrayed: the basic problem is the apparent contradiction between the monarchism of The Prince and the republicanism of the Discourses. Regardless, along with many other Renaissance
Renaissance
works, The Prince
The Prince
remains a relevant and influential work of literature today. Philosophy[edit] Main article: Renaissance
Renaissance
humanism

Petrarch, from the Cycle of Famous Men and Women. ca. 1450. Detached fresco. 247 cm × 153 cm (97.24 in × 60.24 in). Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, Italy. Artist: Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla
Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla
(ca. 1423–1457).

One role of Petrarch
Petrarch
is as the founder of a new method of scholarship, Renaissance
Renaissance
Humanism. Petrarch
Petrarch
encouraged the study of the Latin
Latin
classics and carried his copy of Homer
Homer
about, at a loss to find someone to teach him to read Greek. An essential step in the humanist education being propounded by scholars like Pico della Mirandola
Pico della Mirandola
was the hunting down of lost or forgotten manuscripts that were known only by reputation. These endeavors were greatly aided by the wealth of Italian patricians, merchant-princes and despots, who would spend substantial sums building libraries. Discovering the past had become fashionable and it was a passionate affair pervading the upper reaches of society. I go, said Cyriac of Ancona, I go to awake the dead. As the Greek works were acquired, manuscripts found, libraries and museums formed, the age of the printing press was dawning. The works of Antiquity were translated from Greek and Latin
Latin
into the contemporary modern languages throughout Europe, finding a receptive middle-class audience, which might be, like Shakespeare, "with little Latin
Latin
and less Greek". While concern for philosophy, art and literature all increased greatly in the Renaissance
Renaissance
the period is usually seen as one of scientific backwardness. The reverence for classical sources further enshrined the Aristotelian and Ptolemaic views of the universe. Humanism stressed that nature came to be viewed as an animate spiritual creation that was not governed by laws or mathematics. At the same time philosophy lost much of its rigour as the rules of logic and deduction were seen as secondary to intuition and emotion. Science[edit] Main article: History of science in the Renaissance According to some recent scholarship, the 'father of modern science' is Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
whose experiments and clear scientific method earn him this title, Italian universities such as Padua, Bologna and Pisa
Pisa
were scientific centres of renown and with many northern European students, the science of the Renaissance
Renaissance
moved to Northern Europe
Europe
and flourished there, with such figures as Copernicus, Francis Bacon, and Descartes. Galileo, a contemporary of Bacon and Descartes, made an immense contribution to scientific thought and experimentation, paving the way for the scientific revolution that later flourished in Northern Europe. Bodies were also stolen from gallows and examined by many like Vesalius, a professor of anatomy. This allowed them to create accurate skeleton models and correct previously believed theories. For example, many thought that the human jawbone was made up of two bones, as they had seen this on animals. However through examining human corpses they were able to understand that humans actually have only one. Sculpture and painting[edit] Main article: Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
painting

Detail of The Last Judgment by Michelangelo

In painting, the false dawn of Giotto's Trecento
Trecento
realism, his fully three-dimensional figures occupying a rational space, and his humanist interest in expressing the individual personality rather than the iconic images,[28] was followed by a retreat into conservative late Gothic conventions.[29] The Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
in painting began anew, in Florence
Florence
and Tuscany, with the frescoes of Masaccio, then the panel paintings and frescos of Piero della Francesca
Piero della Francesca
and Paolo Uccello
Paolo Uccello
which began to enhance the realism of their work by using new techniques in perspective, thus representing three dimensions in two-dimensional art more authentically. Piero della Francesca
Piero della Francesca
wrote treatises on scientific perspective. The creation of credible space allowed artists to also focus on the accurate representation of the human body and on naturalistic landscapes. Masaccio's figures have a plasticity unknown up to that point in time. Compared to the flatness of Gothic painting, his pictures were revolutionary. Around 1459 San Zeno Altarpiece (Mantegna), it was probably the first good example of Renaissance painting in Northern Italy
Italy
a model for all Verona's painters, for example Girolamo dai Libri. At the turn of the 16th century, especially in Northern Italy, artists also began to use new techniques in the manipulation of light and darkness, such as the tone contrast evident in many of Titian's portraits and the development of sfumato and chiaroscuro by Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
and Giorgione. The period also saw the first secular (non-religious) themes. There has been much debate as to the degree of secularism in the Renaissance, which had been emphasized by early 20th-century writers like Jacob Burckhardt, based on, among other things, the presence of a relatively small number of mythological paintings. Those of Botticelli, notably The Birth of Venus and Primavera, are now among the best known, although he was deeply religious (becoming a follower of Savonarola) and the great majority of his output was of traditional religious paintings or portraits.[30] In sculpture, Donatello's (1386–1466) study of classical sculpture led to his development of classicizing positions (such as the contrapposto pose) and subject matter (like the unsupported nude – his second sculpture of David was the first free-standing bronze nude created in Europe
Europe
since the Roman Empire.) The progress made by Donatello
Donatello
was influential on all who followed; perhaps the greatest of whom is Michelangelo, whose David of 1500 is also a male nude study; more naturalistic than Donatello's and with greater emotional intensity. Both sculptures are standing in contrapposto, their weight shifted to one leg.[31] The period known as the High Renaissance
Renaissance
represents the culmination of the goals of the earlier period, namely the accurate representation of figures in space rendered with credible motion and in an appropriately decorous style. The most famous painters from this phase are Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo. Their images are among the most widely known works of art in the world. Leonardo's Last Supper, Raphael's The School of Athens
The School of Athens
and Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel Ceiling are the masterpieces of the period.[30] High Renaissance
Renaissance
painting evolved into Mannerism, especially in Florence. Mannerist artists, who consciously rebelled against the principles of High Renaissance, tend to represent elongated figures in illogical spaces. Modern scholarship has recognized the capacity of Mannerist art to convey strong (often religious) emotion where the High Renaissance
Renaissance
failed to do so. Some of the main artists of this period are Pontormo, Bronzino, Rosso Fiorentino, Parmigianino
Parmigianino
and Raphael's pupil Giulio Romano.[32] Architecture[edit]

St. Peter's Basilica. The dome, completed in 1590, was designed by Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Buonarroti, architect, painter and poet.

Main article: Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
and Mannerist architecture In Florence, the Renaissance
Renaissance
style was introduced with a revolutionary but incomplete monument in Rimini
Rimini
by Leone Battista Alberti. Some of the earliest buildings showing Renaissance
Renaissance
characteristics are Filippo Brunelleschi's church of San Lorenzo and the Pazzi
Pazzi
Chapel. The interior of Santo Spirito expresses a new sense of light, clarity and spaciousness, which is typical of the early Italian Renaissance. Its architecture reflects the philosophy of Humanism, the enlightenment and clarity of mind as opposed to the darkness and spirituality of the Middle Ages. The revival of classical antiquity can best be illustrated by the Palazzo Rucellai. Here the pilasters follow the superposition of classical orders, with Doric capitals on the ground floor, Ionic capitals on the piano nobile and Corinthian capitals on the uppermost floor. In Mantua, Leone Battista Alberti
Leone Battista Alberti
ushered in the new antique style, though his culminating work, Sant'Andrea, was not begun until 1472, after the architect's death.

Bramante's Tempietto in San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502

The High Renaissance, as we call the style today, was introduced to Rome
Rome
with Donato Bramante's Tempietto at San Pietro in Montorio
San Pietro in Montorio
(1502) and his original centrally planned St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
(1506), which was the most notable architectural commission of the era, influenced by almost all notable Renaissance
Renaissance
artists, including Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Giacomo della Porta. The beginning of the late Renaissance
Renaissance
in 1550 was marked by the development of a new column order by Andrea Palladio. Colossal columns that were two or more stories tall decorated the facades. Music[edit] Main article: Renaissance
Renaissance
music In Italy
Italy
during the 14th century there was an explosion of musical activity that corresponded in scope and level of innovation to the activity in the other arts. Although musicologists typically group the music of the Trecento
Trecento
(music of the 14th century) with the late medieval period, it included features which align with the early Renaissance
Renaissance
in important ways: an increasing emphasis on secular sources, styles and forms; a spreading of culture away from ecclesiastical institutions to the nobility, and even to the common people; and a quick development of entirely new techniques. The principal forms were the Trecento
Trecento
madrigal, the caccia, and the ballata. Overall, the musical style of the period is sometimes labelled as the "Italian ars nova." From the early 15th century to the middle of the 16th century, the center of innovation in sacred music was in the Low Countries, and a flood of talented composers came to Italy
Italy
from this region. Many of them sang in either the papal choir in Rome
Rome
or the choirs at the numerous chapels of the aristocracy, in Rome, Venice, Florence, Milan, Ferrara
Ferrara
and elsewhere; and they brought their polyphonic style with them, influencing many native Italian composers during their stay. The predominant forms of church music during the period were the mass and the motet. By far the most famous composer of church music in 16th century Italy
Italy
was Palestrina, the most prominent member of the Roman School, whose style of smooth, emotionally cool polyphony was to become the defining sound of the late 16th century, at least for generations of 19th- and 20th century musicologists. Other Italian composers of the late 16th century focused on composing the main secular form of the era, the madrigal: and for almost a hundred years these secular songs for multiple singers were distributed all over Europe. Composers of madrigals included Jacques Arcadelt, at the beginning of the age, Cipriano de Rore, in the middle of the century, and Luca Marenzio, Philippe de Monte, Carlo Gesualdo, and Claudio Monteverdi at the end of the era. Italy
Italy
was also a centre of innovation in instrumental music. By the early 16th century keyboard improvisation came to be greatly valued, and numerous composers of virtuoso keyboard music appeared. Many familiar instruments were invented and perfected in late Renaissance
Renaissance
Italy, such as the violin, the earliest forms of which came into use in the 1550s. By the late 16th century Italy
Italy
was the musical centre of Europe. Almost all of the innovations which were to define the transition to the Baroque period originated in northern Italy
Italy
in the last few decades of the century. In Venice, the polychoral productions of the Venetian School, and associated instrumental music, moved north into Germany; in Florence, the Florentine Camerata developed monody, the important precursor to opera, which itself first appeared around 1600; and the avant-garde, manneristic style of the Ferrara
Ferrara
school, which migrated to Naples
Naples
and elsewhere through the music of Carlo Gesualdo, was to be the final statement of the polyphonic vocal music of the Renaissance. Notes[edit]

^ Burke, P., The European Renaissance: Centre and Peripheries (1998) ^ Sée, Henri. "Modern Capitalism
Capitalism
Its Origin and Evolution" (PDF). University of Rennes. Batoche Books. Retrieved 29 August 2013.  ^ [1] ^ Jensen 1992, p. 95 ^ Burke 1999, p. 232 ^ Burke 1999, p. 93 ^ Jensen 1992, p. 97; see also Andrew B. Appleby's "Epidemics and Famine
Famine
in the Little Ice Age." Journal of Interdisciplinary History. Vol. 10 No. 4. ^ Olea, Ricardo A, Christakos, George, "Duration of Urban Mortality for the 14th-Century Black Death
Black Death
Epidemic" Archived 2008-12-06 at the Wayback Machine., Human
Human
Biology, Jun 2005. The population level of Florence
Florence
is controversial see also Ziegler (1969, pp. 51-52), Chandler 1987, pp. 16-18, and Gottfried 1983, p. 46 ^ Lopez, Robert Sabatino. "Hard Times and Investment in Culture." ^ Baron, Hans. "The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance". Princeton University Press, March 1, 1966. ISBN 0-691-00752-7 ^ Jensen 1992, p. 64. ^ Kenneth Bartlett, The Italian Renaissance, Chapter 7, p.37, Volume II, 2005. ^ "History of Florence". Aboutflorence.com. Retrieved 2009-05-26.  ^ Strathern, p 18 ^ Crum, Roger J. Severing the Neck of Pride: Donatello's "Judith and Holofernes" and the Recollection of Albizzi Shame in Medicean Florence . Artibus et Historiae, Volume 22, Edit 44, 2001. pp. 23-29. ^ Jensen 1992, p. 80 ^ Peter Barenboim, Sergey Shiyan, Michelangelo: Mysteries of Medici Chapel, SLOVO, Moscow, 2006. ISBN 5-85050-825-2 ^ a b c Burke 1999, p. 271. ^ Burke 1999, p. 256. ^ Jensen 1992, p. 105. ^ Burke 1999, p. 246. ^ Jensen 1992, p. 104. ^ Burke 1999, p. 255. ^ Pullan, Brian S. (1973). History of early Renaissance
Renaissance
Italy:From the mid-thirteenth to the mid-fifteenth century. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-0304-X. OCLC 613989155.  ^ Osborne, Roger (2008-01-10). Civilization: A New History of the Western World. Random House (published 2008). p. 183. ISBN 9780099526063. Retrieved 2013-11-25.  ^ Osborne, Roger, Civilization: A New History of the Western World Pegasus, NY, 2006 ^ Cast, David. "Review: Fra Girolamo Savonarola: Florentine Art and Renaissance
Renaissance
Historiography by Ronald M. Steinberg". The Art Bulletin, Volume 61, No. 1, March 1979. pp. 134-136. ^ Hayden B. J. Maginnis, Painting in the Age of Giotto: A Historical Reevaluation (1997) ^ Ethan Matt Kavaler, " Renaissance
Renaissance
Gothic: Pictures of Geometry and Narratives of Ornament," Art History, Feb 2006, Vol. 29 Issue 1, pp 1-46 ^ a b Frederick Hartt, and David G. Wilkins, History of Italian Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture (2003) ^ Sarah Blake McHam, ed. Looking at Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
Sculpture (1998) ^ Jane Turner, ed. Encyclopedia of Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
and Mannerist Art (2000)

References[edit]

Baron, Hans. The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance: Civic Humanism
Humanism
and Republican Liberty in an Age of Classicism and Tyranny. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966. Burckhardt, Jacob (1878), The Civilization of the Renaissance
Renaissance
in Italy, trans. S.G.C Middlemore [2] Burke, Peter. The Italian Renaissance: Culture and Society in Italy Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999. Capra, Fritjof. (2008), The Science of Leonardo. Inside the Mind of the Great Genius of the Renaissance. Doubleday ISBN 978-0-385-51390-6 Cronin, Vincent

The Florentine Renaissance
Renaissance
(1967) ISBN 0-00-211262-0 The Flowering of the Renaissance
Renaissance
(1969) ISBN 0-7126-9884-1 The Renaissance
Renaissance
(1992) ISBN 0-00-215411-0

Hagopian, Viola L. "Italy", in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. ISBN Hay, Denys. The Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
in Its Historical Background. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance
Renaissance
Europe Jurdjevic, Mark. "Hedgehogs and Foxes: The Present and Future of Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
Intellectual History," Past & Present 2007 (195): 241-268, Shows Humanism
Humanism
has been the main concern of historians recently; Discusses the works of William Bouwsma, James Hankins, Ronald Witt, Riccardo Fubini, Quentin Skinner, J. A. Pocock, and Eric Nelson. Lopez, Robert Sabatino, The Three Ages of the Italian Renaissance Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1970. Pullan, Brian S. History of Early Renaissance
Renaissance
Italy. London: Lane, 1973. Raffini, Christine, Marsilio Ficino, Pietro Bembo, Baldassare Castiglione: Philosophical, Aesthetic, and Political Approaches in Renaissance
Renaissance
Platonism. Renaissance
Renaissance
and Baroque Studies and Texts, v.21, Peter Lang Publishing, 1998. ISBN 0-8204-3023-4 Ruggiero, Guido. The Renaissance
Renaissance
in Italy: A Social and Cultural History of the Rinascimento (Cambridge University Press, 2015). 648 pp. online review Bayer, A. (2004). Painters of reality : the legacy of Leonardo and Caravaggio in Lombardy. New York: The Metropolitan Museum
Museum
of Art. ISBN 9781588391162.  Leonardo da Vinci: anatomical drawings from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle. New York: The Metropolitan Museum
Museum
of Art. 1983. ISBN 9780870993626.  Bayer, A, ed. (2008). Art and love in Renaissance
Renaissance
Italy. New York: The Metropolitan Museum
Museum
of Art. ISBN 9780300124118.  Nicholas Scott Baker, The Fruit of Liberty: Political Culture in the Florentine Renaissance, 1480-1550, 0674724526, 9780674724525, Harvard University Press, 2013.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Renaissance
Renaissance
in Italy.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The Civilization of the Renaissance
Renaissance
in Italy

The High Renaissane in Florence
Florence
- video Victoria and Albert Museum: Renaissance
Renaissance
House The Prince
The Prince
by Niccolò Machiavelli
Machiavelli
– Along with many other Renaissance
Renaissance
works, The Prince
The Prince
remains a relevant and influential work of literature today. Read online or download.

v t e

Italy articles

History

Chronology

Prehistory

Italic peoples Ancient Italian peoples Pre-Nuragic Sardinia Nuragic peoples

Etruscan Civilization Nuragic Civilization Phoenician / Carthaginian colonies Magna Graecia Ancient Rome

Kingdom Republic Empire

Middle Ages

Italy
Italy
under Odoacer Ostrogoths Byzantine Italy Lombards Regnum Italiae Sardinian Judgedoms Arabs Normans Guelphs and Ghibellines Italian city-states Maritime republics

Renaissance

Italian Wars

Early Modern period Unification

Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions of 1830 Revolutions of 1848 Sicilian revolution of 1848 First War of Independence Crimean War Second War of Independence Expedition of the Thousand Third War of Independence Capture of Rome

Monarchy and the World Wars

Kingdom of Italy Colonial Empire World War I Fascist Italy World War II Resistance Civil War

Republic

Economic Boom Years of Lead Years of Mud Mani pulite

By topic

Citizenship Currency Economy Fashion Flags Genetic Historic states Military Music Postal Railways

Geography

Peninsula Northern

Northwest Northeast

Central Southern

South Insular

Climate Fauna Flora Mountains

Prealps Alps Apennines

Volcanology

Volcanoes

Beaches Canals Caves Earthquakes Islands Lakes National parks Rivers Valleys

Politics

Constitution Elections Referendums Foreign relations

Missions

Judiciary Law enforcement Military Parliament

Chamber of Deputies Senate

Political parties President Prime Minister Council of Ministers Regions Provinces Metropolitan cities Comune Municipalities Cities

Economy

Economic history

Milan Naples Rome Turin

Regions by GDP Automotive industry Banking

Central Bank

Companies Energy Government debt Science and technology Stock exchange Taxation Telecommunications

Internet

Tourism Trade unions Transportation Welfare

Society

Abortion Adoption Billionaires Capital punishment Corruption Crime Demographics Education

Secondary Higher Universities

Emigration Fathers' rights movement Feminism Gambling Health Healthcare Immigration LGBT rights Nobility Prostitution Racism Religion Smoking Social class Terrorism Women

Culture

Duecento Trecento Quattrocento Cinquecento Seicento Settecento

Architecture Art Castles Cinema Cuisine

Beer Wine

Decorations Design Fashion Festivals Folklore Italian language

Regional Italian Italian literature

Italophilia Italophobia Languages Media

Newspapers Radio TV

Monuments Music

Classical Folk Opera Popular

Mythology National symbols

Anthem Emblem Flag

Regions

National monument Personification

People Philosophy Public holidays

Festa della Repubblica

Sculpture Sport Traditions World Heritage Sites

Italy
Italy
portal Category Commons News Quotes T

.