42°N 14°E / 42°N 14°E / 42; 14 37°N 15°E / 37°N 15°E / 37; 15
AREA 131,337 km2 (50,709 sq mi)
HIGHEST POINT Corno Grande
LARGEST SETTLEMENT Rome
LARGEST SETTLEMENT Dogana
LARGEST SETTLEMENT Itself ( City-state )
POP. DENSITY 199.27 /km2 (516.11 /sq mi)
ETHNIC GROUPS Italian
The ITALIAN PENINSULA or APENNINE PENINSULA (Italian : _Penisola italiana_, _Penisola appenninica_) is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe (between the Iberian Peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula ). It extends 1,000 km (620 mi) from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula's shape gives it the nickname _lo Stivale_ (the Boot). Three smaller peninsulas contribute to this characteristic shape, namely Calabria (the "toe"), Salento (the "heel") and Gargano (the "spur").
Geographically, the Italian peninsula consists of the land south of a line extending from the Magra to the Rubicon rivers, north of the Tuscan–Emilian Apennines . It excludes the Po Valley and the southern slopes of the Alps . All of the peninsula lies within the territory of the Italian Republic except for the microstates of San Marino and Vatican City . Additionally, Sicily , Elba and other smaller islands, such as Palagruža (Italian : _Pelagosa_), (which belongs to Croatia) are usually considered as islands off the peninsula and in this sense geographically grouped along with it.
The peninsula lies between the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west, the Ionian Sea on the south, and the Adriatic Sea on the east. The backbone of the Italian peninsula consists of the Apennine Mountains , from which it takes one of its names. Most of its coast is lined with cliffs.
The peninsula has mainly a Mediterranean climate , though in the mountainous parts the climate is much cooler. Its natural vegetation includes macchia along the coasts and deciduous and mixed deciduous coniferous forests in the interior.
* 1 Modern countries and territories * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links
MODERN COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES
Political divisions of the peninsula sorted by area:
Country/ Territory PENINSULAR AREA DESCRIPTION
POPULATION KM2 SQ MI SHARE
131,275 50,686 99.9531% Effectively the entire peninsula
San Marino 31,887 61.2 23.6 0.0466% A north eastern enclave of peninsular Italy
* ^ De Agostini Ed., _L'Enciclopedia Geografica - Vol. I - Italia_, 2004, p.78 * ^ Touring Club Italiano, _Conosci l'Italia - Vol. I: L'Italia fisica_, 1957 * ^ Population includes only the inhabitants of the Italian peninsula (excluding Northern Italy , Sicily, and Sardinia).