HOME
The Info List - Issyk Kul


--- Advertisement ---



Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
(also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-Kol: Kyrgyz: Ысык-Көл, Isıq-Köl, ىسىق-كۅل, [ɯsɯqkœl]; Russian: Иссык-Куль, Issyk-Kulj) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan. It is the tenth largest lake in the world by volume (though not in surface area), and the second largest saline lake after the Caspian Sea. Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
means "warm lake" in the Kyrgyz language; although it is surrounded by snow-capped peaks, it never freezes.[4] The lake is a Ramsar site
Ramsar site
of globally significant biodiversity (Ramsar Site RDB Code 2KG001) and forms part of the Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
Biosphere Reserve.

Contents

1 Geography 2 Tourism 3 History 4 Environment

4.1 Specially protected areas 4.2 Fish

5 Creation legend 6 Russian Navy
Russian Navy
test site 7 Lakeside towns 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Geography[edit]

Southern shore of Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
Lake

Map of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
showing Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
in the north

Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
Lake
Lake
is 182 kilometres (113 mi) long, up to 60 kilometres (37 mi) wide, and its area is 6,236 square kilometres (2,408 sq mi). It is the second largest mountain lake in the world behind Lake
Lake
Titicaca in South America. It is at an altitude of 1,607 metres (5,272 ft), and reaches 668 metres (2,192 ft) in depth.[5] About 118 rivers and streams flow into the lake; the largest are the Djyrgalan and Tyup. It is fed by springs, including many hot springs, and snow melt. The lake has no current outlet, but some hydrologists hypothesize[6] that the lake's water filters deep underground into the Chu River. The bottom of the lake contains the mineral monohydrocalcite: one of the few known lacustrine deposits.[7] The lake's southern shore is dominated by the ruggedly beautiful Teskey Ala-Too Range
Teskey Ala-Too Range
of the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountains. The Kungey Alatau
Kungey Alatau
of the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
runs parallel to the north shore. The lake water's salinity is approx. 0.6% – compared to 3.5% salinity of typical seawater – and, although the lake level is still currently some 8 metres (26 ft) higher than in medieval times, its level now drops by approximately 5 cm per year due to water diversion.[8] Administratively, the lake and the adjacent land are within Issyk-Kul Region of Kyrgyzstan. Tourism[edit] During the Soviet era, the lake became a popular vacation resort, with numerous sanatoria, boarding houses and vacation homes along its northern shore, many concentrated in and around the town of Cholpon-Ata. These fell on hard times after the break-up of the USSR, but now hotel complexes are being refurbished and simple private bed-and-breakfast rentals are being established for a new generation of health and leisure visitors. The city of Karakol
Karakol
(formerly Przhevalsk, after the Russian explorer Przhevalsky
Przhevalsky
who died there) is the administrative seat of Issyk-Kul Region of Kyrgyzstan. It is near the east tip of the lake and is a good base for excursions into the surrounding area. Its small old core contains an impressive wooden mosque, built without metal nails by the Dungan people, and a wooden Orthodox church that was used as a stable during Soviet times (see state atheism). History[edit]

Nestorian tombstone with inscriptions in Uyghur, found in Issyk-Kul, dated 1312

Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
Lake
Lake
was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for travelers from the Far East to Europe. Many historians believe that the lake was the point of origin for the Black Death
Black Death
that plagued Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
during the early and mid-14th century.[9] The lake's status as a byway for travelers allowed the plague to spread across these continents via medieval merchants who unknowingly carried infested vermin along with them.

On the beach at Koshkol'

The lake level is some 8 metres (26 ft) higher than in medieval times. Divers have found the remains of submerged settlements in shallow areas around the lake. In December 2007, a report was released by a team of Kyrgyz historians, led by Vladimir Ploskikh, vice president of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, that archaeologists have discovered the remains of a 2500-year-old advanced civilization at the bottom of the Lake. The data and artifacts obtained suggest that the ancient city was a metropolis in its time. The discovery consisted of formidable walls, some stretching for 500 metres (1,600 ft) and traces of a large city with an area of several square kilometers. Other findings included Scythian
Scythian
burial mounds eroded over the centuries by waves, and numerous well-preserved artifacts, including bronze battleaxes, arrowheads, self-sharpening daggers, objects discarded by smiths, casting molds, and a faceted gold bar that was a monetary unit of the time. Articles identified as the world's oldest extant coins were also found underwater with gold wire rings used as small change and a large hexahedral goldpiece. Also found was a bronze cauldron with a level of craftsmanship that is today achieved by using an inert gas environment.[10][11][12] In 1916 the monastery at Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
was attacked by Kyrgyz rebels, and seven monks were killed.[13]

Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
beach (2002)

Environment[edit] Specially protected areas[edit] The first nature reserve in Kyrgyzstan, Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
State Reserve was established in 1948 to protect unique nature landscapes and waterfowl at Issyk-Kul. In 1975, it was acknowledged as a Ramsar site. Biosphere Reserve Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
covered by UNESCO
UNESCO
World Network of Biosphere Reserves was established in year 2000 within the administrative borders of Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
Region.[14] Fish[edit] The lake contains highly endemic fish biodiversity, and some of the species, including four endemics, are seriously endangered. In recent years catches of all species of fish have declined markedly, due to a combination of over-fishing, heavy predation by two of the introduced species, and the cessation of lake restocking with juvenile fish from hatcheries. At least four commercially targeted endemic fish species are sufficiently threatened to be included in the Red Book of the Kyrgyz Republic: Schmidt's dace
Schmidt's dace
(Leuciscus schmidti), Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
dace (Leuciscus bergi), marinka ( Schizothorax
Schizothorax
issyk-kuli), and sheer or naked osman ( Diptychus
Diptychus
dybovskii). Seven other endemic species are almost certainly threatened as by-catch or are indirectly impacted by fishing activity and changes to the structure and balance of the lake's fish population. Sevan trout, a fish endemic to Lake
Lake
Sevan in Armenia, was introduced into Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
in the 1970s. While this fish is an endangered species in its "home" lake, it has a much better chance to survive in Lake Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
where it has ravaged the indigenous species. Creation legend[edit] In pre-Islamic legend, the king of the Ossounes had donkey's ears. He would hide them, and order each of his barbers killed to hide his secret. One barber yelled the secret into a well, but he did not cover the well afterwards. As a result, the well water rose and flooded the kingdom. The kingdom is today under the waters of Issyk-Kul. According to the legend, this is how the lake was formed. Other legends say that four drowned cities lie at the bottom of the lake. Substantial archaeological finds indicating the presence of an advanced civilization in ancient times have been made in shallow waters of the lake.[12] Russian Navy
Russian Navy
test site[edit] During the Soviet period, the Soviet Navy
Soviet Navy
operated an extensive facility at the lake's east end, where submarine and torpedo technology was evaluated.[15] In March 2008, Kyrgyz newspapers reported that 866 hectares (2,140 acres) around the Karabulan Peninsula on the lake would be leased for an indefinite period to the Russian Navy, which is planning to establish new naval testing facilities as part of the 2007 bilateral Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation, Mutual Help, and Protection of Secret Materials. The Russian military will pay $4.5 million annually to lease the area.[16] India
India
also plans to invest in the facility to test all types of torpedoes such as heavy weight torpedoes and those that have thermal navigation system. Another advantage that works for the testing center is that the torpedoes fired can also be recovered allowing scientists to make physical verification of a torpedo structure for further study. India
India
is also planning to use the torpedo test facility to test the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
being developed by NSTL. For this India
India
has proposed to engage local companies with know-how in torpedo technology to further co-develop the facility.[17]

Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
at sundown (August 2002)

Lakeside towns[edit] Towns and some villages around the lake, listed clockwise from the lake's western tip:

Balykchy
Balykchy
(the railhead at the western end of the lake) Koshkol' Tamchy Cholpon-Ata
Cholpon-Ata
(the capital of the north shore) Tyup Karakol
Karakol
(the provincial capital near the eastern end of the lake, formerly named Przhevalsk) Barskon

See also[edit]

Geography portal

Lake
Lake
Ala-Kul

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h Savvaitova, K.; Petr, T. (December 1992), "Lake Issyk-Kul, Kirgizia", International Journal of Salt Lake
Lake
Research, 1 (2): 21–46, doi:10.1007/BF02904361  ^ a b c d Hofer, Markus; Peeters, Frank; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Brennwald, Matthias; Holocher, Johannes; Livingstone, David M.; Romanovski, Vladimir; Kipfer, Rolf (11 July 2002), "Rapid deep-water renewal in Lake
Lake
Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
(Kyrgyzstan) indicated by transient tracers" (PDF), Limnology and Oceanography, 4 (47): 1210–1216, doi:10.4319/lo.2002.47.4.1210, archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016  ^ Kodayev, G.V. (1973), "Морфометрия озера Иссык-Куль" [Morphometry of Lake
Lake
Issyk-Kul], News of the All-Union Geographic Society (Izvestiya VGO) (in Russian)  ^ Nihoul, Jacques C.J.; Zavialov, Peter O.; Micklin, Philip P. (2012). Dying and Dead Seas Climatic Versus Anthropic Causes. Springer Science+Business Media. p. 21. Retrieved 4 December 2015.  ^ International Lake
Lake
Environment Committee Foundation Archived 2005-09-06 at the Wayback Machine. ^ V. V.Romanovsky, "Water level variations and water balance of Lake Issyk-Kul", in Jean Klerkx, Beishen Imanackunov (2002), p.52 ^ Sapozhnikov, D. G.; A. I. Tsvetkov (1959). "[Precipitation of hydrous calcium carbonate on the bottom of Lake
Lake
Issyk-Kul]". Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. 24: l3l–133.  ^ Lake
Lake
Profile: Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
(Isyk-Kul) ^ The Silk Route – Channel 4 ^ ANI (2007-12-28). "Archaeologists discover remains of 2500-year-old advanced civilization in Russia". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 2008-01-01.  ^ "Advanced Russian civilization found". The Times Of India. Archived from the original on December 31, 2007.  ^ a b Lukashov, Nikolai. Ancient Civilization Discovered at the Bottom of Lake
Lake
Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
in the Kyrgyz Mountains. Ria Novosti. December 27, 2007. Accessed on: July 24, 2008. ^ Islam in the Russian Federation and the Post Soviet Republics: a Historical perspective by Spyros Plakoudas, p. 10 ^ Specially protected nature areas in Kyrgyzstan. Archived 2010-03-24 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kommersant-Vlast, 'Vys Rossiya Armia', 2005 ^ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 12, No. 51, Part I, 14 March 2008[full citation needed] ^ India
India
to develop state of the art torpedo testing centre in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
Date Published: September 18, 2011. Times of India

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Issyk-Kul.

Guide to Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
from the Spektator Magazine World Lake
Lake
Database entry for Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
Lake The Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
Hollow at Natural Heritage Protection Fund Remains of ancient civilization discovered on the bottom of Issyk-Kul Lake Views of lake Issyk-Kul
Issyk-Kul
from Abasayyoh Jean Klerkx, Beishen Imanackunov (eds.): " Lake
Lake
Issyk-Kul: Its Natural Environment". Springer, 2002. ISBN 1-4020-0900-3. (Searchable text on Google Books)

v t e

Lakes of Kyrgyzstan

Ala-Kul Besh-Tash Lake Chatyr-Kul Issyk-Kul Jashyl Kel Juukuchak Lake Kara-Suu Lake Kapka Tash Lake Kara-Toko Lake Kashka-Suu Lake Kel-Ukek Köl-Suu Kel-Ter Lake Kulun Lake Kylaa-Kel Okurgen Lake Lake
Lake
Sary-Chelek Merzbacher Lake Sary-Kel Song Kol Lake Tash-Bulak Lake

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244718

.