ISRAELIS (Hebrew : ישראלים _Yiśraʾelim_,
الإسرائيليين _al-ʾIsrāʾīliyyin_) are citizens or
permanent residents of the State of
Large-scale Jewish immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Jewish diaspora communities in Europe and the Middle East and more recent large-scale immigration from North Africa, Western Asia, North America, South America, the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia introduced many new cultural elements and have had profound impact on the Israeli culture .
Israelis and people of Israeli descent live across the world : in the
* 1 Population
* 2 Ethnic and religious groups
* 2.1 Jews
* 2.2 Arabic-speaking minorities
* 2.3 Other citizens
* 2.4 Non-citizens
* 2.4.1 African refugees * 2.4.2 Foreign workers * 2.4.3 Other refugees
* 2.5 Israeli diaspora
* 2.6 2013 Supreme Court ruling on nationality
* 3 History
* 4 Culture
* 4.1 Religion
* 5 Languages * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links
Main article: Demographics of
As of 2013, Israel's population is 8 million, of which the Israeli civil government records 75.3% as Jews , 20.7% as non- Jewish Arabs , and 4.0% other. Israel's official census includes Israeli settlers in the occupied territories (referred to as "disputed " by Israel). 280,000 Israeli settlers live in settlements in the Judea and Samaria Area , 190,000 in East Jerusalem , and 20,000 in the Golan Heights .
Among Jews, 70.3% were born in
Israel's two official languages are Hebrew and
Arabic . Hebrew is the
primary language of government and is spoken by the majority of the
Arabic is spoken by the Arab minority and by some members
of the Mizrahi
Jewish community. English is studied in school and is
spoken by the majority of the population as a second language. Other
languages spoken in
In recent decades, between 650,000 and 1,300,000 Israelis have emigrated, a phenomenon known in Hebrew as _yerida _ ("descent", in contrast to _aliyah_, which means "ascent"). Emigrants have various reasons for leaving, but there is generally a combination of economic and political concerns. Los Angeles is home to the largest community of Israelis outside Israel.
ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS GROUPS
The main Israeli ethnic and religious groups are as follows:
_ THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS HEBREW TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hebrew letters.
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The CBS traces the paternal country of origin of Israeli Jews as of 2010 is as follows.
COUNTRY OF ORIGIN Born abroad Israeli born TOTAL %
TOTAL 1,610,900 4,124,400 5,753,300 100.0%
_ Asia _ _201,000_ _494,200_ _695,200_ _12.0%_
Turkey 25,700 52,500 78,100 1.4%
Iraq 62,600 173,300 235,800 4.1%
Yemen 28,400 111,100 139,500 2.4%
Iran /Afghanistan 49,300 92,300 141,600 2.5%
India /Pakistan 17,600 29,000 46,600 0.8%
Syria / Lebanon 10,700 25,000 35,700 0.6%
Other 6,700 11,300 18,000 0.3%
_Africa _ _315,800_ _572,100_ _887,900_ _15.4%_
Morocco 153,600 339,600 493,200 8.6%
Algeria /Tunisia 43,200 91,700 134,900 2.3%
Libya 15,800 53,500 69,400 1.2%
Egypt 18,500 39,000 57,500 1.0%
Ethiopia 81,600 38,600 110,100 1.9%
Other 13,100 9,700 22,800 0.4%
_Europe / Americas /Oceania _ _1,094,100_ _829,700_ _1,923,800_ _33.4%_
Soviet Union 651,400 241,000 892,400 15.5%
Poland 51,300 151,000 202,300 3.5%
Romania 88,600 125,900 214,400 3.7%
Bulgaria /Greece 16,400 32,600 49,000 0.9%
Germany /Austria 24,500 50,600 75,200 1.3%
Czech Republic /Slovakia /Hungary 20,000 45,000 64,900 1.1%
France 41,100 26,900 68,000 1.2%
United Kingdom 21,000 19,900 40,800 0.7%
Europe, other 27,000 29,900 56,900 1.0%
North America/Oceania 90,500 63,900 154,400 2.7%
Argentina 35,500 26,100 61,600 1.1%
Latin America , other 26,900 17,000 43,900 0.8%
A fraction of Palestinians remained within Israel's borders following
1948 Palestinian exodus and are the largest group of
Arabic-speaking and culturally Arab citizens of Israel. The vast
majority of the Arab citizens of
As of 2013, the Arab population of
Main article: Negev Bedouin
The Arab citizens of
There is also a significant population of Israeli Druze , estimated at about 117,500 at the end of 2006. All Druze in British Mandate Palestine became Israeli citizens upon the foundation of the State of Israel.
Main article: Maronites in
There are about 7,000 Maronite Christian Israelis, living mostly in the Galilee but also in Haifa , Nazareth , and Jerusalem . They are mostly pro-Israeli Lebanese former militia members and their families who fled Lebanon after the 2000 withdrawal of IDF from South Lebanon . Some, however, are from local Galilean communities such as Jish .
There are about 1,000 Coptic Israeli citizens.
Main article: Arameans in
In September 2014,
There are about 4,000 Armenian citizens of Israel. They live mostly in Jerusalem, including the Armenian Quarter ), but also in Tel Aviv, Haifa and Jaffa. Their religious activities center around the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem as well as churches in Jerusalem, Haifa and Jaffa. Although Armenians of Old Jerusalem have Israeli identity cards, they are officially holders of Jordanian passports.
Main article: Assyrians in
There are around 1,000 Assyrians living in Israel, mostly in Jerusalem and Nazareth . Assyrians are an Aramaic speaking, Eastern Rite Christian minority who are descended from the ancient Mesopotamians . The old Syriac Orthodox monastery of Saint Mark lies in Jerusalem. Other than followers of the Syriac Orthodox Church, there are also followers of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church living in Israel.
Samaritans are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant.
Ancestrally, they are descended from a group of Israelite inhabitants
who have connections to ancient Samaria from the beginning of the
Babylonian captivity up to the beginning of the Common Era. Population
estimates made in 2007 show that of the 712 Samaritans, half live in
African Hebrew Israelites
The African Hebrew Israelite Nation of
Jerusalem is a small religious
community whose members believe they are descended from the Ten Lost
Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union most of whom are
Zera Yisrael (descendants of Jews) who are
Belarusians , who were eligible to immigrate due to
having, or being married to somebody who has, at least one Jewish
grandparent. In addition, a certain number of former Soviet citizens,
primarily women of Russian and Ukrainian ethnicity, immigrated to
Although most Finns in
The number of Vietnamese people in
Naturalized Foreign Workers
Israel's residents include some naturalized foreign workers and their children born in Israel, predominantly from the Philippines , Nepal , Nigeria , Senegal , Romania , China , Cyprus , Turkey , Thailand and Latin America .
Further information: Sudanese refugees in
The number and status of African refugees in
There are around 300,000 foreign workers, residing in
See also: Yerida
It is currently estimated that there are 330,000 native-born
Israelis, including 230,000 Jews, living abroad, or even more. The
number of immigrants to
For many years definitive data on Israeli emigration was unavailable. In _The Israeli Diaspora_ sociologist Stephen J. Gold maintains that calculation of Jewish emigration has been a contentious issue, explaining, "Since Zionism, the philosophy that underlies the existence of the Jewish state, calls for return home of the world's Jews, the opposite movement - Israelis leaving the Jewish state to reside elsewhere - clearly presents an ideological and demographic problem."
Among the most common reasons for emigration of Israelis from Israel are most often due to Israel's ongoing security issues, economic constraints, economic characteristics, disappointment in the Israeli government, as well as the excessive role of religion in the lives of Israelis.
See also: Israeli American
Israelis immigrated to the
United States throughout the period
of the declaration of the state of
Moscow has the largest single Israeli expatriate community in the world, with 80,000 Israeli citizens living in the city as of 2014, almost all of them native Russian-speakers. Many Israeli cultural events are hosted for the community, and many live part of the year in Israel. (To cater to the Israeli community, Israeli cultural centres are located in Moscow , Saint Petersburg , Novosibirsk and Yekaterinburg .)
See also: Israeli Canadian
Israelis immigrated to
Canada throughout the period of the
declaration of the state of
Israelis immigrated to the
United Kingdom throughout and since
the period of the declaration of the state of
2013 SUPREME COURT RULING ON NATIONALITY
In 2013 a three-judge panel of the Supreme Court of
Main article: History of Israeli nationality
_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (October 2009)_
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948
The first account of an Israeli nation is a state which dominated the
modern land of Israel, the Kingdom of
Palestine was part of the
Ottoman Empire until it was taken by
British forces in 1918. The British establishment of colonial
political boundaries allowed the
Jews to develop autonomous
institutions such as the
Histadrut and the Knesset. Since the late
nineteenth century, the
Zionist movement encouraged
Jews to immigrate
to Palestine and refurbish its land area, considerable but partially
uninhabitable due to an abundance of swamps and desert. The resulting
Jewish immigrants, as well as the creation of many new
settlements, was crucial for the functioning of these new institutions
in what would, on 14 May 1948, become the State of
Main articles: Culture of
The largest cities in the country Haifa , Tel Aviv , and Jerusalem are also the major cultural centers, known for art museums, and many towns and kibbutzim have smaller high-quality museums. Israeli music is very versatile and combines elements of both western and eastern, religious and secular music. It tends to be very eclectic and contains a wide variety of influences from the Diaspora and more modern cultural importation: Hassidic songs, Asian and Arab pop, especially by Yemenite singers, and Israeli hip hop or heavy metal . Folk dancing, which draws upon the cultural heritage of many immigrant groups, is popular. There is also flourishing modern dance.
According to the
Roughly 12% of Israeli Jews defined as _haredim _ (ultra-orthodox religious); an additional 9% are "religious"; 35% consider themselves "traditionalists" (not strictly adhering to Jewish religious law ); and 43% are "secular" (termed "hiloni "). Among the seculars, 53% believe in God. However, 78% of all Israelis (and virtually all Israeli Jews) participate in a Passover seder.
Unlike North American Jews, Israelis tend not to align themselves with a movement of Judaism (such as Reform Judaism or Conservative Judaism ) but instead tend to define their religious affiliation by degree of their religious practice. Israeli religious life, unlike much of North American Jewish life, does not solely revolve around synagogues or religious community centers.
The Bahá\'í World Centre , which includes the Universal House of Justice , in Haifa attracts Baha'i pilgrims from all over the world.
Due to its immigrant nature,
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* ^ Ancestry: 2000 Archived 4 December 2004 at the Library of
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Israeli Americans - History, Modern era, Significant
immigration waves, Settlement patterns". Everyculture.com. Retrieved 3
* ^ _A_ _B_ PINI HERMAN (25 April 2012). "Rumors of mass Israeli
emigration are much exaggerated". _
Jewish Journal _. Retrieved 3
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gallya Lahav; Asher Arian (2005). _\'
Israelis in a
Jewish diaspora: The multiple dilemmas of a globalized group\' in
International Migration and the Globalization of Domestic Politics ed.
Rey Koslowski_. London: Routledge. p. 89. ISBN 0-415-25815-4 .
Israelis Find A Lively
Jewish Niche in
Moscow by Rena Greenberg
- Moscow, Russia, MARCH 19, 2014
* ^ A. Craig Copetas (19 December 2007). "Karma Kosher Conscripts
Diaspora Seek Refuge in Goa". _
Bloomberg.com _. Retrieved 3
* ^ _A_ _B_ Immigrant population by place of birth and period of
immigration (2006 Census), Statistics Canada
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
London prefer their own". Retrieved 23
* ^ HAVIV RETTIG GUR (6 April 2008). "Officials to US to bring
Israelis home". _
Jpost _. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
* ^ "Country-of-birth database". Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development . Archived from the original on 17 June
2009. Retrieved 23 December 2008.
* ^ Dan Goldberg (3 July 2012). "
Jews Down Under are on the rise,
but for how long?". _Haaretz_. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
* ^ Hagin, Adi (16 September 2011). "Why are
Israelis moving to
Germany?". Haaretz. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
* ^ Assaf Uni (3 September 2012). "
Israelis in Berlin buying their
strudel with welfare". Times of Israel. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
* ^ Doron Halutz (21 January 2011). "Unkosher Nightlife and
Israelis Learn to Love the New Berlin". Spiegel
Online. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
* ^ "Statistical Abstract of