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The Info List - Israeli Legislative Election, 1988



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ELECTIONS FOR THE 12TH KNESSET were held in Israel
Israel
on 1 November 1988. Voter turnout was 79.7%.

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 1.1 Economy * 1.2 Operation Moses * 1.3 The ongoing South Lebanon conflict * 1.4 Jibril Agreement * 1.5 Peres–Hussein London Agreement * 1.6 First Intifada
First Intifada

* 2 Election campaign * 3 Results * 4 The 12th Knesset * 5 References * 6 External links

BACKGROUND

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ECONOMY

See also: 1985 Israel
Israel
Economic Stabilization Plan and Kibbutz crisis

By July 1985 Israel's inflation, buttressed by complex index linking of salaries, had reached 480% per annum and was the highest in the world. Peres introduced emergency control of prices and cut government expenditure successfully bringing inflation under control. The currency (known as the Israeli lira
Israeli lira
until 1980) was replaced and renamed the Israeli new shekel
Israeli new shekel
.

OPERATION MOSES

Main article: Operation Moses

The great famine of 1983–85 lead to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians from Northern Ethiopia to refugee camps in Northern Ethiopia and Sudan. Tens of thousands of Ethiopians were starving during that time. Among these victims, it is estimated that between 3,000 and 4,000 were members of the Beta Israel
Israel
community. In late 1984, the Sudanese government, following the intervention of the U.S, allowed the emigration of 7,200 Beta Israel
Israel
refugees to Europe who immediately flew from there to Israel. There two immigration waves were: Operation Moses which took place between 20 November 1984 until January 4, 1985, during which 6,500 people emigrated to Israel. This operation was followed by the Operation Joshua (also referred to as "Operation Queen of Sheba") a few weeks later, which was conducted by the CIA
CIA
, in which the 650 Beta Israel
Israel
refugees remaining in Sudan were evacuated to Israel. The second operation was mainly carried out due to the intervention and international pressure of the U.S.

THE ONGOING SOUTH LEBANON CONFLICT

Main article: South Lebanon conflict (1982–2000)
South Lebanon conflict (1982–2000)

In June 1985, Israel
Israel
withdrew most of its troops from Lebanon, leaving a residual Israeli force and an Israeli-supported militia in southern Lebanon as a "security zone " and buffer against attacks on its northern territory.

JIBRIL AGREEMENT

Main article: Jibril Agreement

PERES–HUSSEIN LONDON AGREEMENT

Main article: Peres–Hussein London Agreement

FIRST INTIFADA

Main article: First Intifada
First Intifada

The continuing establishment of the Israeli settlements and continuing Israeli occupation in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip led to the first Palestinian Intifada (uprising) in December 1987, which lasted until the Madrid Conference of 1991
Madrid Conference of 1991
, despite Israeli attempts to suppress it. It was a partially spontaneous uprising, but by January 1988, it was already under the direction from the PLO headquarters in Tunis, which carried out ongoing terrorist attacks targeting Israeli civilians. The riots escalated daily throughout the territories and were especially severe in the Gaza Strip.

ELECTION CAMPAIGN

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RESULTS

PARTY VOTES % SEATS +/−

Likud
Likud
1 6 7 709,305 31.1 40 −1

Alignment 6 7 685,363 30.0 39 −5

Shas
Shas
2 107,709 4.7 6 +2

Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
3 102,714 4.5 5 +2

Ratz 4 97,513 4.3 5 +2

National Religious Party 89,720 3.9 5 +1

Hadash
Hadash
5 84,032 3.7 4 0

Tehiya 70,730 3.1 3 −2

Mapam
Mapam
4 56,345 2.5 3 New

Tzomet 45,489 2.0 2 New

Moledet 44,174 1.9 2 New

Shinui 4 6 39,538 1.7 2 −1

Degel HaTorah 34,279 1.5 2 New

Progressive List for Peace 33,279 1.5 1 −1

Arab Democratic Party 27,012 1.2 1 New

Pensioners 16,674 0.7 0 New

Meimad 15,783 0.7 0 New

Derekh Aretz 4,253 0.2 0 New

Or Movement 4,182 0.2 0 New

Movement for Social Justice 3,222 0.1 0 New

Yishai – Tribal Israel
Israel
Together 2,947 0.1 0 New

Movement for Moshavim 2,838 0.1 0 New

Tarshish 1,654 0.1 0 New

Silent Power 1,579 0.1 0 New

Movement for Demobilised Soldiers 1,018 0.0 0 New

Yemenite Association 909 0.0 0 New

Unity – for Victor Tayar to the Knesset 446 0.0 0 0

Invalid/blank votes 22,444 – – –

TOTAL 2,305,567 100 120 0

Source: Nohlen et al.

1 Five members of the Likud
Likud
left to form the Party for the Advancement of the Zionist Idea; after two returned, the party was renamed the New Liberal Party . One member moved from the Alignment to the Likud.

2 One MK left Shas
Shas
and established Moria .

3 One MK left Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
and established Geulat Yisrael .

4 Ratz, Mapam, and Shinui merged into Meretz
Meretz
.

5 Black Panthers broke away from Hadash.

6 One member of Shinui joined Ratz, whilst an Alignment MK joined Shinui.

7 Efraim Gur left the Alignment to establish Unity for Peace and Immigration , which later merged into Likud.

THE 12TH KNESSET

See also: List of members of the twelfth Knesset

Likud's Yitzhak Shamir
Yitzhak Shamir
formed the twenty-third government on 22 December 1988, including the Alignment, the National Religious Party, Shas, Agudat Yisrael
Agudat Yisrael
and Degel HaTorah in his coalition, with 25 ministers.

In 1990 Shimon Peres
Shimon Peres
tried to form an Alignment-led coalition in a move that became known as "the dirty trick ", but failed to win sufficient support. Eventually Shamir formed the twenty-fourth government on 11 June 1990, with a coalition encompassing Likud, the National Religious Party, Shas, Agudat Yisrael, Degel HaTorah, the New Liberal Party, Tehiya, Tzomet, Moledet, Unity for Peace and Immigration and Geulat Yisrael. Tehiya, Tzomet and Moledet all left the coalition in late 1991/early 1992 in protest at Shamir's participation in the Madrid Conference .

The Twelfth Knesset saw the rise of the ultra-orthodox religious parties as a significant force in Israeli politics, and as a crucial "swing" element which could determine which of the large 2 secular parties (Likud, Alignment) would get to form the coalition government.

REFERENCES

* ^ Dieter Nohlen , Florian Grotz ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Elections in Israel
Israel

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