Isoetes echinospora, also known as spiny quillwort,[1] spiny-spored quillwort[2] or spring quillwort[3] is a species of quillwort in the Isoetaceae family, and is the most abundant species in Canada.[4] It can be found in shallow aquatic environments from Labrador and Newfoundland to Alaska, and south to Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Colorado, and California. In Germany it is found in only 2 locations: the Feldsee and Lake Titisee, both in the High Black Forest.[5] It bears 10-30 green to yellow leaves and a two-lobed corm. The velum covers one to three quarters of the sporangium, which are 10 millimeters long. Round white megaspores are about 480 micrometers in diameter and are covered with spines. Kidney-shaped microspores are about 26 micrometers long with smooth, fine spines.[4] European populations of the plant lack stomata, which are present in North American populations. Isoetes muricata and Isoetes echinospora var. braunii refer to the North American plants when they are considered to be distinct from the European plants.[2]


  1. ^ Spiny Quillwort at www.plant-identification.co.uk. Retrieved 26 Aug 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Isoetes echinospora", Flora of North America 
  3. ^ spring quillwort in the Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Retrieved 26 Aug 2015
  4. ^ a b Cody, William; Britton, Donald (1989). Ferns and Fern Allies of Canada. Agriculture Canada. 
  5. ^ Information Board at the Feldsee. Recorded on 26 Aug 2015.

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in D:\Bitnami\wampstack-7.1.16-0\apache2\htdocs\php\PeriodicService.php on line 61