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Ismāʿīlism (Arabic: الإسماعيلية‎ al-Ismāʿīliyya; Persian: اسماعیلیان‎; Sindhi: اسماعيلي‎; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.[1] The Ismāʿīlī (/ˌɪsmeɪˈɪli/[2]) get their name from their acceptance of Imam Isma'il ibn Jafar
Isma'il ibn Jafar
as the appointed spiritual successor (Imām) to Ja'far al-Sadiq, wherein they differ from the Twelvers who accept Musa al-Kadhim, younger brother of Isma'il, as the true Imām.[3] Tracing its earliest theology to the lifetime of Muhammad, Ismailism rose at one point to become the largest branch of Shī‘ism, climaxing as a political power with the Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
in the tenth through twelfth centuries.[4] Ismailis believe in the oneness of God, as well as the closing of divine revelation with Muhammad, whom they see as "the final Prophet and Messenger of God
God
to all humanity". The Ismāʿīlī and the Twelvers both accept the same initial Imams from the descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
through his daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
and therefore share much of their early history. Both groups see the family of Muhammad
Muhammad
(the Ahl al-Bayt) as divinely chosen, infallible (ismah), and guided by God
God
to lead the Islamic community (Ummah), a belief that distinguishes them from the majority Sunni
Sunni
branch of Islam. After the death of Muhammad ibn Isma'il
Muhammad ibn Isma'il
in the 8th century CE, the teachings of Ismailism further transformed into the belief system as it is known today, with an explicit concentration on the deeper, esoteric meaning (batin) of the Islamic religion. With the eventual development of Twelverism into the more literalistic (zahir) oriented Akhbari
Akhbari
and later Usuli
Usuli
schools of thought, Shi'i Islam
Islam
developed into two separate directions: the metaphorical Ismaili
Ismaili
group focusing on the mystical path and nature of God, with the "Imām of the Time" representing the manifestation of esoteric truth and intelligible reality, with the more literalistic Twelver
Twelver
group focusing on divine law (sharia) and the deeds and sayings (sunnah) of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Twelve Imams who were guides and a light to God.[5] Ismaili
Ismaili
thought is heavily influenced by neoplatonism.[6][7] Though there are several paths (tariqat) within Ismailism, the term in today's vernacular generally refers to the Nizaris, who recognize Aga Khan IV[8] as the 49th hereditary Imam and is the largest Ismaili group. In recent centuries Ismāʿīlīs have largely been a Pakistani and Indian community,[9] but Ismailis are also found in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Syria, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Jordan, Iraq, East Africa, Angola, Lebanon, and South Africa, and have in recent years emigrated to Europe, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and Trinidad and Tobago.[10] There are also a significant number of Ismāʿīlīs in Central Asia.[11]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Succession crisis 1.2 Karbala
Karbala
and afterward

1.2.1 The Battle of Karbala 1.2.2 The beginnings of Ismāʿīlī Daʿwah

1.3 Ascension of the Dais 1.4 The Qarmatians 1.5 The Fatimid Caliphate

1.5.1 Rise of the Fatimid Caliphate 1.5.2 The Middle East
Middle East
under Fatimid rule 1.5.3 Decline of the Caliphate

1.6 Alamut

1.6.1 Hassan-i Sabbah 1.6.2 The Hashasheen
Hashasheen
/ Assassiyoon 1.6.3 Threshold of the Imāmate 1.6.4 Destruction by the Mongols

1.7 Aftermath 1.8 Ismaili
Ismaili
Historiography

2 Beliefs

2.1 View on the Qur'an 2.2 The Ginans
Ginans
and Qasidas 2.3 Reincarnation
Reincarnation
(Druze) 2.4 Numerology 2.5 Imamate 2.6 Pir and Dawah 2.7 Zāhir 2.8 Bātin 2.9 'Aql 2.10 Dasond (Zakat)

2.10.1 Walayah 2.10.2 Taharah or Shahada

2.10.2.1 Taharah 2.10.2.2 Shahada

2.10.3 Salat 2.10.4 Zakat 2.10.5 Sawm 2.10.6 Hajj 2.10.7 Jihad

3 Branches 4 Nizari

4.1 Muhammad-Shahi Nizari/Mumini

5 Musta'ali

5.1 Dawoodi Bohra 5.2 Sulaymani 5.3 Alavi Bohra 5.4 Hebtiahs Bohra 5.5 Atba-i-Malak 5.6 Progressive Dawoodi Bohra

6 Offshoots

6.1 Druze 6.2 Satpanth

7 Extinct branches

7.1 Böszörmény 7.2 Hafizi 7.3 Seveners

8 Inclusion in Amman Message
Amman Message
and Islamic Ummah 9 Ismailism amongst Shia Islam 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

History[edit] Further information: Mustaali, Taiyabi Ismaili, Nizari, History of Nizari
Nizari
Ismailism, and Ismā‘īlī Constitution Succession crisis[edit] Main article: Succession to Muhammad Ismailism shares its beginnings with other early Shi‘i sects that emerged during the succession crisis that spread throughout the early Muslim
Muslim
community. From the beginning, the Shia asserted the right of Ali, cousin of Muhammad, to have both political and spiritual control over the community. This also included his two sons, who were the grandsons of Muhammad
Muhammad
through his daughter Fatimah.[12] The conflict remained relatively peaceful between the partisans of ‘ Ali
Ali
and those who asserted a semi-democratic system of electing caliphs, until the third of the Rashidun caliphs, Uthman
Uthman
was killed, and ‘Alī, with popular support, ascended to the caliphate.[13] Soon after his ascendancy, Aisha, the third of the Prophet's wives, claimed along with Uthman's tribe, the Ummayads, that Ali
Ali
should take Qisas (blood for blood) from the people responsible for Uthman's death. ‘ Ali
Ali
voted against it as he believed that situation at that time demanded a peaceful resolution of the matter. Both parties could rightfully defend their claims, but due to escalated misunderstandings, the Battle of the Camel
Battle of the Camel
was fought and Aisha
Aisha
was defeated but was respectfully escorted to Medina
Medina
by Ali.[citation needed] Following this battle, Muawiya, the Umayyad governor of Syria, also staged a revolt under the same pretences. ‘ Ali
Ali
led his forces against Muawiya until the side of Muawiya held copies of the Quran against their spears and demanded that the issue be decided by Islam's holy book. ‘ Ali
Ali
accepted this, and an arbitration was done which ended in his favor.[14] A group among Ali's army believed that subjecting his legitimate authority to arbitration was tantamount to apostasy, and abandoned his forces. This group was known as the Khawarij
Khawarij
and ‘ Ali
Ali
wished to defeat their forces before they reached the cities where they would be able to blend in with the rest of the population. While he was unable to do this, he nonetheless defeated their forces in subsequent battles.[15] Regardless of these defeats, the Kharijites survived and became a violently problematic group in Islamic history. After plotting an assassination against ‘Ali, Muawiya, and the arbitrator of their conflict, only ‘ Ali
Ali
was successfully assassinated in 661 CE, and the Imāmate passed on to his son Hasan and then later his son Husayn, or according to the Nizari
Nizari
Ismāʿīlī, the Imamate
Imamate
passed temporarily to Hasan, who was an Entrusted Imam (al-imam al-mustawda), and afterwards to Husayn who was the Permanent Imam (al-imam al-mustaqarr). The Entrusted Imam is an Imam in the full sense except that the lineage of the Imamate
Imamate
must continue through the Permanent Imam.[16] However, the political caliphate was soon taken over by Muawiya, the only leader in the empire at that time with an army large enough to seize control.[17] Even some of Ali's early followers regarded him as "an absolute and divinely guided leader who could demand of them the same kind of loyalty that would have been expected for the Prophet."[18] For example, one of Ali's supporters who also was devoted to the Prophet said to him: "our opinion is your opinion and we are in the palm of your right hand."[19] The early followers of ‘ Ali
Ali
seem to have taken his guidance as "right guidance" deriving from Divine support. In other words, ‘Ali's guidance was seen to be the expression of God's will and the Qur'anic message. This spiritual and absolute authority of ‘ Ali
Ali
was known as walayah and it was inherited by his successors, the Imams. In the first century after the Prophet, the term sunnah was not specifically defined as " Sunnah
Sunnah
of the Prophet" but was used in connection to Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, Uthman, and some Umayyad Caliphs. The idea of "Hadith" or traditions ascribed to the Prophet was not mainstream nor was Hadith
Hadith
criticism. Even the earliest legal texts by Malik b. Anas and Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
employ many methods including analogical reasoning and opinion and do not rely exclusively on hadith. Only in the 2nd century does the Sunni
Sunni
jurist al-Shafi‘i first argue that only the Sunnah
Sunnah
of the Prophet should be a source of law and that this Sunnah
Sunnah
is embodied in Hadiths. It would take another one hundred years after al-Shafi‘i for Sunni
Sunni
Muslim
Muslim
jurists to fully base their methodologies on prophetic Hadiths.[20][21] Meanwhile, Imam Shia Muslims followed the Imams' interpretations of Islam
Islam
as normative without any need for Hadiths and other sources of Sunni
Sunni
law such as analogy and opinion. Karbala
Karbala
and afterward[edit] The Battle of Karbala[edit] Main article: Battle of Karbala After the death of Imam Hasan, Imam Husayn and his family were increasingly worried about the religious and political persecution that was becoming commonplace under the reign of Muawiya's son, Yazid. Amidst this turmoil in 680, Husayn along with the women and children of his family, upon receiving invitational letters and gestures of support by Kufis, wished to go to Kufa
Kufa
and confront Yazid as an intercessor on part of the citizens of the empire. However, he was stopped by Yazid's army in Karbala
Karbala
during the month of Muharram.[22] His family was starved and deprived of water and supplies, until eventually the army came in on the tenth day and martyred Husayn and his companions, and enslaved the rest of the women and family, taking them to Kufa.[23] This battle would become extremely important to the Shi'i psyche. The Twelvers as well as Mustaali
Mustaali
Ismāʿīlī still mourn this event during an occasion known as Ashura.[24][25] The Nizari
Nizari
Ismāʿīlī, however, do not mourn this in the same way because of the belief that the light of the Imām never dies but rather passes on to the succeeding Imām, making mourning arbitrary. However, during commemoration they do not have any celebrations in Jamatkhana
Jamatkhana
during Muharram
Muharram
and may have announcements or sessions regarding the tragic events of Karbala. Also individuals may observe Muharram
Muharram
in a wide variety of ways. This respect for Muharram
Muharram
does not include self-flagellation and beating because they feel that harming one's body is harming a gift from Allah.[citation needed]

Ambigram
Ambigram
depicting Muhammad
Muhammad
and Ali
Ali
written in a single word. The 180 degree inverted form shows both words.

The beginnings of Ismāʿīlī Daʿwah[edit] Main article: Zaidiyyah After being set free by Yazid, Zaynab bint Ali, the daughter of Fatimah
Fatimah
and Ali
Ali
and the sister of Hasan and Husayn, started to spread the word of Karbala
Karbala
to the Muslim
Muslim
world, making speeches regarding the event. This was the first organized daʿwah of the Shia, which would later develop into an extremely spiritual institution for the Ismāʿīlīs. After the poisoning of Ali
Ali
ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin by Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik in 713, Shiism's first succession crisis arose with Zayd ibn ‘Alī's companions and the Zaydīs who claimed Zayd ibn ‘Alī as the Imām, whilst the rest of the Shia upheld Muhammad al-Baqir
Muhammad al-Baqir
as the Imām. The Zaidis argued that any sayyid or "descendant of Muhammad through Hasan or Husayn" who rebelled against tyranny and the injustice of his age could be the Imām. The Zaidis created the first Shi'i states in Iran, Iraq
Iraq
and Yemen.[citation needed] In contrast to his predecessors, Muhammad al-Baqir
Muhammad al-Baqir
focused on academic Islamic scholarship in Medina, where he promulgated his teachings to many Muslims, both Shia and non-Shia, in an extremely organized form of Daʿwah.[26] In fact, the earliest text of the Ismaili
Ismaili
school of thought is said to be the Umm al-kitab (The Archetypal Book), a conversation between Muhammad al-Baqir
Muhammad al-Baqir
and three of his disciples.[27] This tradition would pass on to his son, Ja'far al-Sadiq, who inherited the Imāmate on his father's death in 743. Ja'far al-Sadiq excelled in the scholarship of the day and had many pupils, including three of the four founders of the Sunni
Sunni
madhhabs.[28] However, following al-Sadiq's poisoning in 765, a fundamental split occurred in the community. Isma'il ibn Jafar, who at one point was appointed by his father as the next Imam, appeared to have predeceased his father in 755. While Twelvers argue that either he was never heir apparent or he truly predeceased his father and hence Musa al-Kadhim was the true heir to the Imamate, the Ismāʿīlīs argue that either the death of Isma'il was staged in order to protect him from Abbasid persecution or that the Imamate
Imamate
passed to Muhammad ibn Isma'il
Muhammad ibn Isma'il
in lineal descent.[citation needed] Ascension of the Dais[edit] Main article: Da'i

A Persian miniature
Persian miniature
depicting Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
in a circa 1503 copy of his disciple Rumi's poem, the "Diwan-e Shams-e Tabriz-i". Shams Tabrizi is believed to have been an Ismaili
Ismaili
Dai and his relationship with Rumi
Rumi
a symbolic manifestation of the sacred relationship between the guide and the guided.

For some partisans of Ismāʿīl, the Imāmate ended with Ismāʿīl ibn Ja'far. Most Ismailis recognized Muhammad ibn Isma'il
Muhammad ibn Isma'il
as the next Imam and some saw him as the expected Mahdi
Mahdi
that Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
had preached about. However, at this point the Ismāʿīlī Imāms according to the Nizari
Nizari
and Mustaali
Mustaali
found areas where they would be able to be safe from the recently founded Abbasid Caliphate, which had defeated and seized control from the Umayyads in 750 CE.[29] At this point, some of the Ismaili
Ismaili
community believed that Muhammad ibn Ismail had gone into the Occultation and that he would one day return. A small group traced the Imamat among Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismail's lineal descendants. With the status and location of the Imāms not known to the community, the concealed Ismaili
Ismaili
Imams began to propagate the faith through Dāʿiyyūn from its base in Syria. This was the start of the spiritual beginnings of the Daʿwah that would later play important parts in the all Ismaili
Ismaili
branches, especially the Nizaris and the Musta'lis.[30] The Da'i was not a missionary in the typical sense, and he was responsible for both the conversion of his student as well as the mental and spiritual well being. The Da'i was a guide and light to the Imām. The teacher-student relationship of the Da'i and his student was much like the one that would develop in Sufism. The student desired God, and the Da'i could bring him to God
God
by making him recognize the Imām, who possesses the knowledge of the Oneness of God. The Da'i and Imam were respectively the spiritual mother and spiritual father of the Isma'ili believers.[31] Ja‘far bin Manṣūr al-Yaman's The Book of the Sage and Disciple
The Book of the Sage and Disciple
is a classic of early Fāṭimid literature, documenting important aspects of the development of the Ismāʿīlī da‘wa in tenth-century Yemen. The book is also of considerable historical value for modern scholars of Arabic prose literature as well as those interested in the relationship of esoteric Shī‘ism with early Islamic mysticism. Likewise is the book an important source of information regarding the various movements within tenth-century Shī‘ism leading to the spread of the Fāṭimid-Isma‘īlī da‘wa throughout the medieval Islamicate world, and the religious and philosophical history of post-Fāṭimid Musta‘lī branch of Ismāʿīlism in Yemen
Yemen
and India. Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
and Rumi
Rumi
is a famous example of the importance of the relationship between the guide and the guided, and Rumi
Rumi
dedicated much of his literature to Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
and his discovery of the truth. The Qarmatians[edit] Main article: Qarmatians While many of the Ismāʿīlī were content with the Dai teachings, a group that mingled Persian nationalism and Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
surfaced known as the Qarmatians. With their headquarters in Bahrain, they accepted a young Persian former prisoner by the name of Abu'l-Fadl al-Isfahani, who claimed to be the descendant of the Persian kings[32][33][34][35][36][37][38] as their Mahdi, and rampaged across the Middle-East in the tenth century, climaxing their violent campaign by stealing the Black Stone
Black Stone
from the Kaaba
Kaaba
in Mecca
Mecca
in 930 under Abu Tahir al-Jannabi. Following the arrival of the Al-Isfahani, they changed their qibla from the Kaaba
Kaaba
in Mecca
Mecca
to the Zoroastrian-influenced fire. After their return of the Black Stone
Black Stone
in 951 and a defeat by the Abbasids in 976 the group slowly dwindled off and no longer has any adherents.[39] The Fatimid Caliphate[edit] Main article: Fatimid Caliphate

Al-Hakim Mosque
Al-Hakim Mosque
in Cairo, Egypt, an Ismāʿīlī Imām and Fatimid Caliph.

Rise of the Fatimid Caliphate[edit] Main article: Abdullah al- Mahdi
Mahdi
Billah The political asceticism practiced by the Imāms during the period after Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismail was to be short lived and finally concluded with the Imāmate of Abdullah al- Mahdi
Mahdi
Billah, who was born in 873. After decades of Ismāʿīlīs believing that Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismail was in the Occultation and would return to bring an age of justice, al- Mahdi
Mahdi
taught that the Imāms had not been literally secluded, but rather had remained hidden to protect themselves and had been organizing the Da'i, and even acted as Da'i themselves. After raising an army and successfully defeating the Aghlabids in North Africa
North Africa
and a number of other victories, al- Mahdi
Mahdi
Billah successfully established a Shi'i political state ruled by the Imāmate in 910.[40] This was the only time in history where the Shi'a Imamate and Caliphate
Caliphate
were united after the first Imam, Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib. In parallel with the dynasty's claim of descent from ‘Alī and Fāṭimah, the empire was named "Fatimid". However, this was not without controversy, and recognizing the extent that Ismāʿīlī doctrine had spread, the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
assigned Sunni
Sunni
and Twelver scholars the task to disprove the lineage of the new dynasty. This became known as the Baghdad Manifesto
Baghdad Manifesto
and it traces the lineage of the Fatimids to a Jewish blacksmith. The Middle East
Middle East
under Fatimid rule[edit]

The Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
at its peak.

The Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
expanded quickly under the subsequent Imāms. Under the Fatimids, Egypt
Egypt
became the center of an empire that included at its peak North Africa, Sicily, Palestine, Syria, the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast of Africa, Yemen, Hejaz
Hejaz
and the Tihamah. Under the Fatimids, Egypt flourished and developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the Indian Ocean, which eventually determined the economic course of Egypt
Egypt
during the High Middle Ages. The Fatimids promoted ideas that were radical for that time. One was promotion by merit rather than genealogy. Also during this period the three contemporary branches of Ismailism formed. The first branch (Druze) occurred with the al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Born in 985, he ascended as ruler at the age of eleven. A religious group that began forming in his lifetime broke off from mainstream Ismailism and refused to acknowledge his successor. Later to be known as the Druze, they believe Al-Hakim to be the manifestation of God
God
and the prophesied Mahdi, who would one day return and bring justice to the world.[41] The faith further split from Ismailism as it developed unique doctrines which often class it separately from both Ismailism and Islam. Arwa al-Sulayhi
Arwa al-Sulayhi
was the Hujjah in Yemen
Yemen
from the time of Imam al Mustansir. She appointed the Dai in Yemen
Yemen
to run religious affairs. Ismaili
Ismaili
missionaries Ahmed and Abadullah (in about 1067 CE (460 AH))[42][43] were also sent to India
India
in that time. They sent Syedi Nuruddin to Dongaon to look after southern part and Syedi Fakhruddin to East Rajasthan, India.[44][45] The second split occurred following the death of al-Mustansir Billah in 1094 CE. His rule was the longest of any caliph in both the Fatimid and other Islamic empires. After he died, his sons Nizar, the older, and al-Musta'li, the younger, fought for political and spiritual control of the dynasty. Nizar was defeated and jailed, but according to Nizari
Nizari
sources his son escaped to Alamut, where the Iranian Ismāʿīlī had accepted his claim.[46] The Mustaali
Mustaali
line split again between the Taiyabi and the Hafizi, the former claiming that the 21st Imām and son of al-Amir bi-Ahkami'l-Lah went into occultation and appointed a Dāʿī al-Muṭlaq to guide the community, in a similar manner as the Ismāʿīlī had lived after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismail. The latter claimed that the ruling Fatimid caliph was the Imām. However, in the Mustaali
Mustaali
branch, the Dai came to have a similar but more important task. The term Dāʻī al-Mutlaq (Arabic: الداعي المطلق‎) literally means "the absolute or unrestricted missionary". This dai was the only source of the Imām's knowledge after the occultation of al-Qasim in Mustaali
Mustaali
thought. According to Taiyabi Ismaili
Taiyabi Ismaili
tradition, after the death of Imām al-Amīr, his infant son, at-Tayyib Abu'l-Qasim, about 2 years old, was protected by the most important woman in Musta'li
Musta'li
history after the Prophet's daughter, Fatimah. She was Arwa al-Sulayhi, a queen in Yemen. She was promoted to the post of hujjah long before by Imām Mustansir at the death of her husband. She ran the dawat from Yemen
Yemen
in the name of Imaam Tayyib. She was instructed and prepared by Imām Mustansir and ran the dawat from Yemen
Yemen
in the name of Imaam Tayyib, following Imāms for the second period of Satr. It was going to be on her hands, that Imām Tayyib would go into seclusion, and she would institute the office of the Dāʻī al-Mutlaq. Zoeb bin Moosa
Zoeb bin Moosa
was first to be instituted to this office. Dai continued in Yemen
Yemen
up to 24th Dai Yusuf who shifted Dawat to India. . Before the shift of Dawat in India
India
Dai's representative were known as Wali-ul-Hind. Syedi Hasan Feer was one of the prominent Ismaili
Ismaili
wali of 14th century. The line of Tayyib Dais that began in 1132 is still continuing under the main sect known as Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
(see list of Dai of Dawoodi Bohra). The Mustaali
Mustaali
split several times over disputes regarding who was the rightful Dāʿī al-Muṭlaq, the leader of the community within The Occultation. After the 27th Dai, Syedna Dawood bin Qutub Shah, there was another split; the ones following Syedna Dawood came to be called Dawoodi Bohra, and followers of Suleman were then called Sulaimani. Dawoodi Bohra's present Dai al Mutlaq, the 53rd, is Syedna Mufaddal Saifuddin, and he and his devout followers tread the same path, following the same tradition of the Aimmat Fatimiyyeen. The Sulaymani
Sulaymani
are mostly concentrated in Yemen
Yemen
and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
with some communities in the South Asia. The Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
and Alavi Bohra
Alavi Bohra
are mostly exclusive to South Asia, after the migration of the Da'wah from Yemen
Yemen
to India. Other groups include Atba-i-Malak
Atba-i-Malak
and Hebtiahs Bohra. Mustaali
Mustaali
beliefs and practices, unlike those of the Nizari
Nizari
and Druze, are completely compatible with mainstream Islam, representing a continuation of Fatimid tradition and fiqh. Decline of the Caliphate[edit] In the 1040s, the Zirid dynasty
Zirid dynasty
(governors of the Maghreb
Maghreb
under the Fatimids) declared their independence and their conversion to Sunni Islam, which led to the devastating Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
invasions. After about 1070, the Fatimid hold on the Levant
Levant
coast and parts of Syria
Syria
was challenged by first Turkish invasions, then the First Crusade, so that Fatimid territory shrunk until it consisted only of Egypt. Damascus fell to the Seljuk Empire
Empire
in 1076, leaving the Fatimids only in charge of Egypt
Egypt
and the Levantine coast up to Tyre and Sidon. Because of the vehement opposition to the Fatimids from the Seljuks, the Ismaili movement was only able to operate as a terrorist underground movement, much like the Assassins.[47] After the decay of the Fatimid political system in the 1160s, the Zengid ruler Nur ad-Din, atabeg of Aleppo
Nur ad-Din, atabeg of Aleppo
had his general, Saladin, seize Egypt
Egypt
in 1169, forming the Sunni
Sunni
Ayyubid dynasty. This signaled the end of the Hafizi
Hafizi
Mustaali
Mustaali
branch of Ismailism as well as the Fatimid Caliphate. Alamut[edit] Main article: Alamut

Artistic rendering of Hassan-i Sabbah.

Hassan-i Sabbah[edit] Main article: Hassan-i Sabbah Very early in the empire's life, the Fatimids sought to spread the Ismāʿīlī faith, which in turn would spread loyalty to the Imāmate in Egypt. One of their earliest attempts was taken by a missionary by the name of Hassan-i Sabbah. Hassan-i Sabbah
Hassan-i Sabbah
was born into a Twelver
Twelver
family living in the scholarly Persian city of Qom
Qom
in 1056 CE. His family later relocated to the city of Tehran, which was an area with an extremely active Ismāʿīlī Daʿwah. He immersed himself in Ismāʿīlī thought; however, he did not choose to convert until he was overcome with an almost fatal illness and feared dying without knowing the Imām of his time. Afterwards, Hassan-i Sabbah
Hassan-i Sabbah
became one of the most influential Dais in Ismāʿīlī history; he became important to the survival of the Nizari
Nizari
branch of Ismailism, which today is its largest branch. Legend holds that he met with Imām al-Mustansir Billah and asked him who his successor would be, to which he responded that it would be his eldest son Nizar. Hassan-i Sabbah
Hassan-i Sabbah
continued his missionary activities, which climaxed with his taking of the famous citadel of Alamut. Over the next two years, he converted most of the surrounding villages to Ismailism. Afterwards, he converted most of the staff to Ismailism, took over the fortress, and presented Alamut's king with payment for his fortress, which he had no choice but to accept. The king reluctantly abdicated his throne, and Hassan-i Sabbah
Hassan-i Sabbah
turned Alamut
Alamut
into an outpost of Fatimid rule within Abbasid territory. The Hashasheen
Hashasheen
/ Assassiyoon[edit] Main article: Assassins Surrounded by the Abbasids and other hostile powers and low in numbers, Hassan-Al Sabbah devised a way to attack the Ismāʿīlī's enemies with minimal losses. Using the method of assassination, he ordered the murders of Sunni
Sunni
scholars and politicians who he felt threatened the Ismāʿīlīs. Knives and daggers were used to kill, and sometimes as a warning, a knife would be placed on the pillow of a Sunni, who understood the message to mean that he was marked for death.[48] When an assassination was actually carried out, the Hashasheen
Hashasheen
would not be allowed to run away; instead, to strike further fear into the enemy, they would stand near the victim without showing any emotion and departed only when the body was discovered. This further increased the ruthless reputation of the Hashasheen throughout Sunni-controlled lands.[48] The English word, assassination, is said to have been derived from the Arabic word Hashasheen. It means both "those who use hashish," and one of the Shiite Ismaili
Ismaili
sects in the Syria
Syria
of the eleventh century.[49] Threshold of the Imāmate[edit] Main article: Nizar (Fatimid Imam)

View of Alamut
Alamut
besieged.

After the imprisonment of Nizar by his younger brother Ahmad al Mustaali, various sources indicate that Nizar's son Ali
Ali
Al-Hadi ibn Nizaral-Hādī survived and fled to Alamut. He was offered a safe place in Alamut, where Hassan-Al-Sabbah welcomed him. However, it is believed this was not announced to the public and the lineage was hidden until a few Imāms later.[48] It was announced with the advent of Imām Hassan II. In a show of his Imāmate and to emphasize the interior meaning (the batin) over the exterior meaning (the zahir), Imam Hasan announced the Qiyamah (spiritual resurrection) - the beginning of a new era in which the spiritual meaning of the religious law was revealed and practiced openly. He prayed with his back to Mecca, as did the rest of the congregation, who prayed behind him, and ordered the community to break their Ramadan
Ramadan
fasting with a feast at noon. He made a speech saying that the Imam had brought his murids to the qiyamah from the shariah. Afterwards his descendants ruled as the Imāms at Alamut
Alamut
until its destruction by the Mongols. Destruction by the Mongols[edit] Main article: Mongol Empire Though it had successfully warded off Sunni
Sunni
attempts to take it several times, including one by Saladin, the stronghold at Alamut
Alamut
soon met its destruction. By 1206, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
had managed to unite many of the once antagonistic Mongol tribes into a ruthless, but nonetheless unified, force. Using many new and unique military techniques, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
led his Mongol hordes across Central Asia into the Middle East, where they won a series of tactical military victories using a scorched earth policy. A grandson of Genghis Khan, Hulagu Khan, led the devastating attack on Alamut
Alamut
in 1256, only a short time before sacking the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad in 1258. As he would later do to the House of Wisdom
House of Wisdom
in Baghdad, he destroyed Ismāʿīlī as well as Islamic religious texts. The Imāmate that was located in Alamut
Alamut
along with its few followers were forced to flee and take refuge elsewhere. Aftermath[edit] After the fall of the Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
and its bases in Iran
Iran
and Syria, the three currently living branches of Ismāʿīlī generally developed geographically isolated from each other, with the exception of Syria
Syria
(which has both Druze
Druze
and Nizari) and Pakistan
Pakistan
and the rest of South Asia
South Asia
(which had both Mustaali
Mustaali
and Nizari). The Mustaali
Mustaali
progressed mainly in Yemen
Yemen
and then shifted their dawat to India
India
under Dai, working on behalf of their last Imam, Taiyyab, and were known as Bohra. From India, various groups spread mainly to south Asia and eventually to the Middle East, Europe, Africa and America. The Nizari
Nizari
have maintained large populations in Syria, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and they have smaller populations in China
China
and Iran. This community is the only one with a living Imām, whose title is the Aga Khan. Badakhshan, which spills over northeastern Afghanistan, eastern Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and North Pakistan, is the only part of the world where Ismailis make up the majority of the population.[50] The Druze
Druze
mainly settled in Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon
and developed a community based upon the principles of reincarnation through their own descendants. Their leadership is based on community scholars, who are the only individuals allowed to read their holy texts. There is controversy over whether this group falls under the classification of Ismāʿīlīsm or Islam
Islam
because of its unique beliefs. The Tajiks of Xinjiang, being Ismaili, were not subjected to being enslaved in China
China
by Sunni
Sunni
Muslim
Muslim
Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
because the two peoples did not share a common geographical region. .[51] The Burusho people of Pakistan
Pakistan
are also Nizaris. However, due to their isolation from the rest of the world, Islam
Islam
reached the Hunza about 350 years ago. Ismailism has been practiced by the Hunza for the last 300 years. The Hunza have been ruled by the same family of kings for over 900 years. They were called Kanjuts. Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
never took root in this part of central Asia so even now, there are less than a few dozen sunnis living among the Hunza.[52] Ismaili
Ismaili
Historiography[edit] One of the most important texts in Ismaili
Ismaili
historiography is the ʿUyun al-akhbar, which is a reference source on the history of Ismailism that was composed in 7 books by the Tayyibi Musta‘lian Ismaili
Ismaili
da‘i-scholar, Idris Imad al-Din (born ca. 1392). This text presents the most comprehensive history of the Ismaili
Ismaili
imams and da‘wa, from the earliest period of Muslim
Muslim
history until the late Fatimid era. The author, Idris Imad al-Din, descended from the prominent al-Walid family of the Quraysh in Yemen, who led the Tayyibi Musta‘lian Ismaili
Ismaili
da‘wa for more than three centuries. This gave him access to the literary heritage of the Ismailis, including the majority of the extant Fatimid manuscripts transferred to Yemen. The ‘Uyun al-akhbar is being published in 7 volumes of annotated Arabic critical editions as part of an institutional collaboration between the Institut Français du Proche Orient (IFPO) in Damascus and The Institute of Ismaili
Ismaili
Studies (IIS) in London. This voluminous text has been critically edited based on several old manuscripts from The Institute of Ismaili
Ismaili
Studies' vast collection. These academic editions have been prepared by a team of Syrian and Egyptian scholars, including Dr Ayman F­ Sayyid, and this major publication project has been coordinated by Dr Nader El-Bizri
Nader El-Bizri
(IIS) and Dr Sarab Atassi-Khattab (IFPO).[53][54] Beliefs[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

Sunni Six articles of belief

God Prophets Holy books Angels The Last Judgement Predestination

Sunni
Sunni
theological traditions

Ilm al-Kalam

Ash'ari1 Maturidi

Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2

Shi'a Twelver3

Principles

Tawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah Qiyamah

Practices

Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commanding what is just Forbidding what is evil Tawalla Tabarra

Seven pillars of Ismailism4

Walayah Tawhid Salah Zakat Sawm Hajj Jihad

Other Shia concepts of Aqidah

Imamate Batin Sixth Pillar of Islam

Other schools of theology

Khawarij5 Ibadi6 Murji'ah

Qadariyah Muʿtazila7 Sufism8

Including: 1Jahmi; 2Karramiyya; 3 Alawites
Alawites
& Qizilbash 4Sevener-Qarmatians, Assassins
Assassins
& Druzes 5Ajardi, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Najdat
Najdat
& Sūfrī 6Nūkkārī; 7 Bahshamiyya
Bahshamiyya
& Ikhshîdiyya 8Alevism, Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
& Qalandariyya Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

View on the Qur'an[edit] Main article: Esoteric interpretation of the Quran Ismāʿīlīs believe the Qur'an was sent to Muhammad
Muhammad
through the angel Gabriel (Jibra'il in Arabic) over the course of 23 years. They believe that the Imam has the authority to interpret the Qur'an in relation to the present time. The Ginans
Ginans
and Qasidas[edit] Main article: Ginans The Ginans
Ginans
are Nizari
Nizari
religious texts. They are written in the form of poetry by Pirs to interpret the meanings of Quranic ayat into the languages of South Asia, especially Gujarati and Urdu. In comparison to Ginans, Ismāʿīlīs of other origins, such as Persians, Arabs, and Central Asians, have qasidas (Arabic: قصيدة‎) written by missionaries such as Pir Sadardin Reincarnation
Reincarnation
(Druze)[edit] Belief in reincarnation exists in the Druze
Druze
faith, an offshoot of Ismailism. The Druze
Druze
believe that members of their community can only be reincarnated within the community. It is also known that Druze believe in five cosmic principles, represented by the five-colored Druze
Druze
star: intelligence/reason (green), soul (red), word (yellow), precedent (blue), and immanence (white). These virtues take the shape of five different spirits which, until recently, have been continuously reincarnated on Earth as prophets and philosophers including Adam, the ancient Greek mathematician and astronomer Pythagoras, the ancient Pharaoh of Egypt
Egypt
Akhenaten, and many others. The Druze
Druze
believe that, in every time period, these five principles were personified in five different people who came down together to Earth to teach humans the true path to God
God
and enlightenment, but that with them came five other individuals who would lead people away from the right path into "darkness." Numerology[edit] Main article: Numerology (Ismailism) Ismāʿīlīs believe numbers have religious meanings. The number seven plays a general role in the theology of the Ismā'īliyya, including mystical speculations that there are seven heavens, seven continents, seven orifices in the skull, seven days in a week, and so forth. Imamate[edit] Main articles: Imamah (Ismaili doctrine)
Imamah (Ismaili doctrine)
and List of Ismaili
Ismaili
imams

Ismāʿīlīs believe the Qur'an has two layers of meaning, the zāhir meaning apparent, and the bātin, meaning hidden.

For this sect, the Imām is the manifestation of truth, and hence he is their path of salvation to God.[55] Classical Ismāʿīlī doctrine holds that divine revelation had been given in six periods (daur) entrusted to six prophets, who they also call Natiq (Speaker), who were commissioned to preach a religion of law to their respective communities. Whereas the Natiq was concerned with the rites and outward shape of religion, the inner meaning is entrusted to a Wasi (Representative). The Wasi would know the secret meaning of all rites and rules and would reveal them to a small circles of initiates. The Natiq and the Wasi are in turn succeeded by a line of seven Imāms, who guard what they received. The seventh and last Imām in any period becomes the Natiq of the next period. The last Imām of the sixth period, however, would not bring about a new religion of law but rather supersede all previous religions, abrogate the law and introduce din Adama al-awwal ("the original religion of Adam") practised by Adam
Adam
and the angels in paradise before the fall, which would be without ritual or law but consist merely in all creatures praising the creator and recognizing his unity. This final stage was called the Qiyamah.[56] Pir and Dawah[edit] Main article: Da'i al-Mutlaq Just as the Imām is seen by Ismailis as the manifestation of the first-created Light, during the period between the Imāmates of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismail and al-Madhi Billah, the relationship between the teacher and the student became a sacred one, and the Dai became a position much beyond a normal missionary. The Dai passed on the sacred and hidden knowledge of the Imām to the student, who could then use that information to ascend to higher levels. First the student loved the Dai, and from the Dai he learned to love the Imām, who was but an interceder on behalf of God. In Nizari
Nizari
Ismailism, the head Dai is called the Pir.[29] Zāhir[edit] Main article: Zahir (Islam) In Ismailism, things have an exterior meaning, what is apparent. This is called zāhir. Bātin[edit] Main article: Batin (Islam) In Ismailism, things have an interior meaning that is reserved for a special few who are in tune with the Imām, or are the Imām himself. This is called bātin.[57] 'Aql[edit] Main article: 'Aql As with other Shia, Ismāʿīlīs believe that the understanding of God
God
is derived from the first light in the universe, the light of 'Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as 'Intellect' or to 'bind' (Latin: Intellectus). It is through this Universal Intellect ('aql al-kull) that all living and non-living entities know God, and all of humanity is dependent and united in this light.[48][58] Contrastingly, in Twelver
Twelver
thought this includes the Prophets as well, especially Muhammad, who is the greatest of all the manifestations of 'Aql. God, in Isma'ili metaphysics, is seen as above and beyond all conceptions, names, and descriptions. He transcends all positive and negative qualities, and knowledge of God
God
as such is above all human comprehension. Read more at: Ismaili
Ismaili
Musim Teachings on Tawhid
Tawhid
from Primary Sources For the Shia, the Light (nur) of the Imamate
Imamate
is the Universal Intellect, and consequently, the Imam on earth is the focus of manifestation (mazhar) of the Intellect. Dasond (Zakat)[edit] The Ismailis have submitted the Qur'anic zakat (see Qur'an 9:103), which is a purification due and not charitable alms, to the Imams since the death of the Prophet Muhammad. The zakat rates historically differed depending on the asset type - 2.5% of animals, 5% of minerals, and 10% of crops. Among Khoja
Khoja
Ismailis, the zakat is 12.5% of cash income and among other Ismailis of Iran, Syria, Central Asia, and China, the zakat is 10% of cash income and other %s of non-cash assets like crops and livestock.[59] Link to Article on Dasond The entire zakat amount is given to the Ismaili
Ismaili
Imam through his representatives in the Jamatkhanas, called Mukhi-Sahibs. The zakat/dasond funds are used exclusively for the benefit of the community — and for the expenses the Office of the Imamat incurs in this work. And even though the Imam has a right to a portion of those funds, personally, in fact the reverse happens and the Imam supplements Imamat funds from his personal resources, sometimes by an additional 150%. This has been documented in several interviews of the present Aga Khan.[60] Walayah[edit] Main article: Walayah Walayah
Walayah
is translated from Arabic as “guardianship” and denotes “Love and devotion for God, the Prophets, the Aimmat and Imām uz Zaman, and the Dai.” It also denotes Ta'at (following every order without protest, but with one's soul's happiness, knowing that nothing is more important than a command from God
God
and that the command of His vicegerents is His Word). In Ismāʿīlī doctrine, God
God
is the true desire of every soul, and He manifests himself in the forms of Prophets and Imāms; to be guided to his path, one requires a messenger or a guide: a Dai. For the true mawali of the Imam and Dai, heaven is made obligatory. And only with this crucial walayat, they believe, will all the other pillars and acts ordained by Islam
Islam
be judged or even looked at by God. Taharah or Shahada[edit] Taharah[edit] Main article: Taharah A pillar which translates from Arabic as “purity.” As well as a pure soul, it includes bodily purity and cleanliness; without Taharat of the body, clothes and ma'salla, Salaat will not be accepted. Shahada[edit] Main article: Shahada In place of Taharah, the Druze
Druze
have the Shahada, or affirmation of faith. Salat[edit] Main article: Salat Zakat[edit] Main article: Zakah A pillar which translates as “charity.” With the exception of the Druze
Druze
sect, the Ismāʿīlīs' form of zakat resembles the Zakat
Zakat
of other Muslims. Along with zakat, the Twelvers also pay khums, which is 1/5 of one's unspent money at the end of the year. Ismāʿīlīs pay a tithe of 12.5%, which is used for development projects in the eastern world, primarily to benefit Ismāʿīlīs and, by extension, other communities living in that area. Sawm[edit] Main article: Sawm A pillar which is translated as “fasting.” Sunni
Sunni
and Shi'ite Muslims fast by abstaining from food, drink from dawn to sunset as well purifying the soul by avoiding sinful acts and doing good deeds, e.g., not lying, being honest in daily life, not backbiting, etc., for 30 days during the holy month of Ramadan
Ramadan
(9th month of the Islamic calendar). In contrast, the Nizari
Nizari
and Musta'ali sects believe in a metaphorical as well as a literal meaning of fasting. The literal meaning is that one must fast as an obligation, such as during Ramadan, and the metaphorical meaning is seeking to attain the Divine Truth and striving to avoid worldly activities which may detract from this goal. In particular, Ismāʿīlīs believe that the esoteric meaning of fasting involves a "fasting of the soul," whereby they attempt to purify the soul simply by avoiding sinful acts and doing good deeds. Still, many Nizari
Nizari
Ismailis around the world fast during the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
every year. In addition, the Nizari
Nizari
also fast on "Shukravari Beej" which falls on a Friday that coincides with the New Moon. Hajj[edit] Main article: Hajj A pillar which translates from Arabic as “pilgrimage," meaning the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is currently the largest annual pilgrimage in the world and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in one's lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim
Muslim
who can afford to do so. Many Ismaili
Ismaili
sects do not ascribe to mainstream Islamic beliefs regarding the Hajj, considering it instead to metaphorically mean visiting the Imam himself, that being the greatest and most spiritual of all pilgrimages. However, since the Druze
Druze
do not follow shariah, they do not believe in a literal pilgrimage to the Kaaba
Kaaba
in Mecca
Mecca
as other Muslims do, while the Mustaali
Mustaali
(Bohras) as well as the Nizaris still hold on to the literal meaning as well, performing hajj to the Ka'aba and also visiting the Imam (or in a secluded time like today, the Dai, who is the representative or vicegerent of the Imam) to be Hajj-e Haqiqi.[55] Jihad[edit] Main article: Jihad An Islamic term, Jihad
Jihad
is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād is a noun meaning "struggle." Jihad
Jihad
appears frequently in the Qur'an and is sometimes used in the nonmilitary sense. A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is mujahideen. When a violent act is intended, the Qur'an used the term "Qattal" meaning to engage in killing/violence. A minority among the Sunni
Sunni
scholars sometimes refer to this duty as the sixth pillar of Islam, though it occupies no such official status. In Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a Islam, however, Jihad
Jihad
is one of the 10 Practices of the Religion. For the Isma'ilis, Jihad
Jihad
is the last of the Seven Islamic Pillars, and for them it means a struggle against one's own soul; striving toward rightness, and sometimes as struggle in warfare. However, Isma'ilis will stress that none but their Imam uz Zaman [Imam of the Time] can declare war and call his followers to fight. Branches[edit]

Branching of Ismāʿilism within Shi'a Islam
Islam
at a glance. ( Note: Kaysani's Imam Hanafiyyah is descendant of Ali
Ali
from Ali's wife Khawlah, not Fatimah)

Nizari[edit] Main article: Nizari The largest part of the Ismāʿīlī community, Qasim-Shahi Nizari today accepts Prince Karim Aga Khan
Aga Khan
IV as their 49th Imām,[61] who they claim is descended from Muḥammad through his daughter Fāṭimah az-Zahra and 'Ali, Muḥammad's cousin and son-in-law. The 46th Ismāʿīlī Imām, Aga Hassan ‘Alī Shah, fled Iran
Iran
in the 1840s after being blamed for a failed coup against the Shah of the Qajar dynasty.[62] Aga Hassan ‘Alī Shah settled in Mumbai
Mumbai
in 1848.[62] Muhammad-Shahi Nizari/Mumini[edit] There is the offshoot of the Muhammad-Shahi Nizari
Nizari
Ismailis who follow the elder son of Shamsu-d-Dīn Muḥammad, the 28th Qasim-Shahi Imam, named ‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Mumin Shāh (26th Imam of the Muhammad-Shahi Nizari
Nizari
Ismailis). They follow this line of Imams until the disappearance of the 40th Imam Amir Muhammad al-Baqir
Muhammad al-Baqir
in 1796. There are followers of this line of Nizari
Nizari
Imams in Syria
Syria
today, locally called the Jafariyah. Musta'ali[edit] Main article: Mustaali In time, the seat for one chain of the Dai was split between India
India
and Yemen
Yemen
as the community split several times, each recognizing a different Dai. Today, the Dawoodi Bohras, which constitute the majority of the Mustaali
Mustaali
Ismāʿīlī accept Mufaddal Saifuddin
Mufaddal Saifuddin
as the 53rd Dāʿī al-Muṭlaq. The Dawoodi Bohras are based in India, along with the Alavi Bohra. Minority groups of the Sulaymani, however, exist in Yemen
Yemen
and Saudi Arabia. In recent years, there has been a rapprochement between the Sulaymani, Dawoodi and Alavi Mustaali sub-sects. The Mustaali
Mustaali
sects are the most traditional of the three main groups of Ismāʿīlī, maintaining rituals such as prayer and fasting more consistently with the practices of other Shi'i sects. It is often said that they resemble Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
even more than Twelvers do, though this would hold true for matters of the exterior rituals (zahir) only, with little bearing on doctrinal or theological differences. Dawoodi Bohra[edit] Main article: Dawoodi Bohra

The divisions of the Mustaali, sometimes referred to as Bohras.

The Dawoodi Bohras are a very close-knit community who seek advice from the Dai on spiritual and temporal matters. Dawoodi Bohras is headed by the Dāʻī al-Mutlaq, who is appointed by his predecessor in office. The Dāʻī al-Mutlaq appoints two others to the subsidiary ranks of māzūn (Arabic Maʾḏūn مأذون) "licentiate" and Mukāsir (Arabic: مكاسر‎). These positions are followed by the rank of ra'sul hudood, bhaisaheb, miya-saheb, shaikh-saheb and mulla-saheb, which are held by several of Bohras. The 'Aamil or Saheb-e Raza who is granted the permission to perform the religious ceremonies of the believers by the Dāʻī al-Mutlaq and also leads the local congregation in religious, social and community affairs, is sent to each town where a sizable population of believers exists. Such towns normally have a masjid (commonly known as mosque) and an adjoining jamaa'at-khaana (assembly hall) where socio-religious functions are held. The local organizations which manage these properties and administer the social and religious activities of the local Bohras report directly to the central administration of the Dāʻī al-Mutlaq. While the majority of Dawoodi Bohras have traditionally been traders, it is becoming increasingly common for them to become professionals. Some choose to become Doctors, consultants or analysts as well as a large contingent of medical professionals. Dawoodi Bohras are encouraged to educate themselves in both religious and secular knowledge, and as a result, the number of professionals in the community is rapidly increasing. Dawoodi Bohras believe that the education of women is equally important as that of men, and many Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
women choose to enter the workforce. Al Jamea tus Saifiyah (The Arabic Academy) in Surat, Nairobi and Karachi
Karachi
is a sign to the educational importance in the Dawoodi community. The Academy has an advanced curriculum which encompasses religious and secular education for both men and women. Today there are approximately one million Dawoodi Bohra. The majority of these reside in India
India
and Pakistan, but there is also a significant diaspora residing in the Middle East, East Africa, Europe, North America and the Far East. The ordinary Bohra is highly conscious of his identity, and this is especially demonstrated at religious and traditional occasions by the appearance and attire of the participants. Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
men wear a traditional white three-piece outfit, plus a white and gold cap (called a topi), and women wear the rida, a distinctive form of the commonly known burqa which is distinguished from other forms of the veil due to it often being in color and decorated with patterns and lace. The rida's difference from the burqa, however, is significant beyond just the colour, pattern and lace. The rida does not call for covering of women's faces like the traditional veil. It has a flap called the 'pardi' that usually hangs on the back like the hood of a jacket but it is not used to conceal the face. This is representative of the Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
community's values of equality and justice for women, which they believe, is a tenet of the Fatimid Imamate's evolved understanding of Islam
Islam
and the true meaning of women's chastity in Islam. The Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
community also do not prevent their women from coming to mosques, attending religious gatherings or going to places of pilgrimage. It is often regarded as the most peaceful sect of Islam
Islam
and an example of true Sufism; it has been critically acclaimed on several occasions even by Western governments such as those of the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden and particularly the United States
United States
for its progressive outlook towards gender roles, adoption of technology, promotion of literature, crafts, business and secular values. However, the Dawoodi Bohras are highly single-minded about inter-caste or inter-faith marriage. They do not oppose it but do not encourage it either. If a Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
member does marry into another caste or religion, he or she is usually advised to ask his or her spouse to convert to Islam
Islam
and, specifically, into the community. They believe that straying away from the community implies straying away from Ma'ad – the ultimate objective of this life and the meaning of the teachings of Islam, which is to return to where all souls comes from and re-unite with Allah. Besides, converting someone to Islam
Islam
has high spiritual and religious significance as doctrines espouse that making someone a Muslim
Muslim
or Mu'min confers the Sawab (reward of good deeds) equivalent to that of 40 Hajjs and 40 Umrahs (visiting Mecca
Mecca
and the Kaaba
Kaaba
during days other than that of Hajj). The position of Da'i al-Mutlaq
Da'i al-Mutlaq
is currently disputed after the demise of the 52nd Da'i al-Mutlaq
Da'i al-Mutlaq
of the Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
community, Mohammed Burhanuddin. Two claimants emerged for the position of 53rd Da'i al-Mutlaq, Mufaddal Saifuddin
Mufaddal Saifuddin
and Khuzaima Qutbuddin, and a case is pending in the Bombay High Court to resolve the matter. Qutbuddin has since died and appointed his son Taher Fakhruddin
Taher Fakhruddin
as his successor. Besides speaking the local languages, the Dawoodis have their own language called Lisānu l-Dāʻwat "Tongue of the Dāʻwat". This is written in the Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
but is derived from Urdu, Gujarati and Arabic and Persian. Sulaymani[edit] Main article: Sulaymani Founded in 1592, the Sulaymani
Sulaymani
are mostly concentrated in Yemen
Yemen
but are also found in Pakistan
Pakistan
and India. The denomination is named after its 27th Daʻī, Sulayman bin Hassan. They are referred and prefer to be referred as Ahle-Haq Isma'ilis and Sulaymanis and not with the Bohras suffix. The total number of Sulaymanis currently are around 300,000, mainly living in the eastern district of Jabal Haraz
Jabal Haraz
in northwest Yemen
Yemen
and in Najran, Saudi Arabia.[63] Beside the Banu Yam of Najran, the Sulaymanis are in Haraz, among the inhabitants of the Jabal Maghariba and in Hawzan, Lahab and Attara, as well as in the district of Hamadan and in the vicinity of Yarim. In India
India
there are between 3000 and 5000 Sulaymanis living mainly in Vadodara, Hyderabad, Mumbai
Mumbai
and Surat. In Punjab, Pakistan, there is a well-established Sulaymani
Sulaymani
community in Sind. Some ten thousand Sulaymanis live in rural areas of Punjab known to the Sulaymani
Sulaymani
as Jazeera-e Sind; these Sulaymani
Sulaymani
communities have been in the Jazeera-e Sind from the time of Fatimid Imam- Caliph
Caliph
al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah
Allah
when he sent his Daʻīs to Jazeera-e Sind. There are also some 900–1000 Sulaymanis mainly from South Asia scattered around the world, in the Persian Gulf States, United States, Canada, Thailand, Australia, Japan
Japan
and the United Kingdom. Alavi Bohra[edit] Main article: Alavi Bohra The ‘Alavi Bohras,[64] popularly and incorrectly known as Alya Bohras, follow a different line of succession of Du’aat (missionaries) from the 29th da’i[65] onwards after the split from Da’udi Bohras in Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
in 1621 CE. They believe the rightful da’i was a grandson of the 28th da’i named ‘ Ali
Ali
Shams al-Din b. Ibrahim (d. 1046 AH/1637 CE). They are named after this ‘Ali, calling themselves ‘Alavis, and their mission ad-Da’wat ul-Haadiyat ul-‘Alaviyah.[66] Three da’is later, in 1110 AH/1699 CE, the seat of the ‘Alavi Da’wat was moved from Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
to Vadodara
Vadodara
by 32nd da’i, acting on the will of 31st da’i (except for a brief interlude in Surat
Surat
for 20 years 1158-1178 AH/1745-1764 CE). Since then Vadodara
Vadodara
remains the headquarters of the ‘Alavis to this day. The ‘Alavi Bohras[67] have a library of 450 Isma’ili manuscripts, some up to 500 years old, at their centre in Vadodara. Currently ‘Alavi Bohras[68] are a close-knit organized community numbering approximately 8000, with the majority of them settled in Vadodara, where they have their own locality.[69] They have their own masjids and musafirkhanas in places like Mumbai, Surat, Ahmedabad, Nadiad in India. Some have migrated to the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, UAE and Europe. Like majority of Bohra[70] communities, ‘ Alavi Bohras
Alavi Bohras
are mostly traders and dominate the optical and furniture market in Vadodara. They are now increasingly venturing into professions such as law, medicine, engineering, business management, computer sciences. Beings Isma’ili-Taiyebis they follow strictly Fatimid spiritual hierarchical set-up, law, dress code, customs, beliefs, eating hadits, life-style, ethics and customary traditions etc. While lesser known and smallest in number, Alavi Bohras
Alavi Bohras
have their spiritual and temporal head as the 45th dāʿī al-muṭlaq, Haatim Zakiyuddin. The doctrines of Alavi Bohras
Alavi Bohras
is centered in the recognition of Imam. It continues to be the most important foundation among Bohras. In fact, dai al-mutlaq acts as a direct representative of the concealed Imam as he receives required guidance from him.[71] During this time of the concealment of 21st Fatimid Imam at-Taiyeb and his progeny, the religious hierarchy of the Alavi Bohras
Alavi Bohras
is headed by the Dāʻī al-Mutlaq, who is appointed by his predecessor in office and similar as of Dawoodi Bohra. Hebtiahs Bohra[edit] Main article: Hebtiahs Bohra The Hebtiahs Bohra
Hebtiahs Bohra
are a branch of Mustaali
Mustaali
Ismaili
Ismaili
Shi'a Islam
Islam
that broke off from the mainstream Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
after the death of the 39th Da'i al-Mutlaq
Da'i al-Mutlaq
in 1754.[citation needed] Atba-i-Malak[edit] Main article: Atba-i-Malak The Atba-i Malak jamaat (community) are a branch of Mustaali
Mustaali
Ismaili Shi'a Islam
Islam
that broke off from the mainstream Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
after the death of the 46th Da'i al-Mutlaq, under the leadership of Abdul Hussain Jivaji. They have further split into two more branches, the Atba-i-Malak
Atba-i-Malak
Badar and Atba-i-Malak
Atba-i-Malak
Vakil.[72] Progressive Dawoodi Bohra[edit] The Progressive Dawoodi Bohra
Dawoodi Bohra
is a reformist sect within Musta'li Ismai'li Shi'a Islam
Islam
that broke off circa 1977. They disagree with mainstream Dawoodi Bohra, as led by the Da'i al-Mutlaq, on doctrinal, economic and social issues. Offshoots[edit] Druze[edit] Main article: Druze While on one view there is a historical nexus between the Druze
Druze
and Ismāʿīlīs, any such links are purely historical and do not entail any modern similarities,[citation needed] given that one of the Druze's central tenets is trans-migration of the soul (reincarnation) as well as other contrasting beliefs with Ismāʿīlīsm and Islam. Druze
Druze
is an offshoot of Ismailism. Many historical links do trace back to Syria
Syria
and particularly Masyaf.[citation needed] Satpanth[edit] Main articles: Satpanth
Satpanth
and Khoja Satpanth
Satpanth
is a subgroup of Nizari
Nizari
Ismailism and Ismaili
Ismaili
Sufism
Sufism
formed by conversions from Hinduism 700 years ago by Pir Sadardin
Pir Sadardin
(1290-1367) and 600 years ago in the 15th century by his grandson Pir Imam Shah (1430-1520), they differ slightly from the Nizari
Nizari
Khojas in that they reject the Aga Khan
Aga Khan
as their leader and are known more commonly as Imam-Shahi. There are villages in Gujarat which are totally 'Satpanthi' such as Pirana near Ahmedabad
Ahmedabad
where Imam Shah is buried. It is also the older form of Nizari
Nizari
Ismaili
Ismaili
practice originating from the Kutch community of Gujarat. Pir Sadardin
Pir Sadardin
gave the first converts to Ismailism the name 'Satpanth' because they were the followers of the 'True Path.' They were then given the title of Khoja
Khoja
to replace their title of Thakkar. Extinct branches[edit] Böszörmény[edit] Main article: Böszörmény According to the historian Yaqut al-Hamawi, the Böszörmény (Izmaelita or Ismaili
Ismaili
/ Nizari) denomination of the Muslims who lived in the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
in the 10–13th centuries, were employed as mercenaries by the kings of Hungary. However following the establishment of the Christian
Christian
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
their community was Christianized by the end of the 13th century.[citation needed] Hafizi[edit] Main article: Hafizi This branch held that whoever the political ruler (Caliph) of the Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
was, was also the Imam of the Time, after the reign of Al-Amir, Al-Hafiz
Al-Hafiz
was recognized as the Imam of the Time
Imam of the Time
as well as his descendants. The Hafizi
Hafizi
Ismaili
Ismaili
sect had 26 Imams. The Hafizi
Hafizi
sect lived on into the 14th century AD with adherents in Northern Egypt
Egypt
and Syria
Syria
but had died out by the 15th century AD. Seveners[edit] Main article: Sevener A branch of the Ismāʿīlī known as the Sab'īyah "Seveners" hold that Ismāʿīl's son, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ismail, was the seventh and final Ismāʿīlī Imam, who is said to be in the Occultation.[29] However, most scholars believe this group is either extremely small or non-existent today. The Qaramita
Qaramita
were the most active branch of the Seveners. Inclusion in Amman Message
Amman Message
and Islamic Ummah[edit] The Amman Message, which was issued on 9 November 2004 (27th of Ramadan
Ramadan
1425 AH) by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein of Jordan, called for tolerance and unity in the Muslim
Muslim
world. Subsequently, the "Amman Message" Conference took place in Amman, Jordan
Jordan
on 4–6 July 2005 and a three-point declaration was issued by 200 Muslim
Muslim
academics from over 50 countries focusing on the three issues of:

Defining who is a Muslim; Excommunication from Islam
Islam
(takfir); and Principles related to delivering religious edicts (fatāwa).

The three-point declaration (later known as The Three Points of the Amman Message)[73] included both the Ja'fari and Zaydi
Zaydi
Shia madhāhib (schools of jurisprudence) among the eight schools of jurisprudence that were listed as being in the Muslim
Muslim
fold and whose adherents were therefore to be considered as Muslim
Muslim
by definition and therefore cannot be excluded from the world community of Muslims. The Aga Khan, the 49th Imam of the Ismailis, was invited to issue a religious edict for and on behalf of the Ismailis, which he did by a letter explicitly stating that the Ismailis adhered to the Ja'fari school as well as other schools of close affinity including the Sufi principles concerned with personal search for God.[74] The summarization by Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad
Muhammad
explicitly delineates on page 11 the place of the Ismailis as being within the Ja'fari school as stated by the Aga Khan.[75] Ismailism amongst Shia Islam[edit] The Shia belief throughout its history split over the issue of the Imamate. The largest branch are the Twelvers, followed by the Zaidi and Ismaili
Ismaili
and Kaysanite. All the groups follow a different line of Imamate
Imamate
linked together as shown in chart below.

Note: Kaysani's Imam Hanafiyyah is descendant of Ali
Ali
from Ali's wife Khawlah, not Fatimah

See also[edit]

Banu Yam Böszörmény Brethren of Purity Ghulat Hosay Khoja List of extinct Shia sects Nasir Khusraw

References[edit]

^ Spencer C. Tucker & Priscilla Roberts 2008, p. 917. ^ "Ismaʿili". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ "ISMAʿILISM".  ^ "Religion of My Ancestors". Retrieved 2007-04-25.  ^ "Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa'i". Retrieved 2007-04-25.  ^ " Ismaili
Ismaili
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Aga Khan
IV Archived 6 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nasr, Vali, The Shia Revival, Norton, (2006), p.76 ^ Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4.  ^ Dr. Sarfaroz Niyozov, University of Toronto "Shi'a Ismaili
Ismaili
Tradition in Central Asia
Central Asia
– Evolution, and Continuities and Changes". Retrieved 2012-03-20.  ^ Turner, Colin (2006). Islam: The Basics. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415341059.  ^ ibn Abu talib, Ali. Najul'Balagha.  ^ "Imam Ali". Retrieved 2007-04-24.  ^ "The Kharijites and their impact on Contemporary Islam". Retrieved 2007-04-24.  ^ Virani, Shafique (2007). The Ismailis in the Middle Ages: A History of Survival, a Search for Salvation: A History of Survival, a Search for Salvation. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-804259-4.  ^ " Ali
Ali
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Sunnah
during the First Four Generations of Muslims in Relation to the Development of the Concept of an Authentic Ḥadīth as based on Recent Western Scholarship", Arab Law Quarterly 26 (2012) 393-437 ^ http://repository.um.edu.my/28465/1/ALQ_026_04_01-Duderija%20(5).pdf ^ "Battle of Karbala' Islamic history". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-09-18.  ^ "Hussain bin Ali". Retrieved 2007-04-24.  ^ "Ashoura through the eyes of Sunnis". Al-Monitor. 2014-11-09. Retrieved 2017-09-18.  ^ " Karbala
Karbala
in Istanbul: Scenes from the Ashura
Ashura
Commemorations of Zeynebiye - Ajam Media Collective". Ajam Media Collective. 2014-11-03. Retrieved 2017-09-18.  ^ "Imam Baqir". Retrieved 2007-04-24.  ^ S.H. Nasr (2006), Islamic Philosophy from Its Origin to the Present: Philosophy in the Land of Prophecy, State University of New York Press, p. 146 ^ "Imam Ja'far b. Muhammad
Muhammad
al Sadi'q". Retrieved 2007-04-24.  ^ a b c Daftary, Farhad (1990). The Ismāʿīlīs: Their history and doctrines. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-521-42974-9.  ^ Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 36–50. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4.  ^ Morris, James (2002). The Master and the Disciple: An Early Islamic Spiritual Dialogue on Conversion Kitab al-'alim wa'l-ghulam. Institute for Ismaili
Ismaili
Studies. p. 256. ISBN 1-86064-781-2.  ^ Abbas Amanat, Magnus Thorkell. Imagining the End: Visions of Apocalypse. p. 123.  ^ Delia Cortese, Simonetta Calderini. Women and the Fatimids in the World of Islam. p. 26.  ^ Abbas Amanat, Magnus Thorkell. Imagining the End: Visions of Apocalypse. p. 123.  ^ Abū Yaʻqūb Al-Sijistānī. Early Philosophical Shiism: The Ismaili
Ismaili
Neoplatonism. p. 161.  ^ Yuri Stoyanov. The Other God: Dualist Religions from Antiquity to the Cathar Heresy.  ^ Gustave Edmund Von Grunebaum. Classical Islam: A History, 600–1258. p. 113.  ^ Yuri Stoyanov. The Other God: Dualist Religions from Antiquity to the Cathar Heresy.  ^ "Qarmatiyyah". Archived from the original on 28 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-24.  ^ "MUHAMMAD AL-MAHDI (386-411/996-1021)". Retrieved 2008-12-17.  ^ "al-Hakim bi Amr Allah: Fatimid Caliph
Caliph
of Egypt". Retrieved 2007-04-24.  ^ Enthoven, R. E. (1922). The Tribes and Castes of Bombay. 1. Asian Educational Services. p. 199. ISBN 81-206-0630-2.  ^ The Bohras, By: Asgharali Engineer, Vikas Pub. House, p.109,101 ^ [1], Mullahs on the Mainframe.., By Jonah Blank, p.139 ^ The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines By Farhad Daftary; p.299 ^ Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 106–108. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4.  ^ Saunder, J.J. (1978). A History of Medieval Islam. Routledge. p. 151. ISBN 0-415-05914-3.  ^ a b c d Campbell, Anthony (2004). The Assassins
Assassins
of Alamut. p. 84.  ^ Leiden, Carl (May 1969). "Assassination in the Middle East". Transaction. 6 (7): 20–23.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Ismaili
Ismaili
Muslims in the remote Pamir mountains Archived 3 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ildikó Bellér-Hann (2007). Situating the Uyghurs between China
China
and Central Asia. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 20. ISBN 0-7546-7041-4. Retrieved 2010-07-30.  ^ Sir Thomas Douglas Forsyth
Sir Thomas Douglas Forsyth
(1875). Report of a mission to Yarkund in 1873, under command of Sir T. D. Forsyth: with historical and geographical information regarding the possessions of the ameer of Yarkund. Printed at the Foreign department press. p. 56. Retrieved 2011-01-23.  ^ "The Institute of Ismaili
Ismaili
Studies publications news". Retrieved 2010-09-09.  ^ "IsmailiMail news". Retrieved 2010-09-09.  ^ a b "Isma'ilism". Retrieved 2007-04-24.  ^ Halm, Heinz (1988). Die Schia. Darmstadt, Germany: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. pp. 202–204. ISBN 3-534-03136-9.  ^ Ismaili
Ismaili
Esoteric Interpretation of the Qur'an ^ Kitab al-Kafi.  ^ The Essential Ismaili
Ismaili
& Ismaili
Ismaili
Gnosis, "What is the Concept of Zakat
Zakat
(Dasond)" ^ "What Does Mawlana Hazar Imam Do with the Religious
Religious
Dues given by the Community?". The Essential Ismaili
Ismaili
& Ismaili
Ismaili
Gnosis. Retrieved 5 November 2017.  ^ "The Ismaili: His Highness the Aga Khan". Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2008.  ^ a b Daftary, Farhad (1998). A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 196–199. ISBN 0-7486-0687-4.  ^ " Muslim
Muslim
Sect Sees Struggle Through Christian
Christian
Lens". The New York Times. 21 October 2010.  ^ Daftary, Farhad (2011). A Modern History of the Isma'ilis. London: I. B. Tauris Publishers and Institute of Ismaili
Ismaili
Studies. p. 357.  ^ Engineer, Asghar Ali
Ali
(1980). The Bohras. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd. p. 122. ISBN 0-7069-0836-8.  ^ ad-Da'wat ul-Haadiyat ul-'Alaviyah is the Spiritual Seat, Divine Mission and Heavenly Call of Da'i of Alavi Bohras
Alavi Bohras
linked to the first Prophet of Islam, Maulaana Adam
Adam
and the First Creation of Allaah, the Intellect ('aql) ^ Qutbuddin, Tahera (2011). A Brief Note on Other Tayyibi Communities: Sulaymanis and 'Alavis. New York: I.B.Tauris & Co. Ltd. p. 355. ISBN 978-1-84511-717-7.  ^ Daftary, Farhad (2007). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Dcotrines. New York: Cambridge University Press & The Institute of Ismaili Studies. p. 282. ISBN 978 0 521 61636 2.  ^ Misra, Satish C (1985). Muslim
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Communities in Gujarat. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd. p. 73.  ^ Daftary, Farhad (1996). Mediaeval Isma'ili History and Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 5,98,131,132. ISBN 9780521003100.  ^ Hollister, John Norman (1979). The Shi'a of India. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. p. 284.  ^ "Islamic Voice". Islamic Voice. 1998-02-12. Archived from the original on 6 March 2001. Retrieved 2012-12-26.  ^ "The Official Website of The Amman Message
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- The Three Points of The Amman Message
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Bibliography[edit]

The Uyun al-akhbar is the most complete text written by an Ismaili/Tayyibi/Dawoodi 19th Dai Sayyedna Idris bin Hasan on the history of the Ismaili
Ismaili
community from its origins up to the 12th century period of the Fatimid caliphs al-Mustansir (d. 487/1094), the time of Musta‘lian rulers including al-Musta‘li (d. 495/1101) and al-Amir (d. 524/1130), and then the Tayyibi Ismaili
Ismaili
community in Yemen. Daftary, Farhad (2012) Historical dictionary of the Ismailis. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2012. Steinberg, Jonah (2011) Isma'ili Modern: Globalization and Identity in a Muslim
Muslim
Community. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Spencer C. Tucker; Priscilla Roberts (12 May 2008), The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-18-5109-842-2 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ismailism.

Official website Introductory lecture on Ismailism, YouTube Encyclopaedia Iranica, ISMAʿILISM Institute of Ismaili
Ismaili
Studies Aga Khan
Aga Khan
Development Network Alavi Bohras

v t e

Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al- Nafs
Nafs
al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni
Sunni
books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran
Iran
to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

v t e

Islamic philosophy

Fields

Alchemy Aqidah
Aqidah
(theology) 'Aql (intellect) Cosmology

astrology medieval astronomy

Eschatology Ethics Kalam
Kalam
(dialectic) Fiqh
Fiqh
(jurisprudence) Logic Metaphysics Natural philosophy (physics) Peace Madrasah (education) Medieval science Medieval psychology Sufism
Sufism
(mysticism)

Schools

Early Farabism Avicennism Averroism Illuminationism Sufi

cosmology metaphysics

Transcendent theosophy Traditionalist Contemporary

Concepts

ʻAṣabīya Ḥāl Iʻjaz ʼIjtihād ʻlm ʻIrfān Ijmāʿ Maslaha Nafs Qadar Qalb Qiyās Shūrā Tawḥīd Ummah

Philosophers by century (CE)

9th–10th

Al-Kindi Ali
Ali
ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri Zakariya Razi Apharabius Abu Hatim al-Razi Al Amiri Ikhwan al-Safa Abu Sulayman Sijistani Ibn Masarrah Abu Yaqub al-Sijistani

11th

Al-Ghazali Ibn Miskawayh Avicenna Ibn Hazm Bahmanyār Mu'ayyad fi'l-Din al-Shirazi Nasir Khusraw

12th

Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī Afdal al-Din Kashani Ahi Evren Ahmad Yasavi Ayn-al-Quzat Averroes Ibn Tufail Omar Khayyám Suhrawardi Shams Tabrizi

13th

Hajji Bektash Wali Jalal ad-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Ibn Sab’in Ibn Arabi al-Abharī Nasir al-Din Tusi Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi

14th–16th

Ibn Khaldun Yunus Emre Hajji Bayram Jalaladdin Davani Sadr ad-Din Dashtaki Aziz Mahmud Hudayi Qadi Mir Husayn al-Maybudi Mahmud Shabistari Sayyid
Sayyid
Haydar Amuli Dawūd al-Qayṣarī Jami

17th–19th

Mir Damad Mir Fendereski Mulla Sadra Mohsen Fayz Kashani Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji Mujaddid Alf-i-Sani Rajab Ali
Ali
Tabrizi Qazi Sa’id Qumi Shah Waliullah Dehlawi Hādī Sabzavārī

20th–present

Muhammad
Muhammad
Husayn Tabatabaei Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal Gohar Shahi Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr René Guénon Frithjof Schuon Martin Lings Hossein Nasr Naquib al-Attas Abdolkarim Soroush Gholamhossein Ebrahimi Dinani Taha Abdurrahman Mohammed Abed al-Jabri Mohammed Arkoun Fouad Zakariyya Reza Davari Ardakani Ahmad Fardid Mostafa Malekian Hasanzadeh Amoli Javadi Amoli Partawi Shah

v t e

Islam
Islam
topics

Outline of Islam

Beliefs

God
God
in Islam Tawhid Muhammad

In Islam

Prophets of Islam Angels Revelation Predestination Judgement Day

Five Pillars

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

History Leaders

Timeline of Muslim
Muslim
history Conquests Golden Age Historiography Sahaba Ahl al-Bayt Shi'a Imams Caliphates

Rashidun Umayyad Abbasid Córdoba Fatimid Almohad Sokoto Ottoman

Religious
Religious
texts

Quran Sunnah Hadith Tafsir Seerah

Denominations

Sunni Shia Ibadi Black Muslims Ahmadiyya Quranism Non-denominational

Life Culture

Animals Art Calendar Children Clothing Holidays Mosques Madrasas Moral teachings Music Philosophy Political aspects Qurbani Science

medieval

Social welfare Women LGBT Islam
Islam
by country

Law Jurisprudence

Economics

Banking Economic history Sukuk Takaful Murabaha Riba

Hygiene

Ghusl Miswak Najis Tayammum Toilet Wudu

Marriage Sex

Marriage contract Mahr Mahram Masturbation Nikah Nikah Mut‘ah Zina

Other aspects

Cleanliness Criminal Dhabiĥa Dhimmi Divorce Diet Ethics Etiquette Gambling Gender segregation Honorifics Hudud Inheritance Jizya Leadership Ma malakat aymanukum Military

POWs

Slavery Sources of law Theological

baligh kalam

 Islamic studies

Arts

Arabesque Architecture Calligraphy Carpets Gardens Geometric patterns Music Pottery

Medieval science

Alchemy and chemistry Astronomy Cosmology Geography and cartography Mathematics Medicine Ophthalmology Physics

Philosophy

Early Contemporary Eschatology Theological

Other areas

Astrology Creationism (evolution) Feminism Inventions Liberalism and progressivism Literature

poetry

Psychology Shu'ubiyya Conversion to mosques

Other religions

Christianity

Mormonism Protestantism

Hinduism Jainism Judaism Sikhism

Related topics

Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism

Criticism Post-Islamism Qutbism Salafi movement

Islamophobia

Incidents

Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran
Quran
and miracles Symbolism

Islam
Islam
portal Category

v t e

Theology: Outline

Conceptions of God

Theism

Forms

Deism Dystheism Henotheism Hermeticism Kathenotheism Nontheism Monolatry Monotheism Mysticism Panentheism Pandeism Pantheism Polydeism Polytheism Spiritualism Theopanism

Concepts

Deity Divinity Gender of God
God
and gods

Male deity Goddess

Numen

Singular god theologies

By faith

Abrahamic religions

Judaism Christianity Islam

the Bahá'í Faith Buddhism Hinduism Jainism Sikhism Zoroastrianism

Concepts

Absolute Brahman Emanationism Logos Supreme Being

God
God
as

the Devil Sustainer Time

Trinitarianism

Athanasian Creed Comma Johanneum Consubstantiality Homoousian Homoiousian Hypostasis Perichoresis Shield of the Trinity Trinitarian formula Trinity Trinity
Trinity
of the Church Fathers Trinitarian Universalism

Eschatology

Afterlife Apocalypticism Buddhist Christian Heaven Hindu Islamic Jewish Taoist Zoroastrian

Feminist

Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Mormonism Goddesses

Other concepts

The All Aristotelian view Attributes of God
God
in Christianity / in Islam Binitarianism Demiurge Divine simplicity Divine presence Egotheism Exotheology Holocaust Godhead in Christianity

Latter Day Saints

Great Architect of the Universe Great Spirit Apophatic theology Olelbis Open theism Personal god Phenomenological definition Philo's view Process Tian Unmoved mover

Names of God
God
in

Christianity Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism

By Faith

Christian

History Outline Biblical canon Glossary Christology Cosmology Ecclesiology Ethics Hamartiology Messianism Nestorianism Philosophy Practical Sophiology Soteriology

Hindu

Ayyavazhi theology Krishnology

Islamic

Oneness of God Prophets Holy Scriptures Angels Predestination Last Judgment

Jewish

Abrahamic prophecy Aggadah Denominations K

.