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The General of the Dead Army 1963 The Siege 1970 Chronicle in Stone
Chronicle in Stone
1971 Broken April
Broken April
1980[1][2] The Palace of Dreams
The Palace of Dreams
1981 The File
File
on H. 1981 The Successor 2003 The Fall of the Stone City 2008

Notable awards Prix mondial Cino Del Duca 1992 Herder Prize 1998 Man Booker International Prize 2005 Prince of Asturias Awards 2009 Jerusalem Prize 2015 The Order of Legion of Honour 2016

Ismail Kadare
Ismail Kadare
(Albanian: [ismaˈil kadaˈɾe], also spelled Kadaré; born 28 January 1936) is an Albanian novelist, poet, essayist and playwright. He has been a leading literary figure in Albania
Albania
since the 1960s. He focused on poetry until the publication of his first novel[not verified in body], The General of the Dead Army, which made him famous outside of Albania. In 1996, he became a lifetime member of the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques
Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques
of France. In 1992, he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca; in 1998, the Herder Prize; in 2005, he won the inaugural Man Booker International Prize; in 2009, the Prince of Asturias Award
Prince of Asturias Award
of Arts; in 2015, the Jerusalem Prize, and in 2016, he was a Commandeur de la Légion d'Honneur recipient. Kadare is regarded by some as one of the greatest European writers and intellectuals of the 20th century and, in addition, as a universal voice against totalitarianism.[3]

Contents

1 Life and work 2 Personal life 3 Recognition 4 Literary themes 5 Oeuvre

5.1 English translations 5.2 Works published in Albanian

5.2.1 Novels and novellas 5.2.2 Plays 5.2.3 Screenplays 5.2.4 Poetry 5.2.5 Essays 5.2.6 Story collections

6 Quotes 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External links

Life and work[edit] Ismail Kadare
Ismail Kadare
was born on 28 January 1936 in Gjirokastër
Gjirokastër
in Albania, to Halit Kadare, a post office employee[4], and Hatixhe Dobi, a homemaker.[citation needed] He attended primary and secondary schools in Gjirokastër
Gjirokastër
and studied Languages and Literature at the Faculty of History and Philology of the University of Tirana. In 1956 Kadare received a teacher's diploma. He later studied at the Maxim Gorky Literature Institute in Moscow
Moscow
from 1958 to 1960.[1] While studying literature in Moscow
Moscow
he managed to get a collection of his poems published in Russian, and there he also wrote his first novel The City with no Signs in 1959, intentionally defying the rules of socialist realism.[5] After returning home in 1960 because of the Soviet-Albanian split, he worked as a journalist and then embarked on a literary career[4]. He tried to publish a fragment of his first novel camouflaged as a short story titled "Coffeehouse Days". Upon being published in the literary magazine Zëri i Rinisë in 1962, it was immediately banned by the authorities.[6][7] He was advised by his close friends not to tell anybody about the actual novel, so it stayed in his drawers for decades until the communist regime fell in 1990. In 1963, he published his first novel titled The General of the Dead Army whose French translation by the persecuted Isuf Vrioni[8], published by Albin Michel in 1970 led to Kadare's international breakthrough. The novel was not received well by the critics in Albania
Albania
at the time.[9]His next novel, The Monster, published in the magazine Nëntori in 1965, was banned immediately. After offending the authorities with a political poem in 1975, he was forbidden to publish for three years In March 1982 The Palace of Dreams
The Palace of Dreams
was harshly condemned in a Writer's Plenum. The writer was accused of making allusions to Communist Albania
Albania
in it, citing several ambiguous passages. As a result the work was banned.[10] Kadare was also accused by the president of the League of Albanian Writers and Artists of deliberately evading politics by cloaking much of his fiction in history and folklore. Around the time of Hoxha's death in 1985, his novel A Moonlit Night was banned by the authorities.[11] The same year he wrote Agamemnon's Daughter— a direct critique of the oppressive regime in Albania, which was smuggled out of the country with the help of Kadare's French editor Claude Durand.[12] In 1990, Kadare claimed political asylum in France, issuing statements in favor of democratization. At that time, he stated that "dictatorship and authentic literature are incompatible. The writer is the natural enemy of dictatorship".[citation needed] During the 1990s and 2000s he was offered multiple times to become President of Albania, but declined.[13] He has divided his time between Albania
Albania
and France since 1990[citation needed]. Critical opinion is divided as to whether Kadare should be considered to have been a dissident or a conformist during the Communist period.[1] For his part, Kadare has stated that he had never claimed to be an "Albanian Solzhenitsyn" or a dissident, and that "dissidence was a position no one could occupy [in Enver Hoxha's Albania], even for a few days, without facing the firing squad. On the other hand, my books themselves constitute a very obvious form of resistance".[14] Henri Amouroux, a member of the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques of France, pointed out that Soviet dissidents including Solzhenitsyn had published their works during the era of de-Stalinization, whereas Kadare lived and published his works in a country which remained Stalinist until 1990.[15] Robert Elsie, an expert of Albanian Literature also stressed the fact that, the conditions in which Kadare lived and published his works were not comparable to other European communist countries where at least some level of public dissent was tolerated, rather, the situation in Albania
Albania
was comparable to North Korea
North Korea
or the Soviet Union in the 1930s under Stalin. Despite all of this, Kadare used any opportunity to attack the regime in his works, by means of political allegories, which were picked up by educated Albanian readers.[16] Personal life[edit] He is married to an Albanian author, Helena Kadare (née Gushi), and has two daughters. Recognition[edit]

Kadare on Albania's Postal stamps

In English, his works have been translated by David Bellos.[17] In 1996 Kadare became a lifetime member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences of France, where he replaced the philosopher Karl Popper. In 1992, he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca, and in 2005 he received the inaugural Man Booker International Prize. In 2009, Kadare was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award
Prince of Asturias Award
for Literature.[18] In the same year he was awarded an Honorary Degree of Science in Social and Institutional Communication by the University of Palermo in Sicily. In 2015, he was awarded the bi-annual Jerusalem Prize.[19] The London newspaper The Independent
The Independent
said of Kadare: "He has been compared to Gogol, Kafka and Orwell. But Kadare's is an original voice, universal yet deeply rooted in his own soil".[20] Literary themes[edit] The central theme of his works is totalitarianism and its mechanisms.[21] Kadare's novels draw on legends surrounding the historical experiences of Albanian people, the representation of classical myths in modern contexts, and the totalitarian regime in Albania. They are obliquely ironic as a result of trying to withstand political scrutiny. Among his best-known books are The General of the Dead Army (1963), The Siege (1970), The Ghost Rider (1980), Broken April (1980),[1][2] The Palace of Dreams
The Palace of Dreams
(1981), The Pyramid,The Successor (2003). The Pyramid (1992) was set in Egypt in the 26th century BC and after. In it, Kadare mocked Hoxha's fondness for elaborate statues, the pyramid form also reflecting any dictator's love for hierarchy and useless monuments. In some of Kadare's novels, comprising the so called "Ottoman Cycle", the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
is used as the archetype of a totalitarian state. The Fall of The Stone City (2008) was awarded the Rexhai Surroi Prize in Kosovo, and was shortlisted for Independent Foreign Fiction Prize in 2013.[22] Oeuvre[edit] Kadare has been mentioned as a possible recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature several times. His works have been published in about 45 languages.[23] The following Kadare novels have been translated into English: English translations[edit]

The General of the Dead Army (Albanian: Gjenerali i ushtrisë së vdekur) The Siege (Albanian: Kështjella) Chronicle in Stone
Chronicle in Stone
(Albanian: Kronikë në gur) Broken April
Broken April
(Albanian: Prilli i thyer)[1][1][2] The Three-Arched Bridge (Albanian: Ura me tri harqe) The Palace of Dreams
The Palace of Dreams
(Albanian: Pallati i ëndrrave) The Concert (Albanian: Koncert në fund të dimrit) The File
File
on H (Albanian: Dosja H: roman) The Pyramid[24] (Albanian: Piramida) Elegy for Kosovo (Albanian: Tri këngë zie për Kosovën) Spring Flowers, Spring Frost (Albanian: Lulet e ftohta të marsit) The Successor (Albanian: Pasardhësi) Agamemnon's Daughter
Agamemnon's Daughter
(Albanian: Vajza e Agamemnonit) The Blinding Order (Albanian: Qorrfermani) The Fall of the Stone City (Albanian: Darka e Gabuar) The Accident (Albanian: Aksidenti) The Ghost Rider (Albanian: Kush e solli Doruntinën?) Twilight of the Eastern Gods (Albanian: Muzgu i perëndive të stepës) A Girl in Exile (Albanian: E penguara) The Traitor's Niche (Albanian: Kamarja e turpit) Essays on World Literature: Aeschylus • Dante • Shakespeare (Albanian: Tri sprova mbi letërsinë botërore)

Works published in Albanian[edit] The complete works (except for the essays) of Ismail Kadare
Ismail Kadare
were published by Fayard, simultaneously in French and Albanian, between 1993 and 2004.[25] Omitted from the list are the poetry and the short stories. Kadare's original Albanian language
Albanian language
works have been published exclusively by Onufri Publishing House
Onufri Publishing House
since 1996,[26] as single works or entire sets. Being published in 2009 the complete works in 20 volumes.[27] The dates of publication given here are those of the first publication in Albanian, unless stated otherwise.

Novels and novellas[edit]

Gjenerali i ushtrisë së vdekur (The General of the Dead Army) (1963) Përbindëshi (The Monster) (1965) Lëkura e daulles (The Wedding) (1967) Kështjella (The Siege) (1970) Kronikë në gur (Chronicle in Stone) (1971) Dimiri i vetmisë së madhe (The Great Winter) (1972) Nëntori i një kryeqyteti (November of a Capital) (1975) Muzgu i perëndive të stepës (Twilight of the Eastern Gods) (1978) Komisioni i festës (The Feast Commission) (1978) Ura me tri harqe (The Three-arched Bridge) (1978) Kamarja e turpit (The Traitor's Niche) (1978) Prilli i thyer (Broken April) (1980) Kush e solli Doruntinën? (The Ghost Rider) (1980) Pallati i ëndrrave (The Palace of Dreams) (1981) Nata me hënë (A Moonlit Night) (1985) Viti i mbrapshtë (The Dark Year) (1985) Krushqit janë të ngrirë (The Wedding Procession Turned to Ice) (1985) Koncert në fund të dimrit (The Concert) (1988) Dosja H. (The File
File
on H.) (1989) Qorrfermani (The Blinding Order) (1991) Piramida (The Pyramid) (1992) Hija (The Shadow) (1994) Shkaba (The Eagle) (1995) Spiritus (1996) Qyteti pa reklama (The City with no Signs) (1998, written in 1959) Lulet e ftohta të marsit (Spring Flowers, Spring Frost) (2000) Breznitë e Hankonatëve (2000) Vajza e Agamemnonit (Agamemnon's Daughter) (2003) Pasardhësi (The Successor) (2003) Jeta,loja dhe vdekja Lul Mazrekut (Life, Game and Death of Lul Mazrek) (2003) Çështje të marrëzisë (A Question of Lunacy) (2005) Darka e Gabuar (The Fall of the Stone City) (2008) E penguara: Rekuiem për Linda B. (A Girl in Exile) (2009) Aksidenti (The Accident) (2010) Mjegullat e Tiranës (Tirana's Mists) (2014, originally written in 1957-58) Kukulla (The Doll) (2015)

Plays[edit]

Stinë e mërzitshme në Olimp (Dull Season in Olympus) (1998)

Screenplays[edit]

Sorkadhet e trembura (Frightened Gazelles) (2009)

Poetry[edit]

Frymëzime djaloshare (1954) Ëndërrimet (1957) Princesha Argjiro (1957) Shekulli im (1961) Përse mendohen këto male (1964) Shqiponjat fluturojnë lart (1966) Motive me diell (1968) Koha (1976) Ca pika shiu ranë mbi qelq (2004) Pa formë është qielli (2005) Vepra poetike në një vëllim (2018)

Essays[edit]

Autobiografia e popullit në vargje (The People's Autobiography in Verse) (1971) Eskili, ky humbës i madh (Aeschylus, The Lost) (1985) Ftesë në studio (Invitation to the Writer's Studio) (1990) Nga një dhjetor në tjetrin (Albanian Spring) (1991) Kushëriri i engjëjve (The Angels' Cousin) (1997) Kombi shqiptar në prag të mijëvjeçarit të tretë (The Albanian Nation on the Threshold of the Third Millennium) (1998) Unaza në kthetra (The Ring on the Claw) (2001) Poshtërimi në Ballkan (Abasement in the Balkans) (2004) Identiteti evropian i shqiptarëve (The European Identity of Albanians) (2006) Dantja i pashmangshëm (Dante, The Inevitable) (2006) Hamlet, le prince impossible (Hamlet, The Impossible Prince) (2007) Don Kishoti në Ballkan (Don Quixote in the Balkans) (2009) Mosmarrëveshja, mbi raportet e Shqipërisë me vetveten (2010) Mbi krimin në Ballkan; Letërkëmbim i zymtë (On Crime in the Balkans)(2011) Çlirimi i Serbisë prej Kosovës (Serbia's Liberation from Kosovo) (2012) Mëngjeset në Kafe Rostand (Mornings in Cafe Rostand) (2014) Arti si mëkat (Art as a Sin) (2015) Uragani i ndërprerë: Ardhja e Migjenit në letërsinë shqipe" (The Interrupted Hurricane: The Advent of Migjeni in Albanian Literature) (2015) Tri sprova mbi letërsinë botërore (Essays on World Literature) (2017)

Story collections[edit]

Emblema e dikurshme (1977) Ëndërr mashtruese (1991) Tri këngë zie për Kosovën (1998) Vjedhja e gjumit mbretëror (1999) Përballë pasqyrës së një gruaje (2001) Bisedë për brilantet në pasditen e dhjetorit (2013) Koha e dashurisë (Rrëfim Trikohësh) (2015) Proza e shkurtër, në një vëllim (2018)

Quotes[edit]

Literature led me to freedom. Not the other way round

See also[edit]

Albanian literature

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f Liukkonen, Petri. "Ismail Kadare". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015.  ^ a b c " Broken April
Broken April
– Ismail Kadare". Various journals. Amazon.com. Retrieved 6 October 2007.  ^ Fundacion Princessa de Asturias (24 June 2009). "Ismaíl Kadare, Prince of Asturias Award
Prince of Asturias Award
Laureate for Literature". Fundacion Princessa de Asturias. Retrieved 12 March 2017.  ^ a b Ismail Kadare, Albanian writer, Brittanica.com. Retrieved 24 January 2018. ^ Ndue Ukaj (27 May 2016). "Ismail Kadare: Letërsia, identiteti dhe historia". Gazeta Ekspress (in al). Retrieved 12 March 2017. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) Except from the book Kadare, leximi dhe interpretimet. ^ shtepiaelibrit.com ^ Kadare 2011, p. 128 ^ Robert Elsie's comment, 1998 - Jusuf Vrioni: Back to Tirana, 1943-1947 ^ Morgan 2011, p. 89. ^ Kadare 2011, p. 380 ^ http://www.elsie.de/pdf/reviews/R1994KadareClaire.pdf ^ http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/12/20/chronicles-and-fragments ^ Kadare 2011, p. 183 ^ Ehrenreich, Ben (8 November 2005). "Fates of State: Booker winner Ismail Kadare's art of enigma". The Village Voice. Villagevoice.com. Archived from the original on 26 November 2005. Retrieved 11 August 2011.  ^ Henri Amouroux (28 October 1996). "Installation de M.Islmail Kadare - Associé étranger" (PDF). Académie des Sciences morales et politiques. p. 7. Retrieved 6 March 2017.  ^ Robert Elsie
Robert Elsie
(2005). Albanian Literature: A Short History. London: I.B.Taurus. pp. 182–183. ISBN 1-84511-031-5.  ^ Wood, James (20 December 2010). "Chronicles and Fragments: The novels of Ismail Kadare". The New Yorker. Condé Nast: 139–143. Retrieved 11 August 2011. (subscription required) ^ Price of Asturias awards laureates 2009 ^ Rebecca Wojno (January 15, 2015). "Albanian writer to receive Jerusalem Prize". The Times of Israel.  ^ Shusha Guppy, "The Books Interview: Ismail Kadare
Ismail Kadare
– Enver's never-never land" The Independent, 27 February 1999. ^ Fundacion Princessa de Asturias (24 June 2009). "Ismaíl Kadare, Prince of Asturias Award
Prince of Asturias Award
Laureate for Literature". Fundacion Princessa de Asturias. Retrieved 25 March 2017.  ^ Flood, Alison (11 April 2013). "Independent foreign fiction prize 2013 shortlist announced". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 August 2017.  ^ Kadare feston ditëlindjen, 60 vjet krijimtari e përkthyer në 45 gjuhë të botës, mapo.al, 29 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2018. ^ "Central Europe Review: The Three-Arched Bridge". 10 May 1999. Retrieved 23 May 2006.  ^ Ismail Kadaré. Oeuvres; introduction et notes de présentation par Eric Faye; traduction de l'albanais de Jusuf Vrioni ... [et al.] Paris: Fayard, 1993–2004 ^ "Katalogu i Vepres se plote te Ismail Kadare
Ismail Kadare
nga Botime Onufri". Scribd.com. 22 May 1996. Retrieved 24 December 2013.  ^ Vepra e plotë e Ismail Kadare, shtepiaelibrit.com

Sources[edit]

Brisku, Adrian (2013). Bittersweet Europe: Albanian and Georgian Discourses on Europe, 1878–2008. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 9780857459855.  Morgan, Peter (2011). Kadare: Shkrimtari dhe diktatura 1957-1990 (1 ed.). Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese "55". ISBN 978-9928-106-12-4.  Kadare, Helena (2011). Kohë e pamjaftueshme. Tirana: Onufri. ISBN 978-99956-87-51-9. 

Further reading[edit]

Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë
Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë
(2008) (in Albanian), Fjalor Enciklopedik Shqiptar 2 (Albanian encyclopedia), Tirana, ISBN 978-99956-10-28-9 Elsie, Robert, Historical Dictionary of Albania, New Edition, 2004, ISBN 0-8108-4872-4 Gould, Rebecca. "Allegory and the Critique of Sovereignty: Ismail Kadare's Political Theologies", Studies in the Novel vol. 44, no. 2 (Summer 2012): 208–230. Hysa, Shefki, "The Diplomacy of self-denial" (Diplomacia e vetëmohimit), publicistic, Tirana, 2008. ISBN 978-99956-650-3-6 Morgan, Peter (2011) "Ismail Kadare's Inner Emigration", in Sara Jones & Meesha Nehru (Eds.), Writing under Socialism, (pp. 131–142). Nottingham, UK: Critical, Cultural and Communications (CCC) Press. Morgan, Peter (2011) "Greek Civilisation as a Theme of Dissidence in the Work of Ismail Kadare", Modern Greek Studies (Australia and New Zealand), 15, 16–32. Morgan, Peter (2010) Ismail Kadare: The Writer and the Dictatorship 1957–1990, Oxford: Legenda, 2010, Albanian translation 2011. Morgan, Peter (2010) Kadare post Communism: Albania, the Balkans and Europe in the Work of Ismail Kadare, 1990–2008, Australian Research Council (ARC)/Discovery Projects (DP). Morgan, Peter (2005) "Ismail Kadare: Creativity under Communism", The Australian Newspaper. Rranzi, Paulin. "Personalities – Missionaries of Peace" publicistic, (2011), Tirana, ISBN 978-99956-43-60-7

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ismail Kadare.

National Library of Albania Shusha Guppy (Summer 1998). "Ismail Kadare, The Art of Fiction No. 153". The Paris Review.  In the Palace of Nightmares’: An Exchange - New York Review of Books Petri Liukkonen. "Ismail Kadare". Books and Writers

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Works by Ismail Kadare

The General of the Dead Army (1963) The Siege (1970) Chronicle in Stone
Chronicle in Stone
(1971) Twilight of the Eastern Gods (1978) The Traitor's Niche (1978) The Three-Arched Bridge (1978) Broken April
Broken April
(1980) The Ghost Rider (1980) The File
File
on H. (1981) The Palace of Dreams
The Palace of Dreams
(1981) The Concert (1988) The Blinding Order (1991) The Pyramid (1992) Elegy for Kosovo (1998) Spring Flowers, Spring Frost (2000) Agamemnon's Daughter
Agamemnon's Daughter
(2003) The Successor (2003) The Fall of the Stone City (2008) A Girl in Exile (2009)

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Herder Prize Laureates

1964–1970

1964: Oto Bihalji-Merin Jan Kott Stanisław Lorentz Lucijan Marija Škerjanc 1965: Tudor Arghezi Manolis Hatzidakis Emanuel Hruška Zoltán Kodály László Németh Hugo Rokyta Hristo Vakarelski 1966: Ján Cikker Dezső Dercsényi Zlatko Gorjan Aleksander Kobzdej Anton Kriesis Niko Kuret Dimiter Statkov 1967: Iván Fenyő Vladimír Kompánek Witold Lutosławski Spyridon Marinatos Alexandru A. Philippide Mihai Pop Svetozar Radojčić 1968: Constantin Daicoviciu Roman Ingarden Miroslav Krleža Ludvík Kunz Anastasios Orlandos Lajos Vayer Pancho Vladigerov 1969: Jolán Balogh Albín Brunovský Bohuslav Fuchs Mihail Jora Marijan Matković Ksawery Piwocki France Stele 1970: Jan Białostocki Jan Filip Zoltán Franyó Milovan Gavazzi Gyula Illyés Yiannis Papaioannou Zeko Torbov

1971–1980

1971: Jiří Kolář Blaže Koneski Georgios Megas Kazimierz Michałowski Mihail Sokolovski Zaharia Stancu Bence Szabolcsi 1972: Dragotin Cvetko Atanas Dalchev Branko Maksimović Gyula Ortutay Jaroslav Pešina Henryk Stażewski Virgil Vătășianu 1973: Veselin Beshevliev Stylianos Harkianakis János Harmatta Zbigniew Herbert Eugen Jebeleanu Petar Lubarda Jan Racek 1974: Władysław Czerny Ivan Duichev Ivo Frangeš László Gerő Stylianos Pelekanidis Ján Podolák Zeno Vancea 1975: Józef Burszta Hristo M. Danov Stanislav Libenský Maria Ana Musicescu Gábor Preisich Pandelis Prevelakis Stanojlo Rajičić 1976: Jagoda Buić Marin Goleminov Ioannis Kakridis Dezső Keresztury Nichita Stănescu Rudolf Turek Kazimierz Wejchert 1977: Nikolaos Andriotis Riko Debenjak Emmanuel Kriaras Albert Kutal Máté Major Krzysztof Penderecki Anastas Petrov Ion Vladutiu 1978: Eugen Barbu Đurđe Bošković Kazimierz Dejmek Stoyan Dzudzev Béla Gunda Jiří Hrůza Yiannis Spyropoulos 1979: Magdalena Abakanowicz Ferenc Farkas Zdenko Kolacio Atanas Natev András Sütő Pavel Trost Apostolos E. Vacalopoulos 1980: Gordana Babić-Đorđević Iván Balassa Kamil Lhoták Manousos Manousakas Vera Mutafchieva Alexandru Rosetti Wiktor Zin

1981–1990

1981: Emil Condurachi Sándor Csoóri Stefka Georgieva Dimitrios Loukatos Vjenceslav Richter Eugen Suchoň Elida Maria Szarota 1982: Athanasios Aravantinos Ana Blandiana Vojislav J. Đurić Sona Kovacevicová Aleksandar Nichev Jan Józef Szczepański Imre Varga 1983: Władysław Bartoszewski Géza Entz Jozef Jankovič Gunther Schuller Zdenko Škreb Stefana Stoykova C. A. Trypanis 1984: Emilijan Cevc Konstantinos Dimaras Karel Horálek György Konrád Constantin Lucaci Krasimir Manchev Krzysztof Meyer 1985: Branko Fučić Růžena Grebeníčková Adrian Marino Demetrios Pallas Károly Perczel Simeon Pironkov Andrzej Wajda 1986: Georgi Baev Tekla Dömötör Boris Gaberščik Konrad Górski Johannes Karayannopoulos Jiří Kotalík Anatol Vieru 1987: Roman Brandstaetter Doula Mouriki József Ujfalussy Vladimir Veličković Velizar Velkov Gheorghe Vrabie 1988: Roman Berger Christos Kapralos Zoe Dumitrescu-Bușulenga György Györffy Donka Petkanova Mieczysław Porębski Edvard Ravnikar 1989: Maria Banuș Ákos Birkás Jerzy Buszkiewicz Václav Frolec Nikolai Genchev Petar Miljković-Pepek Nikos Gabriel Pentzikis 1990: Liviu Calin Bronisław Geremek Aris Konstantinidis Dejan Medaković Virginia Paskaleva Adriena Šimotová András Vizkelety

1991–2000

1991: Maja Bošković-Stulli Gerard Labuda Andor Pigler Yorgos Sicilianos Emil Skála Marin Sorescu Stoimen Stoilov 1992: Manolis Andronikos Jenö Barabás Blaga Dimitrova Stefan Kaszynski Jiří Kořalka Zmaga Kumer Jon Nicodim 1993: Vasilka Gerasimova-Tomova Petro Kononenko György Kurtág Jerzy Tchórzewski Răzvan Theodorescu Elena Várossová Māra Zālīte Dionysis Zivas Viktor Žmegač 1994: István Borzsák Dževad Juzbašić Ștefan Niculescu Andrzej Szczypiorski Jitka and Květa Válová Takis Varvitsiotis Zigmas Zinkevičius 1995: Sándor Kányádi Mirko Kovač Milcho Lalkov Michael G. Meraklis Mindaugas Navakas Wisława Szymborska Jaan Undusk 1996: Tamás Hofer Karel Hubáček Konstantin Iliev Marin Mincu Jože Pogačnik Pēteris Vasks Marian Zgórniak 1997: Tasos Athanasiadis Bogdan Bogdanović Oskár Elschek Ferenc Glatz Lech Kalinowski Jaan Kross Dunja Rihtman-Auguštin 1998: Imre Bak Andrei Corbea-Hoișie Eliška Fučíková Ismail Kadare Justinas Marcinkevičius Dorota Simonides Elena Toncheva 1999: Svetlana Alexievich Vera Bitrakova-Grozdanova Mircea Dinescu István Fried Henryk Górecki Dževad Karahasan Ferdinand Milučký 2000: Ján Bakoš Ivan Čolović Nikola Georgiev Imre Kertész Milan Kundera Karolos Mitsakis Arvo Pärt

2001–2006

2001: Yurii Andrukhovych Janez Bernik János Böhönyey Maria Kłańska Marek Kopelent Andrej Mitrović Evanghelos Moutsopoulos 2002: George Demetrius Bambiniotis Māris Čaklais Péter Esterházy Radost Ivanova Nedjeljko Fabrio Aurel Stroe Lech Trzeciakowski 2003: Vasil Gyuzelev Drago Jančar Károly Manherz Stanisław Mossakowski Ales Rasanau Ludvík Václavek Ana Maria Zahariade 2004: Theodore Antoniou Michał Głowiński Dušan Kováč Fatos Lubonja Éva Pócs Kazimir Popkonstantinov Romualdas Požerskis 2005: Károly Klimó Hanna Krall Primož Kuret Jiří Kuthan Andrei Marga Eimuntas Nekrošius Krešimir Nemec 2006: Włodzimierz Borodziej Nicos Hadjinicolaou Gabriela Kiliánová Ene Mihkelson Vojteh Ravnikar

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Albanian literature
Albanian literature

Related articles

Albanian language List of Albanian writers Albanian folklore History of Albania Albanian National Awakening Albanology

Early authors

Frang Bardhi Zenel Bastari Constantine of Berat Pjetër Bogdani Pjetër Budi Gjon Buzuku Julije Balović Nicola Chetta Nikollë Filja Nezim Frakulla Dalip Frashëri Shahin Frashëri Tahir Efendi Jakova Hasan Zyko Kamberi Haxhi Ymer Kashari Muhamet Kyçyku Luca Matranga Etëhem Bey Mollaj Sulejman Naibi Giuseppe Schirò
Giuseppe Schirò
(archbishop) Tahir Skënderasi Giulio Variboba Muçi Zade

Classical authors

Josif Bageri Andon Zako Çajupi Gabriele Dara Spiro Dine Aleksandër Stavre Drenova Gjergj Fishta Naim Frashëri Sami Frashëri Mihal Grameno Luigj Gurakuqi Milto Sotir Gurra Faik Konica Loni Logori Ndre Mjeda Kristo Negovani Ndoc Nikaj Foqion Postoli Girolamo de Rada Francesco Antonio Santori Giuseppe Schirò Giuseppe Serembe Filip Shiroka Risto Siliqi Pashko Vasa Jani Vreto Pjetër Zarishi

Modern

Dritëro Agolli Linditë Ahmeti Mimoza Ahmeti Ylljet Aliçka Fatos Arapi Lindita Arapi Eqrem Basha Sali Bashota Domenico Bellizzi Ben Blushi Kiço Blushi Maria Antonia Braile Flora Brovina Dionis Bubani Gaqo Bushaka Martin Camaj Aleks Çaçi Selfixhe Ciu Spiro Çomora Diana Çuli Ibrahim Dalliu Ridvan Dibra Teki Dervishi Elvira Dones Ledia Dushi Kristo Floqi Mirko Gashi Fatmir Gjata Ndoc Gjetja Sabri Godo Anton Gojçaj Odhise Grillo Fahredin Gunga Faslli Haliti Sabri Hamiti Ervin Hatibi Ismail Kadare Helena Kadare Karmel Kandreva Teodor Keko Skifter Këlliçi Jolanda Kodra Musine Kokalari Ernest Koliqi Anastas Kondo Fatos Kongoli Vath Koreshi Rifat Kukaj Teodor Laço Natasha Lako Arian Leka Luljeta Lleshanaku Bardhyl Londo Sejfulla Malëshova Gjekë Marinaj Jamarbër Marko Petro Marko Rudolf Marku Din Mehmeti Kim Mehmeti Esad Mekuli Branko Merxhani Betim Muço Besnik Mustafaj Faruk Myrtaj Jeton Neziraj Millosh Gjergj Nikolla Fan S. Noli Fadil Paçrami Ludmilla Pajo Dhimitër Pasko Anton Pashku Arshi Pipa Ali Podrimja Lasgush Poradeci Giuseppe Schirò
Giuseppe Schirò
Di Maggio Azem Shkreli Dhimitër Shuteriqi Drago Siliqi Llazar Siliqi Nokë Sinishtaj Xhevahir Spahiu Sterjo Spasse Luan Starova Haki Stërmilli Parid Teferiçi Kasëm Trebeshina Hajro Ulqinaku Ardian Vehbiu Ornela Vorpsi Bilal Xhaferri Dhimitër Xhuvani Jakov Xoxa Injac Zamputi Petraq Zoto

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 97033239 LCCN: n50042586 ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 5904 GND: 118995146 SELIBR: 192485 SUDOC: 026943867 BNF: cb11909294r (data) BIBSYS: 90330862 NLA: 35256672 NDL: 00514177 NKC: jn20000700843 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV108

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