HOME
The Info List - Ismail I


--- Advertisement ---



Ismail I
Ismail I
(Persian: اسماعیل‎, translit. Esmāʿīl, pronounced [esmɒːʔiːl]; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah
Shah
Ismail I
Ismail I
(Persian: شاه اسماعیل‎), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
of Iran, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as shah (king). The rule of Ismail is one of the most vital in the history of Iran—before his accession in 1501, Iran, since its occupation by the Arabs
Arabs
eight-and-a-half centuries ago, had not existed as a unified country under native Iranian rule, but had been controlled by a series of Arab caliphs, Turkic sultans, and Mongol khans. Although many Iranian dynasties rose to power amidst this whole period, it was only under the Buyids that a vast part of Iran
Iran
proper came under Iranian rule (945-1055).[1] The dynasty founded by Ismail I
Ismail I
would rule for over two centuries, being one of the greatest Iranian empires and at its height being amongst the most powerful empires of its time, ruling all of present-day Iran, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Republic, Armenia, most of Georgia, the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait
Kuwait
and Afghanistan, as well as parts of modern-day Syria, Turkey, Pakistan, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Turkmenistan.[2][3][4][5] It also reasserted the Iranian identity in large parts of Greater Iran.[6] The legacy of the Safavid
Safavid
Empire was also the revival of Iran
Iran
as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy, its architectural innovations and its patronage for fine arts. One of his first actions, was the proclamation of the Twelver
Twelver
sect of Shia Islam
Shia Islam
to be the official religion of his newly-formed state, which had major consequences for the ensuing history of Iran. This extreme step, which had no principal in the history of Islamic states, was a rational one, granted that it was the "dynamic ideology" of radical Shi'ism that had roused his supporters. Furthermore, this drastic act also gave him a political benefit of separating the growing Safavid
Safavid
state from its strong Sunni neighbors—the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to the west and the Uzbek confederation to the east. However, it brought into the Iranian body politic the implied inevitability of consequent conflict between the shah, the design of a "secular" state, and the religious leaders, who saw all secular states as unlawful and whose absolute ambition was a theocratic state. Ismail was also a prolific poet who, under the pen name Khaṭāʾī (which means "he who made a mistake" or "he who was wrong" in Persian), contributed greatly to the literary development of the Azerbaijani language.[7] He also contributed to Persian literature, though few of his Persian writings survive.[8]

Contents

1 Origins 2 Life 3 Reign

3.1 Conquest of Iran
Iran
and its surroundings 3.2 War against the Ottomans

4 Late reign and death 5 Ismail's poetry

5.1 Poetry example 1 5.2 Poetry example 2 5.3 Poetry example 3 5.4 Poetry from other composers about Ismail, I.

6 Emergence of a clerical aristocracy 7 Appearance and skills 8 Legacy 9 In popular culture

9.1 Literature 9.2 Memorial places and structures 9.3 Music

10 Issue 11 Ancestry 12 See also 13 References 14 Bibliography

Origins[edit] See also: Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
and Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
family tree

The battle between the young Ismail and Shah
Shah
Farrukh Yassar
Farrukh Yassar
of Shirvan

Ismail was born to Martha and Shaykh Haydar
Shaykh Haydar
on July 17, 1487 in Ardabil. His father, Haydar, was the sheikh of the Safaviyya
Safaviyya
Sufi order and a direct descendant of its Kurdish[9][10][11] founder, Safi-ad-din Ardabili
Safi-ad-din Ardabili
(1252–1334). Ismail was the last in this line of hereditary Grand Masters of the order, prior to his ascent to a ruling dynasty. Ismail was a great-great grandson of Emperor Alexios IV of Trebizond and King Alexander I of Georgia. His mother Martha, better known as Halima Begum, was the daughter of Uzun Hasan
Uzun Hasan
by his Pontic Greek wife Theodora Megale Komnene, better known as Despina Khatun.[12] Despina Khatun was the daughter of Emperor John IV of Trebizond. (She had married Uzun Hassan
Uzun Hassan
in a deal to protect the Greek Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
from the Ottomans.[13]) Ismail grew up bilingual, speaking Persian and Azerbaijani.[14][15] His ancestry is mixed, having ancestors from various ethnic groups such as Georgian, Greek, Kurdish and Azeri;[16][17][18][19] the majority of scholars agree that his empire was an Iranian one.[2][3][4][5][20] In 700/1301, Safi al-Din assumed the leadership of the Zahediyeh, a significant Sufi order in Gilan, from his spiritual master and father-in-law Zahed Gilani. The order was later known as the Safaviyya. One genealogy claimed that Sheikh
Sheikh
Safi (the founder of the order and Ismael's ancestor) was a lineal descendant of Ali. Ismail also proclaimed himself the Mahdi
Mahdi
and a reincarnation of Ali.[21] Life[edit]

Ismail declares himself shah by entering Tabriz, painter Chingiz Mehbaliyev, in private collection.

In 1488, the father of Ismail was killed in a battle at Tabasaran against the forces of the Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
Farrukh Yassar
Farrukh Yassar
and his overlord, the Aq Qoyunlu, a Turkic tribal federation which controlled most of Iran. In 1494 the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
captured Ardabil, killing Ali
Ali
Mirza Safavi (the eldest son of Haydar), and forcing the 7-year old Ismail to go into hiding in Gilan, where he received education under the guidance of scholars. When Ismail reached the age of 12, he came out of hiding and returned to Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan) along with his followers. Ismail's rise to power was made possible by the Turkoman tribes of Anatolia
Anatolia
and Azerbaijan, who formed the most important part of the Qizilbash
Qizilbash
movement.[22] Reign[edit]

The battle between Ismail I
Ismail I
and Muhammad
Muhammad
Shaybani

Conquest of Iran
Iran
and its surroundings[edit] In the summer of 1500, about 7,000 Qizilbash
Qizilbash
troops, including members of the Ustaclu, Shamlu, Rumlu, Tekelu, Zhulkadir, Afshar, Qajar and Varsak tribes, responded to the invitation of Ismail in Erzincan.[23] Qizilbash
Qizilbash
forces passed over the Kura River in December 1500, and marched towards the Shirvanshah's state. They defeated the forces of the Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
Farrukh Yassar
Farrukh Yassar
near Cabanı
Cabanı
(present-day Shamakhi Rayon, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Republic)[24] or at Gulistan (present-day Gülüstan, Goranboy, Nagorno-Karabakh),[25][26] and subsequently went on to conquer Baku.[26][27] Thus, Shirvan
Shirvan
and its dependencies (up to southern Dagestan
Dagestan
in the north) were now Ismail's. The Shirvanshah line nevertheless continued to rule Shirvan
Shirvan
under Safavid
Safavid
suzerainty for some more years, until 1538, when, during the reign of Ismail's son, Tahmasp I
Tahmasp I
(r. 1524-1576), from then on it came to be ruled by a Safavid
Safavid
governor.[28] After the conquest, Ismail had Alexander I of Kakheti send his son Demetre to Shirvan
Shirvan
to negotiate a peace agreement.[29] The successful conquest had alarmed the ruler of the Aq Qoyunlu, Alvand, who subsequently proceeded north from Tabriz, and crossed the Aras River
Aras River
in order to challenge the Safavid
Safavid
forces, and a pitched battle was fought at Sarur in which Ismail's army came out victorious despite being outnumbered by four to one.[26] Shortly before his attack on Shirvan, Ismail had made the Georgian kings Constantine II and Alexander I of respectively the kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti, attack the Ottoman possessions near Tabriz, on the promise that he would cancel the tribute that Constantine was forced to pay to the Ak Koyunlu once Tabriz
Tabriz
was captured.[29] After eventually conquering Tabriz
Tabriz
and Nakhchivan, Ismail broke the promise he had made to Constantine II, and made both the kingdoms of Kartli as well as Kakheti his vassals.[29] In July 1501, Ismail was enthroned as Shah
Shah
of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan),[30] choosing Tabriz
Tabriz
as his capital. He appointed his former guardian and mentor Husayn Beg Shamlu
Shamlu
as the vakil (vicegerent) of the empire and the commander-in-chief (amir al-umara) of the Qizilbash
Qizilbash
army.[31][32] His army was composed of tribal units, the majority of which were Turkmen from Anatolia
Anatolia
and Syria
Syria
with the remainder Kurds
Kurds
and Čaḡatāy.[33] He also appointed a former Iranian vizier of the Aq Qoyunlu, named Mohammad Zakariya Kujuji, as his vizier.[34] After proclaiming himself Shah, Ismail also proclaimed Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ism to be the official and compulsory religion of Iran. He enforced this new standard by the sword, dissolving Sunni
Sunni
Brotherhoods and executing anyone who refused to comply to the newly implemented Shi'ism [35] After defeating an Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
army in 1502, Ismail took the title of " Shah
Shah
of Iran".[36] In the same year he gained possession of Erzincan and Erzurum,[37] while a year later, in 1503, he conquered Eraq-e Ajam and Fars; one year later he conquered Mazandaran, Gorgan, and Yazd. In 1507, he conquered Diyabakir. During the same year, Ismail appointed the Iranian Amir Najm al-Din Mas'ud Gilani as the new vakil. This was because Ismail had begun favoring the Iranians more than the Qizilbash, who, although they had played a crucial role in Ismail's campaigns, possessed too much power and were no longer considered trustworthy.[38][39] One year later, he Ismail forced the rulers of Khuzestan, Lorestan, and Kurdistan to become his vassals. The same year, Ismail and Husayn Beg Shamlu
Shamlu
seized Baghdad, putting an end to the Aq Qoyunlu.[1][40] Ismail then began destroying Sunni
Sunni
sites in Baghdad, including tombs of Abbasid Caliphs and tombs of Imam Abū Ḥanīfah and Abdul Qadir Gilani.[41] By 1510, he had conquered the whole of Iran
Iran
(including Shirvan), southern Dagestan
Dagestan
(with its important city of Derbent), Mesopotamia, Armenia, Khorasan, and Eastern Anatolia, and had made the Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti his vassals.[42][43] In the same year, Husayn Beg Shamlu
Shamlu
lost his office as commander-in-chief in favor of a man of humble origins, Mohammad Beg Ustajlu.[38] Ismail also appointed Najm-e Sani as the new vakil of the empire due to the death of Mas'ud Gilani.[39] Ismail I
Ismail I
moved against the Uzbeks. In battle near the city of Merv, some 17,000 Qizilbash
Qizilbash
warriors ambushed and defeated an Uzbek force numbering 28,000. The Uzbek ruler, Muhammad
Muhammad
Shaybani, was caught and killed trying to escape the battle, and the shah had his skull made into a jewelled drinking goblet.[44] In 1512, Najm-e Sani was killed during a clash with the Uzbeks, which made Ismail appoint Abd al-Baqi Yazdi as the new vakil of the empire.[45] War against the Ottomans[edit]

Artwork of the Battle of Chaldiran

The active recruitment of support for the Safavid
Safavid
cause among the Turcoman tribes of Eastern Anatolia, among tribesmen who were Ottoman subjects, had inevitably placed the neighbouring Ottoman empire and the Safavid
Safavid
state on a collision course.[46] As the Encyclopaedia Iranica states, "As orthodox or Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, the Ottomans had reason to view with alarm the progress of Shīʿī ideas in the territories under their control, but there was also a grave political danger that the Ṣafawīya, if allowed to extend its influence still further, might bring about the transfer of large areas in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
from Ottoman to Persian allegiance".[46] By the early 1510s, Ismail's rapidly expansionist policies had made the Safavid
Safavid
border in Asia Minor shift even further west. In 1511, there was a widespread pro- Safavid
Safavid
rebellion in southern Anatolia
Anatolia
by the Takkalu Qizilbash tribe, known as the Şahkulu Rebellion,[46] and an Ottoman army that was sent in order to put down the rebellion down was defeated.[46] A large-scale incursion into Eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
by Safavid
Safavid
ghazis under Nūr-ʿAlī Ḵalīfa coincided with the accession of Sultan
Sultan
Selim I in 1512 to the Ottoman throne, and became the casus belli which led to Selim's decision to invade Safavid
Safavid
Iran
Iran
two years later.[46] Selim and Ismail had been exchanging a series of belligerent letters prior to the attack. While the Safavid
Safavid
forces were at Chaldiran and planning on how to confront the Ottomans, Mohammad Khan Ustajlu, who served as the governor of Diyabakir, and Nur- Ali
Ali
Khalifa, a commander who knew how the Ottomans fought, proposed that they should attack as quickly as possible.[47] This proposal was rejected by the powerful Qizilbash officer Durmish Khan Shamlu, who rudely said that Mohammad Khan Ustajlu was only interested in the province which he governed. The proposal was rejected by Ismail himself, who said; "I am not a caravan-thief; whatever is decreed by God, will occur."[47]

Personal items of Shah
Shah
Ismail I
Ismail I
captured by Selim I
Selim I
during battle of Chaldiran. Topkapi Museum. Istanbul

Selim I
Selim I
eventually defeated Ismail at the battle of Chaldiran in 1514.[48] Ismail's army was more mobile and his soldiers were better prepared, but the Ottomans prevailed due in large part to their efficient modern army, and possession of artillery, black powder and muskets. Ismail was wounded and almost captured in battle. Selim entered the Iranian capital of Tabriz
Tabriz
in triumph on September 5,[49] but did not linger. A mutiny among his troops, fearing a counterattack and entrapment by fresh Safavid
Safavid
forces called in from the interior, forced the triumphant Ottomans to withdraw prematurely. This allowed Ismail to recover. Among the booty from Tabriz
Tabriz
was Ismail's favorite wife, for whose release the Sultan
Sultan
demanded huge concessions, which were refused. Despite his defeat at the Battle of Chaldiran, Ismail quickly recovered most of his kingdom, from east of the Lake Van
Lake Van
to the Persian Gulf. However, the Ottomans managed to annex for the first time Eastern Anatolia
Anatolia
and parts of Mesopotamia, as well as briefly northwestern Iran.[50] The Venetian ambassador Caterino Zeno describes the events as follows:

“ The monarch [Selim], seeing the slaughter, began to retreat, and to turn about, and was about to fly, when Sinan, coming to the rescue at the time of need, caused the artillery to be brought up and fired on both the janissaries [sic] and the Persians. The Persian horses hearing the thunder of those infernal machines, scattered and divided themselves over the plain, not obeying their riders bit or spur anymore, from the terror they were in ... It is certainly said, that if it had not been for the artillery, which terrified in the manner related the Persian horses which had never before heard such a din, all his forces would have been routed and put to edge of the sword.[51] ”

He also adds that:

“ If the Turks had been beaten in the battle of Chaldiran, the power of Ismail would have become greater than that of Tamerlane, as by the fame alone of such a victory he would have made himself absolute lord of the East.[52] ”

Late reign and death[edit] After the Battle of Chaldiran, Ismail lost his supernatural air and the aura of invincibility, gradually falling into heavy drinking of alcohol.[53] He retired to his palace, never again participated in a military campaign,[54] and withdrew from active participation in the affairs of the state. He left these to his vizier, Mirza Shah Husayn,[55] who became his close friend and drinking companion. This allowed Mirza Shah Husayn to gain influence over Ismail and expand his authority.[56] Mirza Shah Husayn was assassinated in 1523 by a group of Qizilbash
Qizilbash
officers, after which Ismail appointed Zakariya's son Jalal al-Din Mohammad Tabrizi as his new vizier. Ismail died on 23 May 1524 at the relatively early age of thirty-six. He was buried in Ardabil, and was succeeded by his son Tahmasp I. The consequences of the defeat at Chaldiran were also psychological for Ismail: His relationships with his Qizilbash
Qizilbash
followers were fundamentally altered. The tribal rivalries between the Qizilbash, which temporarily ceased before the defeat at Chaldiran, resurfaced in intense form immediately after the death of Ismail, and led to ten years of civil war (930-40/1524-33) until Shah
Shah
Tahmasp regained control of the affairs of the state. The Safavids
Safavids
later briefly lost Balkh
Balkh
and Kandahar
Kandahar
to the Mughals, and nearly lost Herat
Herat
to the Uzbeks.[57] During Ismail's reign, mainly in the late 1510's, the first steps for the Habsburg–Persian alliance
Habsburg–Persian alliance
were set as well, with Charles V and Ludwig II of Hungary being in contact with a view to combining against the common Ottoman Turkish enemy.[58] Ismail's poetry[edit]

Bust of Ismail I
Ismail I
in Ganja, Republic of Azerbaijan

Ismail is also known for his poetry using the pen-name Khaṭā'ī (Arabic: خطائی‎ "Sinner").[59] He wrote in the Azerbaijani language, a Turkic language
Turkic language
mutually intelligible with Turkish,[60] and in the Persian language. He is considered an important figure in the literary history of Azerbaijani language
Azerbaijani language
and has left approximately 1400 verses in this language, which he chose to use for political reasons.[60] Approximately 50 verses of his Persian poetry have also survived. According to Encyclopædia Iranica, "Ismail was a skillful poet who used prevalent themes and images in lyric and didactic-religious poetry with ease and some degree of originality". He was also deeply influenced by the Persian literary tradition of Iran, particularly by the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
of Ferdowsi, which probably explains the fact that he named all of his sons after Shahnameh-characters. Dickson and Welch suggest that Ismail's "Shāhnāmaye Shāhī" was intended as a present to his young son Tahmasp.[61] After defeating Muhammad
Muhammad
Shaybani's Uzbeks, Ismail asked Hatefi, a famous poet from Jam (Khorasan), to write a Shahnameh-like epic about his victories and his newly established dynasty. Although the epic was left unfinished, it was an example of mathnawis in the heroic style of the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
written later on for the Safavid kings.[62] Most of the poems are concerned with love—particularly of the mystical Sufi kind—though there are also poems propagating Shi'i doctrine and Safavi politics. His other serious works include the Nasihatnāme in Azerbaijani language,[8][63] a book of advice, and the unfinished Dahnāme in Azerbaijani language,[8][63] a book which extols the virtues of love. Along with the poet Imadaddin Nasimi, Khatā'ī is considered to be among the first proponents of using a simpler Azeri language in verse that would appeal to a broader audience. His work is most popular in Azerbaijan, as well as among the Bektashis of Turkey. There is a large body of Alevi and Bektashi
Bektashi
poetry that has been attributed to him. The major impact of his religious writings, in the long run, was the conversion of Persia
Persia
from Sunni
Sunni
to Shia Islam.[64] The following anecdote demonstrates the status of vernacular Turkish and Persian in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and in the incipient Safavid
Safavid
state. Khatā'ī sent a poem in Turkish to the Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Selim I
Selim I
before going to war in 1514. In a reply the Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
answered in Persian to indicate his contempt. One of the examples of his poems are:[65][66] Poetry example 1[edit]

Today I have come to the world as a Master. Know truly that I am Haydar's son. I am Fereydun, Khosrow, Jamshid, and Zahak. I am Zal's son (Rostam) and Alexander. The mystery of I am the truth is hidden in this my heart. I am the Absolute Truth and what I say is Truth. I belong to the religion of the "Adherent of the Ali" and on the Shah's path I am a guide to every one who says: "I am a Muslim." My sign is the "Crown of Happiness". I am the signet-ring on Sulayman's finger. Muhammad
Muhammad
is made of light, Ali
Ali
of Mystery. I am a pearl in the sea of Absolute Reality. I am Khatai, the Shah's slave full of shortcomings. At thy gate I am the smallest and the last [servant].

Poetry example 2[edit]

My name is Shāh Ismā'īl. I am God's mystery. I am the leader of all these ghāzīs. My mother is Fātima, my father is 'Ali; and eke I am the Pīr of the Twelve Imāms. I have recovered my father's blood from Yazīd. Be sure that I am of Haydarian essence. I am the living Khidr and Jesus, son of Mary. I am the Alexander of (my) contemporaries. Look you, Yazīd, polytheist and the adept of the Accursed one, I am free from the Ka'ba of hypocrites. In me is Prophethood (and) the mystery of Holiness. I follow the path of Muhammad
Muhammad
Mustafā. I have conquered the world at the point of (my) sword. I am the Qanbar of Murtaza 'Ali. My sire is Safī, my father Haydar. Truly I am the Ja'far of the audacious. I am a Husaynid and have curses for Yazīd. I am Khatā'ī, a servant of the Shāh's.

Poetry example 3[edit]

"The light of all is Muhammed." due to your desire my heart burned, will i see you ever? i hope in the holy divan of truth, you will remember me

they call you generous, valiant oh' impeccable leader the light of all is Muhammed, valiant thou' Ali
Ali
valiant

i could not find anyone in this lone world who is like you let me see your moon-faced effigy, so i will not stay in desire

all your servants who call your name will not be devoided in the hereafter the light of all is Muhammed, valiant thou' Ali
Ali
valiant

forgive this sinner, i lead my face to your holy dergah my soul stayed in blasphemy, thou' will not insist on my sin

i soughed shelter and came to this revealed refuge the light of all is Muhammed, valiant thou' Ali
Ali
valiant

Hata-i says: "thou' Ali, my body is filled up with sins" the light of all is Muhammed, valiant thou' Ali
Ali
valiant

[67] Poetry from other composers about Ismail, I.[edit]

From Pir Sultan
Sultan
Abdal: He makes a march against Urum The Imam of Ali's descent is coming I bow down and kissed his Hand The Imam of Ali's descent is coming

He fills the cups step by step In his stable only noble Arab horses His ancestry, he is the son of the Shah The Imam of Ali's descent is coming

The fields are marked step by step His rival makes his heart aking Red-green is the young warrior dressed The Imam of Ali's descent is coming

He lets him seen often on the field Noone knows the secret of the saviour Shah
Shah
of the world goodman Haydar's grandson The Imam of Ali's descent is coming

Pir Sultan
Sultan
Abdal, I am, if i could see this Submit my self, if I could wipe my face at him From ere he is the leader of the 12 Imams The Imam of Ali's descent is coming

Emergence of a clerical aristocracy[edit] An important feature of the Safavid
Safavid
society was the alliance that emerged between the ulama (the religious class) and the merchant community. The latter included merchants trading in the bazaars, the trade and artisan guilds (asnaf) and members of the quasi-religious organizations run by dervishes (futuvva). Because of the relative insecurity of property ownership in Persia, many private landowners secured their lands by donating them to the clergy as so-called vaqf. They would thus retain the official ownership and secure their land from being confiscated by royal commissioners or local governors, as long as a percentage of the revenues from the land went to the ulama. Increasingly, members of the religious class, particularly the mujtahids and the seyyeds, gained full ownership of these lands, and, according to contemporary historian Iskandar Munshi, Persia
Persia
started to witness the emergence of a new and significant group of landowners.[68] Appearance and skills[edit]

Shah
Shah
Ismail I
Ismail I
as depicted in a 1590s engraving by Theodor de Bry

Ismail was described by contemporaries as having a regal appearance, gentlemanly in quality and youthfulness. He also had a fair complexion and red hair.[69] His appearance compared to other olive-skinned Persians, his descent from the Safavid
Safavid
Shaykhs, and his religious ideals, contributed to people's expectation based on various legends circulating during this period of heightened religious awareness in Western Asia.[69] An Italian traveller describes Ismail as follows:

“ This Sophi is fair, handsome, and very pleasing; not very tall, but of a light and well-framed figure; rather stout than slight, with broad shoulders. His hair is reddish; he only wears moustachios, and uses his left hand instead of his right. He is as brave as a game cock, and stronger than any of his lords; in the archery contests, out of the ten apples that are knocked down, he knocks down seven.[57] ”

Legacy[edit] Ismail's greatest legacy was establishing an empire which lasted over 200 years. As Alexander Mikaberidze states, "The Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
would rule for two more centuries [after Ismail's death] and establish the basis for the modern-nation state of Iran."[70] Even after the fall of the Safavids
Safavids
in 1736, their cultural and political influence endured through the era of Afsharid, Zand, Qajar, and Pahlavi dynasties into the modern Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
as well as the neighboring Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
Republic, where Shi'a
Shi'a
Islam is still the dominant religion as it was during the Safavid
Safavid
era. In popular culture[edit] Literature[edit] In the Safavid
Safavid
period, the famous Azeri folk romance Shah
Shah
Ismail emerged.[71] According to Azerbaijani literaty critic Hamid Arasly, this story is related to Ismail I. But it is also possible that it is dedicated to Ismail II. Memorial places and structures[edit]

Metro, District and Facility[72] in Azerbaijan. A street in Ganja and Prospect in Baku. In 1993, a monument to Ismail I
Ismail I
was erected in Baku. A sculpture was erected in Khachmaz (city)
Khachmaz (city)
to Ismail I.

A monument was erected in Baku
Baku
(city) to Shah
Shah
Ismail Khatai by Ibrahim Zeynalov; Zakir Mehdiyev [2] Music[edit] Shah
Shah
Ismayil is the name of an Azerbaijani mugham opera in 6 acts and 7 scenes composed by Muslim Magomayev,[73] in 1915-1919.[74] Issue[edit]

Ismail I's Statue in Ardabil, Iran.

Sons:

Tahmasp I Prince 'Abul Ghazi Sultan
Sultan
Alqas Mirza
Alqas Mirza
(15 March 1515 – 9 April 1550) Governor of Astrabad
Astrabad
1532/33–1538, Shirvan
Shirvan
1538–1547 and Derbent
Derbent
1546–1547. He rebelled against his brother Tahmasp with Ottoman help. Captured and imprisoned at the Fortress of Qahqahan. m. Khadija Sultan
Sultan
Khanum, having had issue, two sons,

Sultan
Sultan
Ahmad Mirza (died 1568) Sultan
Sultan
Farrukh Mirza (died 1568)

Prince Sultan
Sultan
Rustam Mirza (born 13 September 1517) Prince 'Abul Naser Sultan
Sultan
Sam Mirza (28 August 1518 – December 1567) Governor-General of Khorasan 1521–1529 and 1532–1534, and of Ardabil
Ardabil
1549–1571. He rebelled against his brother Tahmasp, captured and imprisoned at the Fortress of Qahqahan. He had issue, two sons and one daughter. His daughter, married Prince Jesse of Kakheti (died 1583) Governor of Shaki, the third son of Georgian king Levan of Kakheti. Prince 'Abu'l Fat'h Sultan
Sultan
Moez od-din Bahram Mirza (7 September 1518 – 16 September 1550) Governor of Khorasan 1529–1532, Gilan
Gilan
1536–1537 and Hamadan
Hamadan
1546–1549. m. Zainab Sultan
Sultan
Khanum. She had issue, four sons and one daughter:

Sultan
Sultan
Hassan Mirza died in his youth, Sultan
Sultan
Husain Mirza (died 1567) 'Abu'l Fat'h Sultan Ibrahim Mirza
Ibrahim Mirza
(1541–1577), Sultan
Sultan
Badi uz-Zaman Mirza (k.1577)

Prince Soltan Hossein Mirza (born 11 December 1520)

Daughters:

Princess Shahnavaz Begum, m. 14 May 1513, Prince Şehzade Murad Effendi, elder son of Şehzade Ahmet, Crown Prince of Ottoman Empire, son of Bayezid II. Princess Gunish Khanum (26 February 1507 – 2 March 1533) m. (first) at Hamadan, 24 August 1518, Sultan
Sultan
Mozaffar Amir-i-Dibaj (k. at Tabriz, 23 September 1536), Governor of Rasht
Rasht
and Fooman 1516–1535, son of Amir Hisam od-din Amir-i-Dibaj. Princess Pari Khan Khanum
Pari Khan Khanum
(not to be mistaken with Tahmasp's daughter Pari Khan Khanum) m. on 4 October 1521, Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
Khalil II Governor of Shirvan
Shirvan
1523–1536, son of Shirvanshah
Shirvanshah
Ibrahim II. Princess Khair un-nisa Khanish Khanum (died 12 March 1564) m. 1537, Seyyed
Seyyed
Nur od-din Nimatu'llah Baqi Yazdi (d. 21 July 1564), son of Mir Nezam od-din 'Abdu'l Baqi Yazdi. Princess Shah
Shah
Zainab Khanum (born 1519) Princess Farangis Khanum (born 1519) Princess Mahin Banu Khanum (1519 – 20 January 1562)[75]

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Ismail I

16. Sheikh
Sheikh
Ali
Ali
Safavi

8. Sheikh
Sheikh
Ebrahim Safavi

4. Sheikh
Sheikh
Junāyd Safavi

2. Sheikh
Sheikh
Heydar Safavi

20. Qara Yuluk Osman Aq Qoyunlu

10. Ali
Ali
Beyg Aq Qoyunlu

5. Khadijeh Khatun

11. Sareh Khatun

1. Ismail I

24. Qara Yuluk Osman Aq Qoyunlu

12. Ali
Ali
Beyg Aq Qoyunlu

6. Uzun Hassan
Uzun Hassan
Aq Qoyunlu

13. Sareh Khatun

3. Martha

28. Alexios IV of Trebizond

14. John IV of Trebizond

29. Theodora Kantakouzene

7. Theodora of Trebizond

30. Alexander I of Georgia

15. Bagrationi

See also[edit]

Poetry portal

Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
family tree List of Turkic-languages poets Safavid
Safavid
conversion of Iran
Iran
from Sunnism to Shiism

References[edit]

^ a b Savory 1998, pp. 628-636. ^ a b Helen Chapin Metz. Iran, a Country study. 1989. University of Michigan, p. 313. ^ a b Emory C. Bogle. Islam: Origin and Belief. University of Texas Press. 1989, p. 145. ^ a b Stanford Jay Shaw. History of the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. 1977, p. 77. ^ a b Andrew J. Newman, Safavid
Safavid
Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire, IB Tauris (March 30, 2006). ^ Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties? RM Savory, Iran
Iran
under the Safavids
Safavids
(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980), p. 3. ^ G. Doerfer, "Azeri Turkish", Encyclopaedia Iranica, viii, Online Edition, p. 246. ^ a b c "ESMĀʿĪL I ṢAFAWĪ – Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2014-10-15.  ^ Tapper, Richard (1997). Frontier Nomads of Iran: A Political and Social History of the Shahsevan. Cambridge University Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0521583367. The Safavid
Safavid
Shahs who ruled Iran between 1501 and 1722 descended from Sheikh
Sheikh
Safi ad-Din of Ardabil (1252–1334). Sheikh
Sheikh
Safi and his immediate successors were renowned as holy ascetics Sufis. Their own origins were obscure; probably of Kurdish or Iranian extraction ...  ^ Savory 1997, p. 8. ^ Kamal, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2006). Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Philosophy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 24. ISBN 978-0754652717. The Safawid was originally a Sufi order whose founder, Shaykh Safi al-Din, a Sunni
Sunni
Sufi master descended from a Kurdish family ...  ^ Peter Charanis. "Review of Emile Janssens' Trébizonde en Colchide", Speculum, Vol. 45, No. 3,, (Jul., 1970), p. 476 ^ Anthony Bryer, open citation, p. 136 ^ Roger M. Savory. "Safavids" in Peter Burke, Irfan Habib, Halil Inalci:»History of Humanity-Scientific and Cultural Development: From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century", Taylor & Francis. 1999. Excerpt from pg 259:"Доказательства, имеющиеся в настоящее время, приводят к уверенности, что семья Сефевидов имеет местное иранское происхождение, а не тюркское, как это иногда утверждают. Скорее всего, семья возникла в Персидском Курдистане, а затем перебралась в Азербайджан, где ассимилировалась с говорящими по-тюркски азерийцами, и в конечном итоге поселились в маленьком городе Ардебиль где-то в одиннадцатом веке [Evidence available at the present time leads to the conviction that the Safavid
Safavid
family came from indigenous Iranian stock, and not from Turkish ancestry as it is sometimes claimed. It is probable that the family originated in Persian Kurdistan, and later moved to Azerbaijan, where it became assimilated to Turkic-speaking Azeris and eventually settled in the small town of Ardabil
Ardabil
sometime during the eleventh century.]". ^ Вопрос о языке, на котором говорил шах Исмаил, не идентичен вопросу о его «расе» или «национальности». Его происхождение было смешанным: одна из его бабушек была греческая принцесса Комнина. Хинц приходит к выводу, что кровь в его жилах была главным образом, не тюркской. Уже его сын шах Тахмасп начал избавляться от своих туркменских преторианцев. [The question of the language used by Shah
Shah
Ismail is not identical with that of his race or of his "nationality". His ancestry was mixed: one of his grandmothers was a Greek Comnena princess. Hinz, Aufstieg, 74, comes to the conclusion that the blood in his veins was chiefly non-Turkish. Already, his son Shah
Shah
Tahmasp began to get rid of his Turcoman praetorians.] — V. Minorsky, "The Poetry of Shah
Shah
Ismail I," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 10/4 (1942): 1006–53. ^ "Peoples of Iran" Encyclopædia Iranica. RN Frye. The Azeri Turks are Shiʿites and were founders of the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty. ^ RM Savory. Ebn Bazzaz. Encyclopædia Iranica ^ Roger M. Savory. "Safavids" in Peter Burke, Irfan Habib, Halil İnalcık: History of Humanity-Scientific and Cultural Development: From the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century, Taylor & Francis. 1999, p. 259. ^ Peter B. Golden: An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples; In: Osman Karatay, Ankara 2002, p.321 ^ Alireza Shapur Shahbazi (2005), "The History of the Idea of Iran", in Vesta Curtis ed., Birth of the Persian Empire, IB Tauris, London, p. 108: "Similarly the collapse of Sassanian Eranshahr in AD 650 did not end Iranians' national idea. The name "Iran" disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran
Iran
or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam. On the other hand, when the Safavids
Safavids
(not Reza Shah, as is popularly assumed) revived a national state officially known as Iran, bureaucratic usage in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and even Iran
Iran
itself could still refer to it by other descriptive and traditional appellations". ^ Time in Early Modern Islam: Calendar, Ceremony, and Chronology Page 23 By Stephen P. Blake [1] ^ Encyclopædia Iranica. R. N. Frye. Peoples of Iran. Archived 2009-12-15 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Faruk Sümer, Safevi Devletinin Kuruluşu ve Gelişmesinde Anadolu Türklerinin Rolü, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara, 1992, p. 15. (in Turkish) ^ Fisher et al. 1986, p. 211. ^ Roy 2014, p. 44. ^ a b c Sicker 2000, p. 187. ^ Nesib Nesibli, "Osmanlı-Safevî Savaşları, Mezhep Meselesi ve Azerbaucan", Türkler, Cilt 6, Yeni Türkiye Yayınları, Ankara, 2002, ISBN 975-6782-39-0, p. 895. (in Turkish) ^ Fisher et al. 1986, pp. 212, 245. ^ a b c Rayfield 2013, p. 164. ^ The New Encyclopædia Britannica: Micropædia, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1991, ISBN 978-0-85229-529-8, p. 295. ^ Bosworth & Savory 1989, pp. 969-971. ^ Savory 2007, p. 36. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/army-iii ^ Newman 2008, p. 16. ^ Cleveland, William L. "A History of the Modern Middle East" (Westview Press, 2013) pg 131 ^ Woodbridge Bingham, Hilary Conroy, Frank William Iklé, A History of Asia: Formations of Civilizations, From Antiquity to 1600, and Bacon, 1974, p. 116. ^ Eastern Turkey: An Architectural & Archaeological Survey, Volume II p 289 ^ a b Savory 2007, p. 50. ^ a b Mazzaoui 2002. ^ Savory 2007, p. 37. ^ History of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and modern Turkey ^ "History of Iran: Safavid
Safavid
Empire 1502 - 1736". Retrieved 16 December 2014.  ^ "Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia". Retrieved 15 December 2014.  ^ Eraly, Abraham (17 September 2007). Emperors Of The Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Moghuls. Penguin Books Limited. p. 25. ISBN 978-93-5118-093-7.  ^ Soucek 1982, pp. 105-106. ^ a b c d e Shah
Shah
Ismail I
Ismail I
Retrieved July 2015 ^ a b Savory 2007, p. 41. ^ Michael Axworthy, Iran: Empire of the Mind (Penguin, 2008) p.133 ^ The later Crusades, 1274–1580: from Lyons to Alcazar Door Norman Housley, page 120, 1992 ^ Ira M. Lapidus. "A History of Islamic Societies" Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1139991507 p 336 ^ Savory, R. (2007). Iran
Iran
Under the Safavids. Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 9780521042512. Retrieved 2014-10-15.  ^ A Narrative of Italian Travels in Persia, in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (1873), s. 61 ^ The Cambridge History of Islam, Part 1, By Peter Malcolm Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, p. 401. ^ Mikaberidze 2015, p. 242. ^ Momen (1985), p. 107. ^ Savory 2007, p. 47. ^ a b "ESMĀʿĪL I ṢAFAWĪ – Encyclopaedia Iranica". iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 2014-10-15.  ^ The Cambridge history of Iran
Iran
by William Bayne Fisher p.384ff ^ Encyclopædia Iranica. ٍIsmail Safavi Archived October 21, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b V. Minorsky, "The Poetry of Shah
Shah
Ismail I," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 10/4 (1942): 1006–53. ^ M.B. Dickson and S.C. Welch, The Houghton Shahnameh, 2 vols. (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1981. See p. 34 of vol. I). ^ R.M. Savory, "Safavids", Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edition ^ a b H. Javadi and K. Burrill. Azerbaijan. Azeri Literature in Iran. — Encyclopædia Iranica, 1998. — Vol. III. — P. 251-255. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-21. Retrieved 2013-10-20.  ^ Newman 2008, p. 13. ^ Vladimir Minorsky: The Poetry of Shāh Ismā'īl I, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 10, No. 4. (1942), s. 1042a-1043a ^ Alevi Literature, no specified origin ^ RM Savory, Safavids, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed page 185–6 ^ a b Roemer 1986, p. 211. ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander. Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO, 31 jul. 2011 ISBN 978-1598843361 p 432 ^ Sakina Berengian. Azeri and Persian literary works in twentieth century Iranian Azerbaijan. — Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 1988. — С. 20. — 238 с. — ISBN 9783922968696. It was also during the Safavid
Safavid
period that the famous Azeri folk romances — Shah Esmail, Asli-Karam, Ashiq Gharib, Koroghli, which are all considered bridges between local dialects and the classical language — were created and in time penetrated into Ottoman, Uzbek, and Persian literatures. The fact that some of these lyrical and epic romances are in prose may be regarded as another distinctive feature of Azeri compared to Ottoman and Chaghatay literatures. ^ Отмечен день рождения Шаха Исмаила Хатаи Archived 2004-12-10 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Опера "Шах Исмаил"". citylife.az.  ^ Э. Г. Абасова. Магомаев А. М. Музыкальная энциклопедия. — М.: Советская энциклопедия, Советский композитор. Под ред. Ю. В. Келдыша. 1973—1982. ^ The Royal Ark

Bibliography[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shah
Shah
Ismail I.

Yves Bomati and Houchang Nahavandi, Shah
Shah
Abbas, Emperor of Persia,1587-1629, 2017, ed. Ketab Corporation, Los Angeles, ISBN 978-1595845672, English translation by Azizeh Azodi. Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelve. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03531-4.  Fisher, William Bayne; Avery, P.; Hambly, G. R. G; Melville, C. (1986). The Cambridge History of Iran. 6. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521200943.  Savory, Roger (1998). "ESMĀʿĪL I ṢAFAWĪ". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VIII, Fasc. 6. pp. 628–636.  Sicker, Martin (2000). The Islamic World in Ascendancy: From the Arab Conquests to the Siege of Vienna. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0275968922.  Mazzaoui, Michel M. (2002). "NAJM-E ṮĀNI". Encyclopaedia Iranica.  Mikaberidze, Alexander (2015). Historical Dictionary of Georgia (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1442241466.  Newman, Andrew J. (2008). Safavid
Safavid
Iran: Rebirth of a Persian Empire. I.B.Tauris. pp. 1–281. ISBN 9780857716613.  Savory, Roger (2007). Iran
Iran
under the Safavids. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–288. ISBN 0521042518.  Rayfield, Donald (2013). Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia. Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1780230702.  Roy, Kaushik (2014). Military Transition in Early Modern Asia, 1400-1750: Cavalry, Guns, Government and Ships. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1780938004.  Bosworth, C.E.; Savory, R.M. (1989). "AMĪR-AL-OMARĀʾ". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 9. pp. 969–971. Retrieved 28 December 2014.  Roemer, H. R. (1986). "The Safavid
Safavid
Period". In Jackson, Peter; Lockhart, Laurence. The Timurid and Safavid
Safavid
Periods. The Cambridge History of Iran. 6. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 189–350. ISBN 9780521200943.  M. Momen, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale Univ. Press, 1985, pp. 397, ISBN 0-300-03499-7 M. Meserve, "The Sophy: How News of Shah
Shah
Ismail Savafi Spread in Renaissance Europe." Journal of Early Modern History 18 (2014): 1-30. Savory, Roger (1997). "EBN BAZZĀZ". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VIII, Fasc. 1. 

Ismail I Safavid
Safavid
Dynasty

New creation Shah
Shah
of Persia 1502–1524 Succeeded by Tahmasp I

v t e

Rulers of the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
(1501–1736)

Ismail I
Ismail I
(1501–1524) Tahmasp I
Tahmasp I
(1524–1576) Ismail II
Ismail II
(1576–1577) Mohammad Khodabanda
Mohammad Khodabanda
(1577–1587) Abbas I (1587–1629) Safi (1629–1642) Abbas II (1642–1666) Suleiman I (1666–1694) Sultan
Sultan
Husayn (1694-1722) Tahmasp II
Tahmasp II
(1722–1732) Abbas III
Abbas III
(1732–1736)

v t e

Persian literature

Old

Behistun Inscription Old Persian inscriptions Ganjnameh Inscription of Xerxes the Great in Van Fortress Achaemenid inscription in the Kharg Island

Middle

Ayadgar-i Zariran Counsels of Adurbad-e Mahrspandan Dēnkard Book of Jamasp Book of Arda Viraf Karnamak-i Artaxshir-i Papakan Cube of Zoroaster Dana-i Menog Khrat Shabuhragan
Shabuhragan
of Mani Shahrestanha-ye Eranshahr Bundahishn Menog-i Khrad Jamasp Namag Dadestan-i Denig Anthology of Zadspram Warshtmansr Zand-i Wahman yasn Drakht-i Asurig Shikand-gumanig Vizar

Classical

900s

Rudaki Abu-Mansur Daqiqi Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
(Shahnameh) Abu Shakur Balkhi Abu Tahir Khosrovani Shahid Balkhi Bal'ami Rabia Balkhi Abusaeid Abolkheir
Abusaeid Abolkheir
(967–1049) Avicenna
Avicenna
(980–1037) Unsuri Asjadi Kisai Marvazi Ayyuqi

1000s

Bābā Tāher Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
(1004–1088) Al-Ghazali
Al-Ghazali
(1058–1111) Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
Khwaja Abdullah Ansari
(1006–1088) Asadi Tusi Qatran Tabrizi (1009–1072) Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
(1018–1092) Masud Sa'd Salman (1046–1121) Moezi Neyshapuri Omar Khayyām (1048–1131) Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani Ahmad Ghazali Hujwiri Manuchehri Ayn-al-Quzat Hamadani (1098–1131) Uthman Mukhtari Abu-al-Faraj Runi Sanai Banu Goshasp Borzu-Nama Afdal al-Din Kashani Abu'l Hasan Mihyar al-Daylami Mu'izzi Mahsati
Mahsati
Ganjavi

1100s

Hakim Iranshah Suzani Samarqandi Hassan Ghaznavi Faramarz Nama Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
(1155–1191) Adib Sabir Falaki Shirvani Am'aq Najm al-Din Razi Attār (1142–c.1220) Khaghani
Khaghani
(1120–1190) Anvari (1126–1189) Faramarz-e Khodadad Nizami Ganjavi
Nizami Ganjavi
(1141–1209) Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) Kamal al-din Esfahani Shams Tabrizi
Shams Tabrizi
(d.1248)

1200s

Abu Tahir Tarsusi Awhadi Maraghai Shams al-Din Qays Razi Sultan
Sultan
Walad Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī Afdal al-Din Kashani Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi Mahmud Shabistari
Mahmud Shabistari
(1288–1320s) Abu'l Majd Tabrizi Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
(1253–1325) Saadi (Bustan / Golestān) Bahram-e-Pazhdo Pur-Baha Jami Zartosht Bahram e Pazhdo Rumi Homam Tabrizi (1238–1314) Nozhat al-Majales Khwaju Kermani Sultan
Sultan
Walad

1300s

Ibn Yamin Shah
Shah
Ni'matullah Wali Hafez Abu Ali
Ali
Qalandar Fazlallah Astarabadi Nasimi Emad al-Din Faqih Kermani

1400s

Ubayd Zakani Salman Sawaji Hatefi Jami Kamal Khujandi Ahli Shirzi (1454–1535) Fuzûlî
Fuzûlî
(1483–1556) Ismail I
Ismail I
(1487–1524) Baba Faghani Shirzani

1500s

Faizi (1547–1595) Abu'l-Fazl (1551–1602) Vahshi Bafqi (1523–1583) 'Orfi Shirazi

1600s

Taleb Amoli Saib Tabrizi (1607–1670) Kalim Kashani Hazin Lāhiji (1692–1766) Saba Kashani Bēdil Dehlavi (1642–1720) Naw'i Khabushani

1700s

Neshat Esfahani Abbas Foroughi Bastami (1798–1857)

1800s

Ghalib
Ghalib
(1797–1869) Mahmud Saba Kashani (1813–1893)

Contemporary

Poetry

Iran

Ahmadreza Ahmadi Mehdi Akhavan-Sales Hormoz Alipour Qeysar Aminpour Aref Qazvini Manouchehr Atashi Mahmoud Mosharraf Azad Tehrani Mohammad-Taqi Bahar Reza Baraheni Simin Behbahani Dehkhoda Hushang Ebtehaj Bijan Elahi Parviz Eslampour Parvin E'tesami Forough Farrokhzad Hossein Monzavi Hushang Irani Iraj Mirza Bijan Jalali Siavash Kasraie Esmail Khoi Shams Langeroodi Mohammad Mokhtari Nosrat Rahmani Yadollah Royaee Tahereh Saffarzadeh Sohrab Sepehri Mohammad-Reza Shafiei Kadkani Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar Ahmad Shamlou Manouchehr Sheybani Nima Yooshij Fereydoon Moshiri Rasoul Yunan

Armenia

Edward Haghverdian

Afghanistan

Nadia Anjuman Wasef Bakhtari Raziq Faani Khalilullah Khalili Youssof Kohzad Massoud Nawabi Abdul Ali
Ali
Mustaghni

Tajikistan

Sadriddin Ayni Farzona Iskandar Khatloni Abolqasem Lahouti Gulrukhsor Safieva Loiq Sher-Ali Payrav Sulaymoni Mirzo Tursunzoda

Uzbekistan

Asad Gulzoda

Pakistan

Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal

Novels

Ali
Ali
Mohammad Afghani Ghazaleh Alizadeh Bozorg Alavi Reza Amirkhani Mahshid Amirshahi Reza Baraheni Simin Daneshvar Mahmoud Dowlatabadi Reza Ghassemi Houshang Golshiri Aboutorab Khosravi Ahmad Mahmoud Shahriyar Mandanipour Abbas Maroufi Iraj Pezeshkzad

Short stories

Jalal Al-e-Ahmad Shamim Bahar Sadeq Chubak Simin Daneshvar Nader Ebrahimi Ebrahim Golestan Houshang Golshiri Sadegh Hedayat Mohammad- Ali
Ali
Jamalzadeh Aboutorab Khosravi Mostafa Mastoor Jaafar Modarres-Sadeghi Houshang Moradi Kermani Bijan Najdi Shahrnush Parsipur Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi Bahram Sadeghi Goli Taraqqi

Plays

Reza Abdoh Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh Hamid Amjad Bahram Beyzai Mohammad Charmshir Alireza Koushk Jalali Hadi Marzban Bijan Mofid Hengameh Mofid Abbas Nalbandian Akbar Radi Pari Saberi Mohammad Yaghoubi

Screenplays

Saeed Aghighi Rakhshan Bani-E'temad Bahram Beyzai Hajir Darioush Pouran Derakhshandeh Asghar Farhadi Bahman Farmanara Farrokh Ghaffari Behrouz Gharibpour Bahman Ghobadi Fereydun
Fereydun
Gole Ebrahim Golestan Ali
Ali
Hatami Abolfazl Jalili Ebrahim Hatamikia Abdolreza Kahani Varuzh Karim-Masihi Samuel Khachikian Abbas Kiarostami David Mahmoudieh Majid Majidi Mohsen Makhmalbaf Dariush Mehrjui Reza Mirkarimi Rasoul Mollagholipour Amir Naderi Jafar Panahi Kambuzia Partovi Rasul Sadr Ameli Mohammad Sadri Parviz Shahbazi Sohrab Shahid-Saless

Translators

Amrollah Abjadian Jaleh Amouzgar Najaf Daryabandari Behzad Ghaderi Sohi Mohammad Ghazi Lili Golestan Sadegh Hedayat Saleh Hosseini Ahmad Kamyabi Mask Mohammad Moin Ebrahim Pourdavoud Hamid Samandarian Jalal Sattari Jafar Shahidi Ahmad Shamlou Ahmad Tafazzoli Abbas Zaryab

Essayists

Aydin Aghdashloo Mohammad Ebrahim Bastani Parizi Ehsan Yarshater

Contemporary Persian and Classical Persian are the same language, but writers since 1900 are classified as contemporary. At one time, Persian was a common cultural language of much of the non-Arabic Islamic world. Today it is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.

v t e

Azerbaijani literature

Epic and legends

Köroğlu Book of Dede Korkut Ashik

Genres

Medieval

Izzeddin Hasanoglu Nasir Bakuvi Kadi Burhan al-Din Darir of Arzurum Jahan Shah
Shah
Haqiqi Habibi Qasem-e Anvar Khasta Qasim Imadaddin Nasimi Yaqub bin Uzun Hasan Shah
Shah
Ismail I Hagiri Tabrizi Kishvari Muhammad
Muhammad
Fuzuli Shah
Shah
Tahmasp I Mahammad Amani Saib Tabrizi Qovsi Tabrizi Roohi Bagdadi Masihi Tarzi Afshar Fatma Khanum Ani

Modern

Molla Panah Vagif Molla Vali Vidadi Mirza Shafi Vazeh Firidun bey Kocharli Khurshidbanu Natavan Abbasgulu Bakikhanov Mirza Fatali Akhundov Gasim bey Zakir Ali
Ali
bey Huseynzade Seyid Azim Shirvani Hasan bey Zardabi Mirza Alakbar Sabir Seyid Abulgasim Nabati Zeynalabdin Shirvani Heyran Khanim Ali
Ali
Mojuz Fazil Khan Sheyda Jalil Mammadguluzadeh Nariman Narimanov Jafargulu agha Javanshir Abdurrahim bey Hagverdiyev Ismayil bey Gutgashynly Sakina Akhundzadeh Hashim bey Vazirov Mehdigulu Khan Vafa Suleyman Sani Akhundov Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli Mammed Said Ordubadi Najaf bey Vazirov Ashig Alasgar Mahammad Hadi Abbas Sahhat Abdulla Shaig Huseyn Javid Jafar Jabbarly Ali
Ali
Nazmi Mikayil Mushfig Samad Vurgun Aliagha Vahid Mirza Khazar Mir Jalal Pashayev Ahmad Javad Habib Saher

Contemporary

Suleyman Rustam Ali
Ali
Nazem Ganjali Sabahi Ilyas Afandiyev Rasul Rza Nigar Rafibeyli Mirza Ibrahimov Almas Ildyrym Mirvarid Dilbazi Ismayil Shykhly Manaf Suleymanov Baba Punhan Anar Rzayev Fikrat Goja Bahar Shirvani Nusrat Kasamanli Elchin Afandiyev Khalil Rza Uluturk Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh Gholam-Hossein Sa'edi Mammad Araz Magsud Ibrahimbeyov Rustam Ibragimbekov Chingiz Abdullayev Natig Rasulzadeh Afag Masud Farhad Ebrahimi Akram Aylisli Ramiz Rovshan Naser Manzuri Samad Behrangi Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar Madina Gulgun Samin Baghtcheban Jabbar Baghtcheban Sahand Yadollah Maftun Amini Mehdi Huseyn Isa Mughanna Vagif Samadoghlu Heidar Abbasi Qilman Ilkin Vidadi Babanli Elchin Safarli Hamid Notghi Gholamhossein Bigdeli Rasoul Yunan Hidayet Lala Hasanova Gasham Najafzadeh Ali
Ali
Akbar Seymur Baycan

Notes

Azerbaijani is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Republic of Azerbaijan
and one of the official languages of the Republic of Dagestan. It is also widely spoken in Iran, particularly in Iranian Azerbaijan. It is also spoken in some parts of Turkey, Russia
Russia
and Georgia.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3785262 LCCN: n80149855 ISNI: 0000 0000 8351 8681 GND: 118932497 SUDOC: 088635406 BNF: cb13330036q (data) MusicBrainz: 46328ba4-2bdf-49c0

.