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An ISLAND or ISLE is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water . Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets , skerries , cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait , and a small island off the coast may be called a holm . A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago , e.g. the Philippines
Philippines
.

An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore
Singapore
and its causeway , and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde . Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island
Coney Island
and Coronado Island
Island
, though these are strictly tied islands . Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese
Peloponnese
by the Corinth Canal
Corinth Canal
or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan
Manhattan
during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River
Harlem River
which surrounded the area, it is generally not considered an island.

There are two main types of islands in the sea: continental and oceanic. There are also artificial islands .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology
Etymology
* 2 Difference between islands and continents

* 3 Types of islands

* 3.1 Continental islands * 3.2 Oceanic islands * 3.3 Tropical islands

* 4 Artificial islands * 5 Island
Island
superlatives * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The word island derives from Middle English
Middle English
iland, from Old English igland (from ig or ieg, similarly meaning 'island' when used independently, and -land carrying its contemporary meaning; cf. Dutch eiland ("island"), German Eiland ("small island")). However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English
Old English
ieg is actually a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, and related to Latin aqua (water).

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ISLANDS AND CONTINENTS

Greenland
Greenland
is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km², while Australia
Australia
, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km², but there is no standard of size which distinguishes islands from continents , or from islets . There is a difference between islands and continents in terms of geology . Continents sit on continental lithosphere which is part of tectonic plates floating high on Earth's mantle . Oceanic crust
Oceanic crust
is also part of tectonic plates, but it is denser than continental lithosphere, so it floats low on the mantle. Islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust (e.g. volcanic islands) or geologically they are part of some continent sitting on continental lithosphere (e.g. Greenland
Greenland
). This holds true for Australia
Australia
, which sits on its own continental lithosphere and tectonic plate.

TYPES OF ISLANDS

CONTINENTAL ISLANDS

Continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf of a continent. Examples are Borneo
Borneo
, Java , Sumatra
Sumatra
, Sakhalin , Taiwan
Taiwan
and Hainan
Hainan
off Asia
Asia
; New Guinea
New Guinea
, Tasmania
Tasmania
, and Kangaroo Island
Island
off Australia
Australia
; Great Britain
Great Britain
, Ireland
Ireland
, and Sicily
Sicily
off Europe ; Greenland
Greenland
, Newfoundland , Long Island
Long Island
, and Sable Island off North America ; and Barbados
Barbados
, Falklands and Trinidad
Trinidad
off South America
South America
.

A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, which is created when a continent is rifted . Examples are Madagascar and Socotra
Socotra
off Africa
Africa
, the Kerguelen Islands , New Caledonia , New Zealand , and some of the Seychelles .

Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity. This includes:

* barrier islands , which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves * fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived.

Islets
Islets
are very small islands.

OCEANIC ISLANDS

Main article: High island

Oceanic islands are islands that do not sit on continental shelves. The vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena
Saint Helena
in the South Atlantic Ocean
South Atlantic Ocean
. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface. Examples are Saint Peter and Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island
Macquarie Island
in the Pacific.

One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc. These islands arise from volcanoes where the subduction of one plate under another is occurring. Examples are the Aleutian Islands
Aleutian Islands
, the Mariana Islands
Mariana Islands
, and most of Tonga
Tonga
in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. The only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands
South Sandwich Islands
.

Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs where an oceanic rift reaches the surface. There are two examples: Iceland
Iceland
, which is the world's second largest volcanic island, and Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen
. Both are in the Atlantic.

A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots . A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is eventually "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount . Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands , from Hawaii
Hawaii
to Kure , which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts
Emperor Seamounts
. Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago
Archipelago
; its older, northerly trend is the Line Islands . The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands , with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu
Tuvalu
. Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hot spot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey , which was formed in 1963.

An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island. The reef rises to the surface of the water and forms a new island. Atolls are typically ring-shaped with a central lagoon . Examples are the Line Islands in the Pacific and the Maldives
Maldives
in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
.

TROPICAL ISLANDS

See also: Formation of coral reefs

Approximately 45,000 tropical islands with an area of at least 5 hectares (12 acres) exist. Examples formed from coral reefs include Maldives
Maldives
, Tonga
Tonga
, Samoa
Samoa
, Nauru
Nauru
, and Polynesia
Polynesia
. Granite
Granite
islands include Seychelles and Tioman and volcanic islands such as Saint Helena .

The socio-economic diversity of tropical islands ranges from the Stone Age societies in the interior of Madagascar
Madagascar
, Borneo
Borneo
, and Papua New Guinea
New Guinea
to the high-tech lifestyles of the city-islands of Singapore
Singapore
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
.

International tourism is a significant factor in the economy of many tropical islands including Seychelles, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, Mauritius
Mauritius
, Réunion
Réunion
, Hawaii
Hawaii
, and the Maldives
Maldives
.

ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS

Main article: Artificial island

Almost all of the Earth's islands are natural and have been formed by tectonic forces or volcanic eruptions. However, artificial (man-made) islands also exist, such as the island in Osaka Bay off the Japanese island of Honshu
Honshu
, on which Kansai International Airport is located. Artificial islands can be built using natural materials (e.g., earth, rock, or sand) or artificial ones (e.g., concrete slabs or recycled waste ). Sometimes natural islands are artificially enlarged, such as Vasilyevsky Island
Vasilyevsky Island
in the Russian city of St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
, which had its western shore extended westward by some 0.5 km in the construction of the Passenger Port of St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
.

ISLAND SUPERLATIVES

* Largest island: Greenland
Greenland
* Largest island in a lake: Manitoulin Island * Largest island in a river: Bananal Island * Largest island in fresh water: Marajó * Largest uninhabited island: Devon Island * Lowest island: Franchetti island in Lake Afrera
Lake Afrera
, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
* Island
Island
shared by largest number of countries: Borneo
Borneo
( Brunei
Brunei
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
)

SEE ALSO

* Desert island
Desert island
* Inland island * Island biogeography * Island ecology * Island country * Island hopping
Island hopping
* List of ancient islands * List of archipelagos * List of artificial islands * List of divided islands
List of divided islands
* List of fictional islands
List of fictional islands
* List of island countries * List of islands by area

* List of islands by body of water * List of islands by continent * List of islands by country * List of islands by highest point * List of islands by name * List of islands by population * List of islands by population density * List of islands named after people * Phantom island
Phantom island
* Private island * Small Island Developing States
Small Island Developing States
* Tidal island
Tidal island

* Islands portal * Environment portal * Ecology portal * Geography portal * Weather portal

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ " Hawaii
Hawaii
: Image of the Day". Retrieved January 6, 2015. * ^ "Webster\'s Dictionary-Island". * ^ "Island". Dictionary.com . Retrieved March 5, 2007. * ^ Ringe, Donald A. (2006). A Linguistic History of English: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. Oxford University Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-19-928413-X . * ^ Brown, Mike. How I Killed Pluto and Why It Had It Coming. New York: Random House Digital, 2010. ISBN 0-385-53108-7 * ^ Royle, Stephen A. A Geography of Islands: Small Island Insularity. Psychology Press, 2001. pp. 7–11 ISBN 1-85728-865-3 * ^ " Island
Island
(geography)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 September 2014. * ^ Lomolino, Mark V. (editor); (et al.) (2004) Foundations of Biogeography: Classic Papers with Commentaries. University of Chicago Press. p. 316. ISBN 0226492362 * ^ A B Austrian Academy of Sciences . "The Tropical Islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans". doi :10.1553/3-7001-2738-3 . Missing or empty url= (help ) * ^ Arnberger, Hertha, Erik (2011). The Tropical Islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences Press. ISBN 978-3700127383 . * ^ "Building Artificial Islands That Rise With the Sea". Retrieved 2016-06-28. * ^ "What Makes an Island? Land Reclamation and the South China Sea Arbitration Asia
Asia
Maritime Transparency Initiative". 2015-07-15. Retrieved 2016-06-28. * ^ "Conception of development of the artificial lands of Vasilievsky island". Retrieved 2016-06-28.

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