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Key texts

Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)

Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961)

Ma'alim fi al-Tariq
Ma'alim fi al-Tariq
("Milestones") (Qutb 1965)

Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") ( Khomeini
Khomeini
1970)

Heads of state

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Ali
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Key ideologues

Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad
Muhammad
Nasiruddin al-Albani Muhammad
Muhammad
Asad Hassan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal Ali
Ali
Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul A'la Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali
Ali
Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan Al-Turabi Ahmed Yassin

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Glossary

Islam
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portal

v t e

Islamism
Islamism
is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.[1] The term can refer to diverse forms of social and political activism advocating that public and political life should be guided by Islamic principles[1][2] or more specifically to movements which call for full implementation of sharia. It is commonly used interchangeably with the terms political Islam
Islam
or Islamic fundamentalism.[3] In academic usage, the term Islamism
Islamism
does not specify what vision of "Islamic order" or sharia are being advocated, or how their advocates intend to bring them about.[4] In Western mass media it tends to refer to groups who aim to establish a sharia-based Islamic state, often with implication of violent tactics and human rights violations, and has acquired connotations of political extremism. In the Muslim
Muslim
world, the term has positive connotations among its proponents.[3] Different currents of Islamist thought include advocating a "revolutionary" strategy of Islamizing society through exercise of state power, and alternately a "reformist" strategy to re-Islamizing society through grass-roots social and political activism.[5] Islamists may emphasize the implementation of Sharia
Sharia
(Islamic law);[6] pan-Islamic political unity,[6] including an Islamic state;[7] or selective removal of non-Muslim, particularly Western military, economic, political, social, or cultural influences in the Muslim world that they believe to be incompatible with Islam.[6] Graham Fuller has argued for a broader notion of Islamism
Islamism
as a form of identity politics, involving "support for [Muslim] identity, authenticity, broader regionalism, revivalism, [and] revitalization of the community."[8] Some authors hold the term "Islamic activism" to be synonymous and preferable to "Islamism",[9] and Rached Ghannouchi writes that Islamists prefer to use the term "Islamic movement" themselves.[10] Central and prominent figures in twentieth-century Islamism
Islamism
include Hasan al-Banna, Sayyid Qutb, Abul Ala Maududi,[11] and Ruhollah Khomeini.[12] Most Islamist thinkers emphasize peaceful political processes, which are supported by the majority of contemporary Islamists.[13] Others, Sayyid Qutb
Sayyid Qutb
in particular, called for violence, and his followers are generally considered Islamic extremists, although Qutb denounced the killing of innocents.[14] According to Robin Wright, Islamist movements have "arguably altered the Middle East more than any trend since the modern states gained independence", redefining "politics and even borders".[15] Following the Arab Spring, some Islamist currents became heavily involved in democratic politics,[15][16] while others spawned "the most aggressive and ambitious Islamist militia" to date, ISIS.[15]

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Overview

2.1 Definitions 2.2 Varieties 2.3 Relation to Islam 2.4 Influence

3 Types

3.1 Moderate Islamism

3.1.1 Post-Islamism

3.2 Salafi
Salafi
movement

3.2.1 Wahhabism

3.3 Militant Islamism/Jihadism

3.3.1 Qutbism 3.3.2 Salafi
Salafi
Jihadism

4 History

4.1 Predecessor movements 4.2 Early history

4.2.1 Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal 4.2.2 Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi 4.2.3 Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood 4.2.4 Sayyid Qutb

4.3 Ascendance on the international politics

4.3.1 Six-Day War
Six-Day War
(1967) 4.3.2 Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
(1978-1979) 4.3.3 Grand Mosque
Mosque
seizure (1979) 4.3.4 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
(1979-1989) 4.3.5 Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
(1990-1991)

4.4 Rise of Islamism
Islamism
by country

4.4.1 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(Taliban) 4.4.2 Algeria 4.4.3 Bangladesh 4.4.4 Egypt
Egypt
(Jihadism) 4.4.5 Gaza (Hamas) 4.4.6 Pakistan 4.4.7 Sudan 4.4.8 Turkey

4.5 Contemporary era

4.5.1 By country 4.5.2 Hizb ut-Tahrir 4.5.3 Post- Arab Spring
Arab Spring
(2011-present) 4.5.4 Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

5 Sources of strength

5.1 Charitable work 5.2 Dissatisfaction with the status quo 5.3 Identity politics 5.4 Islamic revival 5.5 State-sponsorship

5.5.1 Saudi Arabia 5.5.2 Qatar 5.5.3 Western patronage

5.6 Western alienation

6 Response

6.1 Criticism 6.2 Counter-response

7 Parties and organizations 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Terminology[edit] The term, which originally denoted the religion of Islam, first appeared in English as Islamismus in 1696, and as Islamism
Islamism
in 1712.[17] The term appears in the U.S. Supreme Court decision in In Re Ross (1891). By the turn of the twentieth century it had begun to be displaced by the shorter and purely Arabic
Arabic
term "Islam" and by 1938, when Orientalist scholars completed The Encyclopaedia of Islam, seems to have virtually disappeared from English usage.[12] The term "Islamism" acquired its contemporary connotations in French academia in the late 1970s and early 1980s. From French, it began to migrate to the English language in the mid-1980s, and in recent years has largely displaced the term Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
in academic circles.[12] The use of the term Islamism
Islamism
was at first "a marker for scholars more likely to sympathize" with new Islamic movements; however, as the term gained popularity it became more specifically associated with political groups such as the Taliban
Taliban
or the Algerian Armed Islamic Group, as well as with highly publicized acts of violence.[12] "Islamists" who have spoken out against the use of the term, insisting they are merely "Muslims", include Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah, the spiritual mentor of Hizbullah, and Abbassi Madani, leader of the Algerian Islamic Salvation Front.[12] A 2003 article in Middle East Quarterly states:

In summation, the term Islamism
Islamism
enjoyed its first run, lasting from Voltaire to the First World War, as a synonym for Islam. Enlightened scholars and writers generally preferred it to Mohammedanism. Eventually both terms yielded to Islam, the Arabic
Arabic
name of the faith, and a word free of either pejorative or comparative associations. There was no need for any other term, until the rise of an ideological and political interpretation of Islam
Islam
challenged scholars and commentators to come up with an alternative, to distinguish Islam
Islam
as modern ideology from Islam
Islam
as a faith... To all intents and purposes, Islamic fundamentalism
Islamic fundamentalism
and Islamism
Islamism
have become synonyms in contemporary American usage.[12]

The Council on American–Islamic Relations
Council on American–Islamic Relations
complained in 2013 that the Associated Press's definition of "Islamist"—a "supporter of government in accord with the laws of Islam
Islam
[and] who view the Quran as a political model"—had become a pejorative shorthand for "Muslims we don't like."[18] Mansoor Moaddel, a sociologist of Eastern Michigan University criticized it as "not a good term" because "the use of the term Islamist does not capture the phenomena that is quite heterogeneous."[19] The AP Stylebook
AP Stylebook
entry for Islamist now reads as follows:[20]

"An advocate or supporter of a political movement that favors reordering government and society in accordance with laws prescribed by Islam. Do not use as a synonym for Islamic fighters, militants, extremists or radicals, who may or may not be Islamists. Where possible, be specific and use the name of militant affiliations: al-Qaida-linked, Hezbollah, Taliban, etc. Those who view the Quran
Quran
as a political model encompass a wide range of Muslims, from mainstream politicians to militants known as jihadi."

Overview[edit] Definitions[edit] Islamism
Islamism
has been defined as:

"the belief that Islam
Islam
should guide social and political as well as personal life",[21] a form of "religionized politics" and an instance of religious fundamentalism[22] "political movement that favors reordering government and society in accordance with laws prescribed by Islam" (from Associated Press's definition of "Islamist")[18] "[the term 'Islamist' has become shorthand for] 'Muslims we don't like.'" (from Council on American–Islamic Relations's complaint about AP's earlier definition of Islamist)[18] "a theocratic ideology that seeks to impose any version of Islam
Islam
over society by law". (Maajid Nawaz, a former Islamist turned critic[23]). Subsequently, clarified to be "the desire to impose any given interpretation of Islam
Islam
on society".[24] "the [Islamic] ideology that guides society as a whole and that [teaches] law must be in conformity with the Islamic sharia",[25] a term "used by outsiders to denote a strand of activity which they think justifies their misconception of Islam
Islam
as something rigid and immobile, a mere tribal affiliation."[12][26] a movement so broad and flexible it reaches out to "everything to everyone" in Islam, making it "unsustainable".[27]

an alternative social provider to the poor masses; an angry platform for the disillusioned young; a loud trumpet-call announcing `a return to the pure religion` to those seeking an identity; a "progressive, moderate religious platform` for the affluent and liberal; ... and at the extremes, a violent vehicle for rejectionists and radicals.[27]

an Islamic "movement that seeks cultural differentiation from the West and reconnection with the pre-colonial symbolic universe",[28] "the organised political trend [...] that seeks to solve modern political problems by reference to Muslim
Muslim
texts [...] the whole body of thought which seeks to invest society with Islam
Islam
which may be integrationist, but may also be traditionalist, reform-minded or even revolutionary"[29] "the active assertion and promotion of beliefs, prescriptions, laws or policies that are held to be Islamic in character,"[9] a movement of "Muslims who draw upon the belief, symbols, and language of Islam
Islam
to inspire, shape, and animate political activity;" which may contain moderate, tolerant, peaceful activists or those who "preach intolerance and espouse violence."[30] "All who seek to Islamize their environment, whether in relation to their lives in society, their family circumstances, or the workplace, may be described as Islamists." [31]

Varieties[edit] Islamism
Islamism
takes different forms and spans a wide range of strategies and tactics towards the powers in place—"destruction, opposition, collaboration, indifference"[32] that have varied as "circumstances have changed"[33]—and thus is not a united movement. Moderate and reformist Islamists who accept and work within the democratic process include parties like the Tunisian Ennahda Movement. Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
of Pakistan
Pakistan
is basically a socio-political and democratic Vanguard party
Vanguard party
but has also gained political influence through military coup d'états in the past.[32] The Islamist groups like Hezbollah
Hezbollah
in Lebanon
Lebanon
and Hamas
Hamas
in Palestine participate in the democratic and political process as well as armed attacks. Jihadist organizations like al-Qaeda and the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and groups such as the Taliban, entirely reject democracy, often declaring as kuffar those Muslims who support it (see takfirism), as well as calling for violent/offensive jihad or urging and conducting attacks on a religious basis. Another major division within Islamism
Islamism
is between what Graham E. Fuller has described as the fundamentalist "guardians of the tradition" (Salafis, such as those in the Wahhabi
Wahhabi
movement) and the "vanguard of change and Islamic reform" centered around the Muslim Brotherhood.[34] Olivier Roy argues that " Sunni
Sunni
pan- Islamism
Islamism
underwent a remarkable shift in the second half of the 20th century" when the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
movement and its focus on Islamisation of pan-Arabism was eclipsed by the Salafi
Salafi
movement with its emphasis on "sharia rather than the building of Islamic institutions," and rejection of Shia
Shia
Islam.[35] Following the Arab Spring, Roy has described Islamism
Islamism
as "increasingly interdependent" with democracy in much of the Arab Muslim
Muslim
world, such that "neither can now survive without the other." While Islamist political culture itself may not be democratic, Islamists need democratic elections to maintain their legitimacy. At the same time, their popularity is such that no government can call itself democratic that excludes mainstream Islamist groups.[16] Relation to Islam[edit] Further information: Political aspects of Islam The relationship between the notions of Islam
Islam
and Islamism
Islamism
has been subject to disagreement. Hayri Abaza argues that the failure to distinguish between Islam
Islam
and Islamism
Islamism
leads many in the West to support illiberal Islamic regimes, to the detriment of progressive moderates who seek to separate religion from politics.[36] In contrast, Abid Ullah Jan, writes "If Islam
Islam
is a way of life, how can we say that those who want to live by its principles in legal, social, political, economic, and political spheres of life are not Muslims, but Islamists and believe in Islamism, not [just] Islam."[37] A writer for the International Crisis Group maintains that "the conception of 'political Islam'" is a creation of Americans to explain the Iranian Islamic Revolution and apolitical Islam
Islam
was a historical fluke of the "short-lived era of the heyday of secular Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
between 1945 and 1970", and it is quietist/non-political Islam, not Islamism, that requires explanation.[38] Another source distinguishes Islamist from Islamic "by the fact that the latter refers to a religion and culture in existence over a millennium, whereas the first is a political/religious phenomenon linked to the great events of the 20th century". Islamists have, at least at times, defined themselves as "Islamiyyoun/Islamists" to differentiate themselves from "Muslimun/Muslims".[39] Daniel Pipes describes Islamism
Islamism
as a modern ideology that owes more to European utopian political ideologies and "isms" than to the traditional Islamic religion.[40] Influence[edit] Few observers contest the influence of Islamism
Islamism
within the Muslim world.[41][42][43] Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, political movements based on the liberal ideology of free expression and democratic rule have led the opposition in other parts of the world such as Latin America, Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
and many parts of Asia; however "the simple fact is that political Islam
Islam
currently reigns as the most powerful ideological force across the Muslim
Muslim
world today".[44][45] People see the unchanging socioeconomic condition in the Muslim
Muslim
world as a major factor. Olivier Roy believes "the socioeconomic realities that sustained the Islamist wave are still here and are not going to change: poverty, uprootedness, crises in values and identities, the decay of the educational systems, the North-South opposition, and the problem of immigrant integration into the host societies".[46] The strength of Islamism
Islamism
also draws from the strength of religiosity in general in the Muslim
Muslim
world. Compared to Western societies, "[w]hat is striking about the Islamic world
Islamic world
is that ... it seems to have been the least penetrated by irreligion".[42] Where other peoples may look to the physical or social sciences for answers in areas which their ancestors regarded as best left to scripture, in the Muslim
Muslim
world, religion has become more encompassing, not less, as "in the last few decades, it has been the fundamentalists who have increasingly represented the cutting edge" of Muslim
Muslim
culture.[42] Even before the Arab Spring, Islamists in Egypt
Egypt
and other Muslim countries had been described as "extremely influential. ... They determine how one dresses, what one eats. In these areas, they are incredibly successful. ... Even if the Islamists never come to power, they have transformed their countries."[47] Democratic, peaceful and political Islamists are now dominating the spectrum of Islamist ideology as well as the political system of the Muslim
Muslim
world. Moderate strains of Islamism
Islamism
have been described as "competing in the democratic public square in places like Turkey, Tunisia, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia.[48] Types[edit] Moderate Islamism[edit] See also: Islamic democracy Moderate Islamism
Islamism
is a term denoting the emerging Islamist discourses and movements which considered deviated from the traditional Islamist discourses of the mid-20th century.[49] Moderate Islamism
Islamism
is characterized by pragmatic participation within the existing constitutional and political framework, in the most cases democratic institution.[50] Moderate Islamists make up the majority of the contemporary Islamist movements.[13] From the philosophical perspective, their discourses are represented by reformation or reinterpretation of modern socio-political institutions and values imported from the West including democracy.[34][51] This had led to the conception of Islamic form of such institutions, and Islamic interpretations are often attempted within this conception. In the example of democracy, Islamic democracy
Islamic democracy
as an Islamized form of the system has been intellectually developed. In Islamic democracy, the concept of shura, the tradition of consultation which considered as Sunnah
Sunnah
of the prophet Muhammad, is invoked to Islamically reinterpret and legitimatize the institution of democracy.[51][52][53] Performance, goal, strategy, and outcome of moderate Islamist movements vary considerably depending on the country and its socio-political and historical context. In terms of performance, most of the Islamist political parties are oppositions. However, there are few examples they govern or obtain the substantial amount of the popular votes. This includes National Congress of Sudan, National Iraqi Alliance of Iraq
Iraq
and Justice and Development Party (PJD) of Morocco. Their goal also ranges widely. The Ennahda Movement
Ennahda Movement
of Tunisia[54] and Prosperous Justice Party
Prosperous Justice Party
(PKS) of Indonesia[55] formally resigned their vision of implementing sharia. In Morocco, PJD supported King Muhammad
Muhammad
VI's Mudawana, a "startlingly progressive family law" which grants women the right to a divorce, raises the minimum age for marriage to 18, and, in the event of separation, stipulates equal distribution of property.[47] To the contrary, National Congress of Sudan
Sudan
has implemented the strict interpretation of sharia with the foreign support from the conservative states.[56][57] Movements of the former category are also termed as Post-Islamism
Post-Islamism
(see below). Their political outcome is interdependent with their goal and strategy, in which what analysts call "inclusion-moderation theory" is in effect. Inclusion-moderation theory assumes that the more lenient the Islamists become, the less likely their survival will be threatened. Similarly, the more accommodating the government be, the less extreme Islamists become.[58] Moderate Islamism
Islamism
within the democratic institution is a relatively recent phenomenon.[50] Throughout the 80s and 90s, major moderate Islamist movements such as the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
and the Ennahda were excluded from democratic political participation. Islamist movements operated within the state framework were markedly scrutinized during the Algerian Civil War
Algerian Civil War
(1991-2002) and after the increase of terrorism in Egypt
Egypt
in the 90s. Reflecting on these failures, Islamists turned increasingly into revisionist and receptive to democratic procedures in the 21st century.[50] The possibility of accommodating this new wave of modernist Islamism
Islamism
has been explored among the Western intellectuals, with the concept such as Turkish model was proposed. The concept was inspired by the perceived success of Turkish Justice and Development Party (AKP) led by Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Recep Tayyip Erdogan
in harmonizing the Islamist principles within the secular state framework.[59] Turkish model, however, has been considered came "unstuck" after recent purge and violations of democratic principles by the Erdogan regime.[60][61] Critics of the concept hold that Islamist aspirations are fundamentally incompatible with the democratic principles, thus even moderate Islamists are totalitarian in nature. As such, it requires strong constitutional checks and the effort of the mainstream Islam
Islam
to detach political Islam
Islam
from the public discourses.[62] Post-Islamism[edit] Main article: Post-Islamism Post-Islamism
Post-Islamism
is a term proposed by Iranian political sociologist Asef Bayat, referring to the Islamist movements which marked by the critical departure from the traditional Islamist discourses of the mid-20th century.[63]:4 Bayat explained it as "a condition where, following a phase of experimentation, the appeal, energy, symbols and sources of legitimacy of Islamism
Islamism
get exhausted, even among its once-ardent supporters. As such, post- Islamism
Islamism
is not anti-Islamic, but rather reflects a tendency to resecularize religion." It originally pertained only to Iran, where "post- Islamism
Islamism
is expressed in the idea of fusion between Islam
Islam
(as a personalized faith) and individual freedom and choice; and post- Islamism
Islamism
is associated with the values of democracy and aspects of modernity".[64]:45 A 2008 Lowy Institute for International Policy paper suggests that PKS of Indonesia
Indonesia
and AKP of Turkey
Turkey
are post-Islamist.[65]:51, 76 The characterization can be applied to Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS),[66] and used to describe the "ideological evolution" within the Ennahda of Tunisia.[67] Salafi
Salafi
movement[edit]

Part of a series on: Salafi
Salafi
movement

Sab'u Masajid, Saudi Arabia

Ideology and influences

Ahl al-Hadith Ibn Taymiyyah Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Al-Sindhi Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab

Founders and key figures

Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh Rashid Rida Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz Ibn al Uthaymeen Nasiruddin Albani Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i List of Salafi
Salafi
scholars

Notable universities

Umm al-Qura University Islamic University of Madinah

Related ideologies

Islamism Islamic fundamentalism Madkhalism Qutbism Sahwa movement Salafi
Salafi
jihadism Wahhabism

Associated organizations

Al-Nour Party Authenticity Party People Party Takfir
Takfir
wal-Hijra ISIS al-Qaida

Politics portal Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Main article: Salafi
Salafi
movement The contemporary Salafi
Salafi
movement encompasses a broad range of ultraconservative Islamist doctrines which share the reformist mission of Ibn Taymiyyah. From the perspective of political Islam, the Salafi movement can be broadly categorized into three groups; the quietist (or the purist), the activist (or haraki) and the jihadist (Salafi jihadism, see below). The quietist school advocates for societal reform through religious education and proselytizing rather than political activism. The activist school, to the contrary, encourages political participation within the constitutional and political framework. The jihadist school is inspired by the ideology of Sayyid Qutb (Qutbism, see below), and rejects the legitimacy of secular institutions and promotes the revolution in order to pave the way for the establishment of a new Caliphate.[68] The quietist Salafi
Salafi
movement is stemming from the teaching of Nasiruddin Albani, who challenged the notion of taqlid (imitation, conformity to the legal precedent) as a blind adherence. As such, they alarm the political participation as potentially leading to the division of the Muslim
Muslim
community.[68] This school is exemplified by Madkhalism
Madkhalism
which based on the writings of Rabee al-Madkhali.[69] Madkhalism
Madkhalism
was originated in the 90s Saudi Arabia, as a reaction against the rise of the Salafi
Salafi
activism and the threat of Salafi Jihadism. It rejects any kind of opposition against the secular governance,[70] thus endorsed by the authoritarian governments of Egypt
Egypt
and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
during the 90s.[71] The influence of the quietist school has waned significantly in the Middle East recently,[72] as the governments began incorporating Islamist factions emanating from the popular demand.[73][74] The politically active Salafi
Salafi
movement, Salafi
Salafi
activism or harakis, is based on the religious belief that endorses non-violent political activism in order to protect God's Divine governance. This means that politics is a field which requires Salafi
Salafi
principles to be applied as well, in the same manner with other aspects of society and life.[68] Salafi
Salafi
activism was originated in the 50s to 60s Saudi Arabia, where many Muslim
Muslim
Brothers had taken refuge from the prosecution by the Nasser
Nasser
regime.[75] There, Muslim
Muslim
Brothers' Islamism
Islamism
had synthesized with Salafism, and led to the creation of the Salafi
Salafi
activist trend exemplified by the Sahwa movement
Sahwa movement
in the 80s,[68] promulgated by Safar Al-Hawali and Salman al-Ouda. Today, the school makes up the majority of Salafism.[76] There are many active Salafist political parties throughout the Muslim
Muslim
world, including Al Nour Party
Al Nour Party
of Egypt, Al Islah of Yemen
Yemen
and Al Asalah
Al Asalah
of Bahrain. Wahhabism[edit] Main article: Wahhabism The antecedent of the contemporary Salafi
Salafi
movement is Wahhabism, which traces back to the 18th-century reform movement in Najd
Najd
by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. Although having different roots, Wahhabism
Wahhabism
and Salafism
Salafism
are considered more or less merged in the 60s Saudi Arabia.[77][78][79] In the process, Salafism
Salafism
had been greatly influenced by Wahhabism, and today they share the similar religious outlook.[79] Wahhabism
Wahhabism
is also described as a Saudi brand of Salafism.[80][81] From the political perspective, Wahhabism
Wahhabism
is marked in its teaching of bay'ah (oath to allegiance), which requires Muslims to present an allegiance to the ruler of the society.[82] Wahhabis have traditionally given their allegiance to the House of Saud, and this has made them apolitical in Saudi Arabia.[83] However, there are small numbers of other strains including Salafi
Salafi
Jihadist
Jihadist
offshoot which decline to present an allegiance to the House of Saud.[83][84] Wahhabism
Wahhabism
is also characterized by its disinterest in social justice, anticolonialism, or economic equality, expounded upon by the mainstream Islamists.[85] Historically, Wahhabism
Wahhabism
was state-sponsored and internationally propagated by Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
with the help of funding from mainly Saudi petroleum exports,[86] leading to the "explosive growth" of its influence (and subsequently, the influence of Salafism) from the 70s (a phenomenon often dubbed as Petro-Islam).[87] Today, both Wahhabism
Wahhabism
and Salafism
Salafism
exert their influence worldwide, and they have been indirectly contributing to the upsurge of Salafi
Salafi
Jihadism
Jihadism
as well.[87] Militant Islamism/Jihadism[edit]

Part of a series on

Jihadism

Jihad Mujahideen Shahid Martyrdom video Islamic terrorism Black Standard

Islamic fundamentalism

Islamism Wahhabism Salafism Qutbism

Notable jihadist organisations

Taliban Al-Qaeda Al-Shabaab Ansar al-Islam Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

Jihadism
Jihadism
in the East

East Turkestan Islamic Movement South Thailand insurgency Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir War in North-West Pakistan Moro insurgency in the Philippines

Jihadism
Jihadism
in the West

Jihadist
Jihadist
extremism in the United States Homegrown terrorism Jihadi tourism Foreign rebel fighters in the Syrian Civil War Islamism
Islamism
in the United Kingdom

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Main article: Jihadism See also: Islamic terrorism
Islamic terrorism
and Islamic extremism Qutbism[edit] Main article: Qutbism Qutbism
Qutbism
is an ideology formulated by Sayyid Qutb, an influential figure of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
during the 50s and 60s, which justifies the use of violence in order to push the Islamist goals.[88] Qutbism
Qutbism
is marked by the two distinct methodological concepts; one is takfirism, which in the context of Qutbism, indicates the excommunication of fellow Muslims who are deemed equivalent to apostate,[89] and another is "offensive Jihad", a concept which promotes violence in the name of Islam
Islam
against the perceived kuffar (infidels).[90] Based on the two concepts, Qutbism
Qutbism
promotes engagement against the state apparatus in order to topple down its regime. Fusion of Qutbism
Qutbism
and Salafi
Salafi
Movement had resulted in the development of Salafi
Salafi
jihadism (see below).[91] Qutbism
Qutbism
is considered a product of the extreme repression experienced by Qutb and his fellow Muslim
Muslim
Brothers under the Nasser
Nasser
regime, which was resulted from the 1954 Muslim
Muslim
Brothers plot to assassinate Nasser. During the repression, thousands of Muslim
Muslim
Brothers were imprisoned, many of them, including Qutb, tortured and held in concentration camps.[75] Under this condition, Qutb had cultivated his Islamist ideology in his seminal work Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq
Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq
(Milestones), in which he equated the Muslims within the Nasser
Nasser
regime with secularism and the West, and described them as regression back to jahiliyyah (period of time before the advent of Islam).[92] In this context, he allowed the tafkir (which was an unusual practice before the rejuvenation by Qutb)[93] of said Muslims.[89] Although Qutb was executed before the completion of his ideology,[92] his idea was disseminated and continuously expanded by the later generations, among them Abdullah Yusuf Azzam and Ayman Al-Zawahiri, who was a student of Qutb's brother Muhammad
Muhammad
Qutb and later became a mentor of Osama bin Laden.[94][95] Al-Zawahiri was considered "the purity of Qutb's character and the torment he had endured in prison," and had played an extensive role in the normalization of offensive Jihad
Jihad
within the Qutbist discourse.[96] Both al-Zawahiri and bin Laden had become the core of Jihadist movements which exponentially developed in the backdrop of the late 20th-century geopolitical crisis throughout the Muslim
Muslim
world. Salafi
Salafi
Jihadism[edit] Main article: Salafi
Salafi
jihadism Salafi
Salafi
jihadism is a term coined by Gilles Kepel
Gilles Kepel
in 2002, referring to the ideology which actively promotes and conducts violence and terrorism in order to pursue the establishment of an Islamic state
Islamic state
or a new Caliphate.[97][98] Today, the term is often simplified to Jihadism
Jihadism
or Jihadist
Jihadist
movement in popular usage according to Martin Kramer.[99] It is a hybrid ideology between Qutbism, Salafism, Wahhabism
Wahhabism
and other minor Islamist strains.[91][100] Qutbism
Qutbism
taught by scholars like Abdullah Azzam provided the political intellectual underpinnings with the concepts like takfirism, and Salafism
Salafism
and Wahhabism
Wahhabism
provided the religious intellectual input.[91][a] Salafi Jihadism
Jihadism
makes up a tiny minority of the contemporary Islamist movements.[102] Distinct characteristics of Salafi
Salafi
Jihadism
Jihadism
noted by Robin Wright include the formal process of taking bay'ah (oath of allegiance) to the leader, which is inspired by the Wahhabi
Wahhabi
teaching.[103] Another characteristic is its flexibility to cut ties with the less-popular movements when its strategically or financially convenient, exemplified by the relations between al-Qaeda and al-Nusra Front.[103] Other marked developments of Salafi
Salafi
Jihadism
Jihadism
include the concepts of "near enemy" and "far enemy". "Near enemy" connotes the despotic regime occupying the Muslim
Muslim
society, and the term was coined by Muhammad
Muhammad
abd-al-Salam Faraj in order to justify the assassination of Anwar al-Sadat
Anwar al-Sadat
by the Salafi
Salafi
Jihadi organization Egyptian Islamic Jihad
Jihad
(EIJ) in 1981.[104] Later, the concept of "far enemy" which connotes the West was introduced and formally declared by al-Qaeda in 1996.[104][105] Salafi
Salafi
Jihadism
Jihadism
emerged out during the 80s when the Soviet invaded Afghanistan.[106] Local mujahideen had extracted financial, logistical and military support from Saudi Arabia, Pakistan
Pakistan
and the United States. Later, Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
established al-Qaeda as a transnational Salafi
Salafi
Jihadi organization in 1988 to capitalize this financial, logistical and military network and to expand their operation.[106] The ideology had seen its rise during the 90s when the Muslim
Muslim
world experienced numerous geopolitical crisis,[106] notably the Algerian Civil War (1991-2002), Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(1992-1995), and the First Chechen War (1994-1996). Within these conflicts, political Islam
Islam
often acted as a mobilizing factor for the local belligerents, who demanded financial, logistical and military support from al-Qaeda, in the exchange for active proliferation of the ideology.[106] After the 1998 bombings of US embassies, September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
(2001), the US-led invasion of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001) and Iraq
Iraq
(2003), Salafi
Salafi
Jihadism
Jihadism
had seen its momentum. However, it got devastated by the US counterterrorism operations, culminated in bin Laden's death in 2011.[106] After the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
(2011) and subsequent Syrian Civil War (2011–present), the remnants of al-Qaeda franchise in Iraq
Iraq
had restored their capacity, which rapidly developed into the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant, spreading its influence throughout the conflict zones of MENA region and the globe. History[edit] Predecessor movements[edit] Some Islamic revivalist movements and leaders pre-dating Islamism include:

Ahmad Sirhindi
Ahmad Sirhindi
(~1564–1624) was part of a reassertion of orthodoxy within Islamic Mysticism
Islamic Mysticism
(Taṣawwuf) and was known to his followers as the 'renovator of the second millennium'. It has been said of Sirhindi that he 'gave to Indian Islam
Islam
the rigid and conservative stamp it bears today.'[107][108][109] Ibn Taymiyyah, a Syrian Islamic jurist during the 13th and 14th centuries who is often quoted by contemporary Islamists. Ibn Taymiyya argued against the shirking of Sharia
Sharia
law, was against practices such as the celebration of Muhammad's birthday, and "he believed that those who ask assistance from the grave of the Prophet or saints, are mushrikin (polytheists), someone who is engaged in shirk."[110] Shah Waliullah
Shah Waliullah
of India
India
and Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abd-al-Wahhab of Arabia were contemporaries who met each other while studying in Mecca. Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab advocated doing away with the later accretions like grave worship and getting back to the letter and the spirit of Islam as preached and practiced by Muhammad. He went on to found Wahhabism. Shah Waliullah
Shah Waliullah
was a forerunner of reformist Islamists like Muhammad Abduh, Muhammad Iqbal
Muhammad Iqbal
and Muhammad Asad
Muhammad Asad
in his belief that there was "a constant need for new ijtihad as the Muslim
Muslim
community progressed and expanded and new generations had to cope with new problems" and in his interest in the social and economic problems of the poor.[111] Sayyid Ahmad Barelvi was a disciple and successor of Shah Waliullah's son and emphasized the 'purification' of Islam
Islam
from un-Islamic beliefs and practices. He anticipated modern militant Islamists by leading an extremist, jihadist movement and attempted to create an Islamic state with enforcement of Islamic law. While he battled Sikh fundamentalist rule in Muslim-majority North-Western India, his followers fought against British colonialism after his death and allied themselves with the Indian Mutiny.[112] After the failure of the Indian Mutiny
Indian Mutiny
some of Shah Waliullah's followers turned to more peaceful methods of preserving the Islamic heritage and founded the Dar al-Ulum
Dar al-Ulum
seminary in 1867 in the town of Deoband. From the school developed the Deobandi
Deobandi
movement which became the largest philosophical movement of traditional Islamic thought in the subcontinent and led to the establishment of thousands of madrasahs throughout modern-day India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bangladesh.[113]

Early history[edit]

Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani

The end of the 19th century saw the dismemberment of most of the Muslim
Muslim
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
by non- Muslim
Muslim
European colonial powers.[114] The empire spent massive sums on Western civilian and military technology to try to modernize and compete with the encroaching European powers, and in the process went deep into debt to these powers. In this context, the publications of Jamal ad-din al-Afghani (1837–97), Muhammad Abduh
Muhammad Abduh
(1849–1905) and Rashid Rida (1865–1935) preached Islamic alternatives to the political, economic, and cultural decline of the empire.[115] Muhammad Abduh
Muhammad Abduh
and Rashid Rida
Rashid Rida
formed the beginning of the Islamist movement,[116][117][118][119] as well as the reformist Islamist movement. Their ideas included the creation of a truly Islamic society under sharia law, and the rejection of taqlid, the blind imitation of earlier authorities, which they believed deviated from the true messages of Islam.[120] Unlike some later Islamists, Early Salafiyya strongly emphasized the restoration of the Caliphate.[121] Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal[edit] Main article: Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal See also: Two-nation theory Muhammad Iqbal
Muhammad Iqbal
was a philosopher, poet and politician[122] in British India
India
who is widely regarded as having inspired the Islamic Nationalism
Nationalism
and Pakistan
Pakistan
Movement in British India.[122][123][124] Iqbal is admired as a prominent classical poet by Pakistani, Iranian, Indian and other international scholars of literature.[125][126] Though Iqbal is best known as an eminent poet, he is also a highly acclaimed "Islamic philosophical thinker of modern times".[122][126] While studying law and philosophy in England
England
and Germany, Iqbal became a member of the London
London
branch of the All India
India
Muslim
Muslim
League.[126] He came back to Lahore
Lahore
in 1908. While dividing his time between law practice and philosophical poetry, Iqbal had remained active in the Muslim
Muslim
League. He did not support Indian involvement in World War I and remained in close touch with Muslim
Muslim
political leaders such as Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Johar and Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Jinnah. He was a critic of the mainstream Indian nationalist and secularist Indian National Congress. Iqbal's seven English lectures were published by Oxford University press in 1934 in a book titled The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.[127] These lectures dwell on the role of Islam
Islam
as a religion as well as a political and legal philosophy in the modern age.[127] Iqbal expressed fears that not only would secularism and secular nationalism weaken the spiritual foundations of Islam
Islam
and Muslim society, but that India's Hindu-majority population would crowd out Muslim
Muslim
heritage, culture and political influence. In his travels to Egypt, Afghanistan, Palestine and Syria, he promoted ideas of greater Islamic political co-operation and unity, calling for the shedding of nationalist differences. Sir Muhammad Iqbal
Muhammad Iqbal
was elected president of the Muslim
Muslim
League in 1930 at its session in Allahabad
Allahabad
as well as for the session in Lahore
Lahore
in 1932. In his Allahabad
Allahabad
Address on 29 December 1930, Iqbal outlined a vision of an independent state for Muslim-majority provinces in northwestern India. This address later inspired the Pakistan
Pakistan
movement. The thoughts and vision of Iqbal later influenced many reformist Islamists, e.g., Muhammad
Muhammad
Asad, Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi
Abul Ala Maududi
and Ali Shariati. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi[edit]

Painting of Abul Ala Maududi

Main article: Abul Ala Maududi See also: Jamaat-e-Islami Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi[128][129] was an important early twentieth-century figure in the Islamic revival
Islamic revival
in India, and then after independence from Britain, in Pakistan. Trained as a lawyer he chose the profession of journalism, and wrote about contemporary issues and most importantly about Islam
Islam
and Islamic law. Maududi founded the Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
party in 1941 and remained its leader until 1972. However, Maududi
Maududi
had much more impact through his writing than through his political organising. His extremely influential books (translated into many languages) placed Islam
Islam
in a modern context, and influenced not only conservative ulema but liberal modernizer Islamists such as al-Faruqi, whose " Islamization
Islamization
of Knowledge" carried forward some of Maududi's key principles. Maududi
Maududi
believed that Islam
Islam
was all-encompassing: "Everything in the universe is 'Muslim' for it obeys God by submission to His laws... The man who denies God is called Kafir
Kafir
(concealer) because he conceals by his disbelief what is inherent in his nature and embalmed in his own soul."[130] Maududi
Maududi
also believed that Muslim
Muslim
society could not be Islamic without Sharia, and Islam
Islam
required the establishment of an Islamic state. This state should be a "theo-democracy,"[131] based on the principles of: tawhid (unity of God), risala (prophethood) and khilafa (caliphate).[132][133][134] Although Maududi
Maududi
talked about Islamic revolution,[135] by "revolution" he meant not the violence or populist policies of the Iranian Revolution, but the gradual changing the hearts and minds of individuals from the top of society downward through an educational process or da'wah.[136][137] Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood[edit] Main article: Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood Roughly contemporaneous with Maududi
Maududi
was the founding of the Muslim Brotherhood in Ismailiyah, Egypt
Egypt
in 1928 by Hassan al Banna. His was arguably the first, largest and most influential modern Islamic political/religious organization. Under the motto "the Qur'an is our constitution,"[138] it sought Islamic revival
Islamic revival
through preaching and also by providing basic community services including schools, mosques, and workshops. Like Maududi, Al Banna believed in the necessity of government rule based on Shariah
Shariah
law implemented gradually and by persuasion, and of eliminating all imperialist influence in the Muslim world.[139] Some elements of the Brotherhood, though perhaps against orders, did engage in violence against the government, and its founder Al-Banna was assassinated in 1949 in retaliation for the assassination of Egypt's premier Mahmud Fami Naqrashi three months earlier.[140] The Brotherhood has suffered periodic repression in Egypt
Egypt
and has been banned several times, in 1948 and several years later following confrontations with Egyptian president Gamal Abdul Nasser, who jailed thousands of members for several years. Despite periodic repression, the Brotherhood has become one of the most influential movements in the Islamic world,[141] particularly in the Arab world. For many years it was described as "semi-legal"[142] and was the only opposition group in Egypt
Egypt
able to field candidates during elections.[143] In the Egyptian parliamentary election, 2011–2012, the political parties identified as "Islamist" (the Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party, Salafi
Salafi
Al-Nour Party
Al-Nour Party
and liberal Islamist Al-Wasat Party) won 75% of the total seats.[144] Mohamed Morsi, an Islamist of Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, was the first democratically elected president of Egypt. He was deposed during the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état. Sayyid Qutb[edit]

Sayyid Qutb

Main article: Sayyid Qutb See also: Qutbism
Qutbism
and Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq Maududi's political ideas influenced Sayyid Qutb, a leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
movement, and one of the key philosophers of Islamism
Islamism
and highly influential thinkers of Islamic universalism.[145] Qutb believed things had reached such a state that the Muslim community had literally ceased to exist. It "has been extinct for a few centuries,"[146] having reverted to Godless ignorance (Jahiliyya). To eliminate jahiliyya, Qutb argued Sharia, or Islamic law, must be established. Sharia
Sharia
law was not only accessible to humans and essential to the existence of Islam, but also all-encompassing, precluding "evil and corrupt" non-Islamic ideologies like communism, nationalism, or secular democracy. Qutb preached that Muslims must engage in a two-pronged attack of converting individuals through preaching Islam
Islam
peacefully and also waging what he called militant jihad so as to forcibly eliminate the "power structures" of Jahiliyya—not only from the Islamic homeland but from the face of the earth. Qutb was both a member of the brotherhood and enormously influential in the Muslim world
Muslim world
at large. Qutb is considered by some (Fawaz A. Gerges) to be "the founding father and leading theoretician" of modern jihadists, such as Osama bin Laden.[147][148] However, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt
Egypt
and in Europe
Europe
has not embraced his vision of undemocratic Islamic state
Islamic state
and armed jihad, something for which they have been denounced by radical Islamists.[149] Ascendance on the international politics[edit] Six-Day War
Six-Day War
(1967)[edit] Main article: Six-Day War The quick and decisive defeat of the Arab troops during the Six-Day War by Israeli troops constituted a pivotal event in the Arab Muslim world. The defeat along with economic stagnation in the defeated countries, was blamed on the secular Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
of the ruling regimes. A steep and steady decline in the popularity and credibility of secular, socialist and nationalist politics ensued. Ba'athism, Arab socialism, and Arab nationalism
Arab nationalism
suffered, and different democratic and anti-democratic Islamist movements inspired by Maududi
Maududi
and Sayyid Qutb gained ground.[150] Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
(1978-1979)[edit]

Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini

Main article: History of fundamentalist Islam
Islam
in Iran See also: Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
and Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists The first modern "Islamist state" (with the possible exception of Zia's Pakistan)[151] was established among the Shia
Shia
of Iran. In a major shock to the rest of the world, Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini
Ruhollah Khomeini
led the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
of 1979 in order to overthrow the oil-rich, well-armed, Westernized and pro-American secular monarchy ruled by Shah Muhammad
Muhammad
Reza Pahlavi. The views of Ali
Ali
Shariati, the ideologue of the Iranian Revolution, resembled those of Mohammad Iqbal, the ideological father of the State of Pakistan, but Khomeini's beliefs are perceived to be placed somewhere between the beliefs of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
and the beliefs of Sunni Islamic thinkers like Mawdudi
Mawdudi
and Qutb. He believed that complete imitation of the Prophet Mohammad
Prophet Mohammad
and his successors such as Ali
Ali
for the restoration of Sharia
Sharia
law was essential to Islam, that many secular, Westernizing Muslims were actually agents of the West and therefore serving Western interests, and that acts such as the "plundering" of Muslim
Muslim
lands was part of a long-term conspiracy against Islam
Islam
by Western governments.[152] His views differed from those of Sunni
Sunni
scholars in:

As a Shia, Khomeini
Khomeini
looked to Ali
Ali
ibn Abī Tālib and Husayn ibn Ali Imam, but not Caliphs Abu Bakr, Omar or Uthman. Khomeini
Khomeini
talked not about restoring the Caliphate
Caliphate
or Sunni
Sunni
Islamic democracy, but about establishing a state where the guardianship of the democratic or the dictatorial political system was performed by Shia
Shia
jurists (ulama) as the successors of Shia
Shia
Imams until the Mahdi returns from occultation. His concept of velayat-e-faqih ("guardianship of the [Islamic] jurist"), held that the leading Shia Muslim
Muslim
cleric in society—which Khomeini's mass of followers believed and chose to be himself—should serve as the supervisor of the state in order to protect or "guard" Islam
Islam
and Sharia
Sharia
law from "innovation" and "anti-Islamic laws" passed by dictators or democratic parliaments.[152]

The revolution was influenced by Marxism
Marxism
through Islamist thought and also by writings that sought either to counter Marxism
Marxism
( Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr's work) or to integrate socialism and Islamism
Islamism
( Ali
Ali
Shariati's work). A strong wing of the revolutionary leadership was made up of leftists or "radical populists", such as Ali
Ali
Akbar Mohtashami-Pur.[153] While initial enthusiasm for the Iranian revolution in the Muslim world was intense, it has waned as critics hold and campaign that "purges, executions, and atrocities tarnished its image".[154] The Islamic Republic has also maintained its hold on power in Iran
Iran
in spite of US economic sanctions, and has created or assisted like-minded Shia
Shia
terrorist groups in Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan (SCIRI)[155][156] and Lebanon
Lebanon
(Hezbollah)[157] (two Muslim
Muslim
countries that also have large Shiite populations). During the 2006 Israel- Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict, the Iranian government enjoyed something of a resurgence in popularity amongst the predominantly Sunni
Sunni
"Arab street,"[158] due to its support for Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and to President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's vehement opposition to the United States and his call that Israel
Israel
shall vanish.[159] Grand Mosque
Mosque
seizure (1979)[edit] Further information: Grand Mosque
Mosque
seizure The strength of the Islamist movement was manifest in an event which might have seemed sure to turn Muslim
Muslim
public opinion against fundamentalism, but did just the opposite. In 1979 the Grand Mosque
Mosque
in Mecca
Mecca
Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
was seized by an armed fundamentalist group and held for over a week. Scores were killed, including many pilgrim bystanders[160] in a gross violation of one of the most holy sites in Islam
Islam
(and one where arms and violence are strictly forbidden).[161][162] Instead of prompting a backlash against the movement from which the attackers originated, however, Saudi Arabia, already very conservative, responded by shoring up its fundamentalist credentials with even more Islamic restrictions. Crackdowns followed on everything from shopkeepers who did not close for prayer and newspapers that published pictures of women, to the selling of dolls, teddy bears (images of animate objects are considered haraam), and dog food (dogs are considered unclean).[163] In other Muslim
Muslim
countries, blame for and wrath against the seizure was directed not against fundamentalists, but against Islamic fundamentalism's foremost geopolitical enemy – the United States. Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini
Khomeini
sparked attacks on American embassies when he announced:

It is not beyond guessing that this is the work of criminal American imperialism and international Zionism

despite the fact that the object of the fundamentalists' revolt was the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, America's major ally in the region. Anti-American demonstrations followed in the Philippines, Turkey, Bangladesh, India, the UAE, Pakistan, and Kuwait. The US Embassy in Libya
Libya
was burned by protesters chanting pro- Khomeini
Khomeini
slogans and the embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan
Pakistan
was burned to the ground.[164] Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
(1979-1989)[edit] In 1979, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
deployed its 40th Army into Afghanistan, attempting to suppress an Islamic rebellion against an allied Marxist regime in the Afghan Civil War. The conflict, pitting indigenous impoverished Muslims (mujahideen) against an anti-religious superpower, galvanized thousands of Muslims around the world to send aid and sometimes to go themselves to fight for their faith. Leading this pan-Islamic effort was Palestinian sheikh Abdullah Yusuf Azzam. While the military effectiveness of these "Afghan Arabs" was marginal, an estimated 16,000[165] to 35,000 Muslim
Muslim
volunteers[166] came from around the world to fight in Afghanistan.[166][167] When the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
abandoned the Marxist Najibullah regime and withdrew from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1989 (the regime finally fell in 1992), the victory was seen by many Muslims as the triumph of Islamic faith over superior military power and technology that could be duplicated elsewhere.

The jihadists gained legitimacy and prestige from their triumph both within the militant community and among ordinary Muslims, as well as the confidence to carry their jihad to other countries where they believed Muslims required assistance.[168]

The "veterans of the guerrilla campaign" returning home to Algeria, Egypt, and other countries "with their experience, ideology, and weapons," were often eager to continue armed jihad. The collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
itself, in 1991, was seen by many Islamists, including Bin Laden, as the defeat of a superpower at the hands of Islam. Concerning the $6 billion in aid given by the US and Pakistan's military training and intelligence support to the mujahideen,[169] bin Laden wrote: "[T]he US has no mentionable role" in "the collapse of the Soviet Union ... rather the credit goes to God and the mujahidin" of Afghanistan.[170] Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
(1990-1991)[edit] Another factor in the early 1990s that worked to radicalize the Islamist movement was the Gulf War, which brought several hundred thousand US and allied non- Muslim
Muslim
military personnel to Saudi Arabian soil to put an end to Saddam Hussein's occupation of Kuwait. Prior to 1990 Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
played an important role in restraining the many Islamist groups that received its aid. But when Saddam, secularist and Ba'athist dictator of neighboring Iraq, attacked Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
(his enemy in the war), western troops came to protect the Saudi monarchy. Islamists accused the Saudi regime of being a puppet of the west. These attacks resonated with conservative Muslims and the problem did not go away with Saddam's defeat either, since American troops remained stationed in the kingdom, and a de facto cooperation with the Palestinian-Israeli peace process developed. Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
attempted to compensate for its loss of prestige among these groups by repressing those domestic Islamists who attacked it (bin Laden being a prime example), and increasing aid to Islamic groups (Islamist madrassas around the world and even aiding some violent Islamist groups) that did not, but its pre-war influence on behalf of moderation was greatly reduced.[171] One result of this was a campaign of attacks on government officials and tourists in Egypt, a bloody civil war in Algeria
Algeria
and Osama bin Laden's terror attacks climaxing in the 9/11 attack.[172] Rise of Islamism
Islamism
by country[edit] Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(Taliban)[edit]

Flag of the Taliban

Main article: Taliban In Afghanistan, the mujahideen's victory against the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the 1980s did not lead to justice and prosperity, due to a vicious and destructive civil war between political and tribal warlords, making Afghanistan
Afghanistan
one of the poorest countries on earth. In 1992, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
ruled by communist forces collapsed, and democratic Islamist elements of mujahdeen founded the Islamic State of Afghanistan. In 1996, a more conservative and anti-democratic Islamist movement known as the Taliban
Taliban
rose to power, defeated most of the warlords and took over roughly 80% of Afghanistan. The Taliban
Taliban
were spawned by the thousands of madrasahs the Deobandi movement established for impoverished Afghan refugees
Afghan refugees
and supported by governmental and religious groups in neighboring Pakistan.[173] The Taliban
Taliban
differed from other Islamist movements to the point where they might be more properly described as Islamic fundamentalist or neofundamentalist, interested in spreading "an idealized and systematized version of conservative tribal village customs" under the label of Sharia
Sharia
to an entire country.[174] Their ideology was also described as being influenced by Wahhabism, and the extremist jihadism of their guest Osama bin Laden.[175][176] The Taliban
Taliban
considered "politics" to be against Sharia
Sharia
and thus did not hold elections. They were led by Mullah Mohammed
Mohammed
Omar who was given the title "Amir al-Mu'minin" or Commander of the Faithful, and a pledge of loyalty by several hundred Taliban-selected Pashtun clergy in April 1996. Taliban
Taliban
were overwhelmingly Pashtun and were accused of not sharing power with the approximately 60% of Afghans who belonged to other ethnic groups. (see: Taliban#Ideology)[177] The Taliban's hosting of Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
led to an American-organized attack which drove them from power following the 9/11 attacks.[178] Taliban
Taliban
are still very much alive and fighting a vigorous insurgency with suicide bombings and armed attacks being launched against NATO and Afghan government targets. Algeria[edit] See also: Algerian Civil War
Algerian Civil War
and List of Algerian massacres of the 1990s

The FIS emblem

An Islamist movement influenced by Salafism
Salafism
and the jihad in Afghanistan, as well as the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, was the FIS or Front Islamique de Salut (the Islamic Salvation Front) in Algeria. Founded as a broad Islamist coalition in 1989 it was led by Abbassi Madani, and a charismatic Islamist young preacher, Ali
Ali
Belhadj. Taking advantage of economic failure and unpopular social liberalization and secularization by the ruling leftist-nationalist FLN government, it used its preaching to advocate the establishment of a legal system following Sharia
Sharia
law, economic liberalization and development program, education in Arabic
Arabic
rather than French, and gender segregation, with women staying home to alleviate the high rate of unemployment among young Algerian men. The FIS won sweeping victories in local elections and it was going to win national elections in 1991 when voting was canceled by a military coup d'état. As Islamists took up arms to overthrow the government, the FIS's leaders were arrested and it became overshadowed by Islamist guerrilla groups, particularly the Islamic Salvation Army, MIA and Armed Islamic Group (or GIA). A bloody and devastating civil war ensued in which between 150,000 and 200,000 people were killed over the next decade. The civil war was not a victory for Islamists. By 2002 the main guerrilla groups had either been destroyed or had surrendered. The popularity of Islamist parties has declined to the point that "the Islamist candidate, Abdallah Jaballah, came a distant third with 5% of the vote" in the 2004 presidential election.[179] Bangladesh[edit]

Shah Ahmad Shafi
Shah Ahmad Shafi
of Hefazat-e- Islam
Islam
Bangladesh.

Currently, the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Nationalist
Nationalist
Party is the second largest party in the Parliament of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the main opposition party, followed by Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Bangladesh. The BNP promotes a center-right policy combining elements of conservatism, Islamism, nationalism and anti-communism. Since 2000, it has been allied with the Islamic parties Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
Bangladesh, and, Islami Oikya Jote.[180] Egypt
Egypt
(Jihadism)[edit] Main article: Islamic extremism
Islamic extremism
in the 20th-century Egypt While Qutb's ideas became increasingly radical during his imprisonment prior to his execution in 1966, the leadership of the Brotherhood, led by Hasan al-Hudaybi, remained moderate and interested in political negotiation and activism. Fringe or splinter movements inspired by the final writings of Qutb in the mid-1960s (particularly the manifesto Milestones, a.k.a. Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq) did, however, develop and they pursued a more radical direction.[181] By the 1970s, the Brotherhood had renounced violence as a means of achieving its goals. The path of violence and military struggle was then taken up by the Egyptian Islamic Jihad
Jihad
organization responsible for the assassination of Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
in 1981. Unlike earlier anti-colonial movements the extremist group directed its attacks against what it believed were "apostate" leaders of Muslim
Muslim
states, leaders who held secular leanings or who had introduced or promoted Western/foreign ideas and practices into Islamic societies. Its views were outlined in a pamphlet written by Muhammad
Muhammad
Abd al-Salaam Farag, in which he states:

...there is no doubt that the first battlefield for jihad is the extermination of these infidel leaders and to replace them by a complete Islamic Order...

Another of the Egyptian groups which employed violence in their struggle for Islamic order was al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya (Islamic Group). Victims of their campaign against the Egyptian state in the 1990s included the head of the counter-terrorism police (Major General Raouf Khayrat), a parliamentary speaker (Rifaat al-Mahgoub), dozens of European tourists and Egyptian bystanders, and over 100 Egyptian police.[182] Ultimately the campaign to overthrow the government was unsuccessful, and the major jihadi group, Jamaa Islamiya (or al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya), renounced violence in 2003.[183] Other lesser known groups include the Islamic Liberation Party, Salvation from Hell and Takfir
Takfir
wal-Hijra, and these groups have variously been involved in activities such as attempted assassinations of political figures, arson of video shops and attempted takeovers of government buildings.[184] Gaza (Hamas)[edit]

The Hamas
Hamas
flag

Hamas
Hamas
is a Palestinian Sunni
Sunni
Islamist organization that governs the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
where it has moved to establish sharia law in matters such as separation of the genders, using the lash for punishment, and Islamic dress code.[185][186] Hamas
Hamas
also has a military resistance wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades.[187] For some decades prior to the First Palestine Intifada in 1987,[188] the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in Palestine took a "quiescent" stance towards Israel,[189] focusing on preaching, education and social services, and benefiting from Israel's "indulgence" to build up a network of mosques and charitable organizations.[190] As the First Intifada
First Intifada
gathered momentum and Palestinian shopkeepers closed their shops in support of the uprising, the Brotherhood announced the formation of HAMAS ("zeal"), devoted to Jihad
Jihad
against Israel. Rather than being more moderate than the PLO, the 1988 Hamas
Hamas
charter took a more uncompromising stand, calling for the destruction of Israel
Israel
and the establishment of an Islamic state
Islamic state
in Palestine.[191] It was soon competing with and then overtaking the PLO
PLO
for control of the intifada. The Brotherhood's base of devout middle class found common cause with the impoverished youth of the intifada in their cultural conservatism and antipathy for activities of the secular middle class such as drinking alcohol and going about without hijab.[192] Hamas
Hamas
has continued to be a major player in Palestine. From 2000 to 2007 it killed 542 people in 140 suicide bombing or "martyrdom operations".[191] In the January 2006 legislative election—its first foray into the political process—it won the majority of the seats,[191] and in 2007 it drove the PLO
PLO
out of Gaza. Hamas
Hamas
has been praised by Muslims for driving Israel
Israel
out of the Gaza Strip,[191] but criticized for failure to achieve its demands in the 2008-9 and 2014 Gaza Wars despite heavy destruction and significant loss of life.[193] Pakistan[edit] See also: Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization
Islamization
and Objectives Resolution Early in the history of the state of Pakistan
Pakistan
(12 March 1949), a parliamentary resolution (the Objectives Resolution) was adopted in accordance with the vision of founding fathers of Pakistan
Pakistan
(Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali
Ali
Jinnah, Liaquat Ali
Ali
Khan).[194] proclaiming:

Sovereignty
Sovereignty
belongs to Allah
Allah
alone but He has delegated it to the State of Pakistan
Pakistan
through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him as a sacred trust.

The State shall exercise its powers and authority through the elected representatives of the people. The principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam, shall be fully observed. Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings of Islam
Islam
as set out in the Quran
Quran
and Sunnah. Provision shall be made for the religious minorities to freely profess and practice their religions and develop their cultures.

This resolution later became a key source of inspiration for writers of the Constitution of Pakistan, and is included in the constitution as preamble. In July 1977, General Zia-ul-Haq overthrew Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's regime in Pakistan. Ali
Ali
Bhutto, a leftist in democratic competition with Islamists, had announced banning alcohol and nightclubs within six months, shortly before he was overthrown.[195] Zia-ul-Haq was much more committed to Islamism, and "Islamization" or implementation of Islamic law, became a cornerstone of his eleven-year military dictatorship and Islamism
Islamism
became his "official state ideology". Zia ul Haq was an admirer of Mawdudi
Mawdudi
and Mawdudi's party Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
became the "regime's ideological and political arm".[196] In Pakistan
Pakistan
this Islamization
Islamization
from above was "probably" more complete "than under any other regime except those in Iran
Iran
and Sudan," but Zia-ul-Haq was also criticized by many Islamists for imposing "symbols" rather than substance, and using Islamization
Islamization
to legitimize his means of seizing power.[197] Unlike neighboring Iran, Zia-ul-Haq's policies were intended to "avoid revolutionary excess", and not to strain relations with his American and Persian Gulf state allies.[198] Zia-ul-Haq was killed in 1988 but Islamization
Islamization
remains an important element in Pakistani
Pakistani
society. Sudan[edit] Main articles: National Islamic Front and National Congress (Sudan) For many years, Sudan
Sudan
had an Islamist regime under the leadership of Hassan al-Turabi. His National Islamic Front first gained influence when strongman General Gaafar al-Nimeiry
Gaafar al-Nimeiry
invited members to serve in his government in 1979. Turabi built a powerful economic base with money from foreign Islamist banking systems, especially those linked with Saudi Arabia. He also recruited and built a cadre of influential loyalists by placing sympathetic students in the university and military academy while serving as minister of education.[57] After al-Nimeiry was overthrown in 1985 the party did poorly in national elections, but in 1989 it was able to overthrow the elected post-al-Nimeiry government with the help of the military. Turabi was noted for proclaiming his support for the democratic process and a liberal government before coming to power, but strict application of sharia law, torture and mass imprisonment of the opposition,[56] and an intensification of the long-running war in southern Sudan,[199] once in power. The NIF regime also harbored Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
for a time (before 9/11), and worked to unify Islamist opposition to the American attack on Iraq
Iraq
in the 1991 Gulf War. After Sudanese intelligence services were implicated in an assassination attempt on the President of Egypt, UN economic sanctions were imposed on Sudan, a poor country, and Turabi fell from favor.[200] He was imprisoned for a time in 2004–5. Some of the NIF policies, such as the war with the non- Muslim
Muslim
south, have been reversed, though the National Islamic Front still holds considerable power in the government of Omar al-Bashir
Omar al-Bashir
and National Congress Party, another Islamist party in country. Turkey[edit]

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Necmettin Erbakan, was the first Islamist Prime Minister of Turkey elected in 1996, but was removed from power by a "postmodern coup d'état" in 1997.

Turkey
Turkey
had a number of Islamist parties, often changing names as they were banned by the constitutional court for anti-secular activities. Necmettin Erbakan
Necmettin Erbakan
(1926-2011) was the leader of several of the parties, the National Order Party (Milli Nizam Partisi, 1970–1971), the National Salvation Party (Milli Selamet Partisi, 1972–1981), and the Welfare Party
Welfare Party
(Refah Partisi, 1983-1998); he also became a member of the Felicity Party
Felicity Party
(Saadet Partisi, 2003–2011). The Justice and Development Party (AKP), which has dominated Turkish politics since 2002, is sometimes described as Islamist, but rejects such classification.[201] Contemporary era[edit] By country[edit]

Various Islamist political groups are dominant forces in the political systems of Afghanistan, Iran
Iran
and Iraq.[202] The Green Algeria
Algeria
Alliance is an Islamist coalition of political parties, created for the legislative election of 2012 in Algeria. It includes the Movement of Society for Peace
Movement of Society for Peace
(Hamas), Islamic Renaissance Movement (Ennahda) and the Movement for National Reform (Islah).[203] The alliance is led by Bouguerra Soltani of Hamas.[204] However, the incumbent coalition, comprising the FLN of President Abdelaziz Bouteflika
Abdelaziz Bouteflika
and the RND of Prime Minister Ahmed Ouyahia, held on to power after winning a majority of seats, and the Islamist parties of the Green Algeria
Algeria
Alliance lost seats in the legislative election of 2012.[205][206] Shia
Shia
Islamist Al Wefaq, Salafi
Salafi
Islamist Al Asalah
Al Asalah
and Sunni
Sunni
Islamist Al-Menbar Islamic Society
Al-Menbar Islamic Society
are dominant democratic forces in Bahrain.[207] In Indonesia, Prosperous Justice Party
Prosperous Justice Party
is the major Islamist political party in the country's democratic process.[208][209][210] Islamic Action Front is Jordan's Islamist political party and largest democratic political force in the country. The IAF's survival in Jordan
Jordan
is primarily due to its flexibility and less radical approach to politics.[211] Hadas or "Islamic Constitutional Movement" is Kuwait's Sunni
Sunni
Islamist party. Islamic Group (Lebanon) is a Sunni
Sunni
Islamist political party in Lebanon. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is a Shia
Shia
Islamist political party in Lebanon.[212] The Justice and Construction Party is the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood's political arm in Libya
Libya
and the second largest political force in the country.[213][214][215] The National Forces Alliance, the largest political group in country, doesn't believe the country should be run entirely by Sharia
Sharia
law or secular law, but does hold that Sharia should be "the main inspiration for legislation." Party leader Jibril has said the NFA is a moderate Islamic movement that recognises the importance of Islam
Islam
in political life and favours Sharia
Sharia
as the basis of the law.[216] The Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party
is a major opposition party in Malaysia
Malaysia
which espouses Islamism.[217][third-party source needed] The Justice and Development Party (Morocco) is the ruling party in Morocco
Morocco
since 29 November 2011, advocating Islamism
Islamism
and Islamic democracy.[218][219] The Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
of Syria
Syria
is a Sunni
Sunni
Islamist force in Syria
Syria
and very loosely affiliated to the Egyptian Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood. It has also been called the "dominant group" or "dominant force" in the Arab Spring uprising in Syria.[220] The group's stated political positions are moderate and in its most recent April 2012 manifesto it "pledges to respect individual rights", to promote pluralism and democracy.[221] The Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan
Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan
is Tajikistan's Islamist party and main opposition and democratic force in the country.[222] The Ennahda Movement, also known as Renaissance Party or simply Ennahda, is a moderate Islamist political party in Tunisia.[223][224][225][226] On 1 March 2011, after the government of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
Ali
collapsed in the wake of the 2011 Tunisian revolution, Tunisia's interim government granted the group permission to form a political party. Since then it has become the biggest and most well-organized party in Tunisia, so far outdistancing its more secular competitors. In the Tunisian Constituent Assembly election of 2011, the first honest election in the country's history with a turnout of 51% of all eligible voters, the party won 37% of the popular vote and 89 (41%) of the 217 assembly seats, far more than any other party.[227][228][229][230][231] Eastern Africa has become a hotbed of violent Islamic extremism
Islamic extremism
since the late 1990s, one of the relevant movements being al-Shabaab, active in Somalia and Kenya, which emerged in response to the 2006–09 Ethiopian intervention in Somalia.[232] West Africa has seen the rise of influential Islamic extremist organizations, notably Boko Haram
Boko Haram
in Northern Nigeria
Northern Nigeria
and al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb in Mali.[233]

Hizb ut-Tahrir[edit] Main article: Hizb ut-Tahrir Hizb ut-Tahrir
Hizb ut-Tahrir
is an influential international Islamist movement, founded in 1953 by an Islamic Qadi
Qadi
(judge) Taqiuddin al-Nabhani. HT is unique from most other Islamist movements in that the party focuses not on implementation of Sharia
Sharia
on local level or on providing social services, but on unifying the Muslim world
Muslim world
under its vision of a new Islamic caliphate spanning from North Africa
North Africa
and the Middle East to much of central and South Asia. To this end it has drawn up and published a 186-article constitution for its proposed caliphate-state specifying specific policies such as sharia law, a "unitary ruling system" headed by a caliph elected by Muslims, an economy based on the gold standard, public ownership of utilities, public transport, and energy resources, death for apostates and Arabic
Arabic
as the "sole language of the State."[234][235] In its focus on the Caliphate, the party takes a different view of Muslim
Muslim
history than some other Islamists such as Muhammad
Muhammad
Qutb. HT sees Islam's pivotal turning point as occurring not with the death of Ali, or one of the other four rightly guided Caliphs in the 7th century, but with the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate
in 1924. This is believed to have ended the true Islamic system, something for which it blames "the disbelieving (Kafir) colonial powers" working through Turkish modernist Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.[236] HT does not engage in armed jihad or work for a democratic system, but works to take power through "ideological struggle" to change Muslim public opinion, and in particular through elites who will "facilitate" a "change of the government," i.e., launch a "bloodless" coup. It allegedly attempted and failed such coups in 1968 and 1969 in Jordan, and in 1974 in Egypt, and is now banned in both countries.[237] The party is sometimes described as "Leninist" and "rigidly controlled by its central leadership,"[238] with its estimated one million members required to spend "at least two years studying party literature under the guidance of mentors (Murshid)" before taking "the party oath."[238] HT is particularly active in the ex-soviet republics of Central Asia
Asia
and in Europe. In the UK its rallies have drawn thousands of Muslims,[239] and the party has been described by two observers (Robert S. Leiken and Steven Brooke) to have outpaced the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in both membership and radicalism.[240] Post- Arab Spring
Arab Spring
(2011-present)[edit] One observer (Quinn Mecham) notes four trends in Islamism
Islamism
rising from the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
of 2010-11:

The repression of the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood. Primarily by the Egyptian military and courts following the forcible removal of Morsi from office in 2013; but also by Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and a number of Gulf countries (not Qatar).[241][242] Rise of Islamist "state-building" where "state failure" has taken place—most prominently in Syria, Iraq, Libya
Libya
and Yemen. Islamists have found it easier than competing non-Islamists trying to fill the void of state failure, by securing external funding, weaponry and fighters—"many of which have come from abroad and have rallied around a pan-Islamic identity". The norms of governance in these Islamist areas are militia-based, and the population submit to their authority out of fear, loyalty, other reasons, or some combination.[241] The "most expansive" of these new "models" is the Islamic State.[241] Increasing sectarianism at least in part from Proxy Wars. Fighters are proxies primarily for Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and the Gulf states and for Iran. Islamists are fighting Islamists across sectarian lines in Lebanon ( Sunni
Sunni
militants targeting Hezbollah
Hezbollah
positions), Yemen
Yemen
(between mainstream Sunni
Sunni
Islamists of Islah and the Shiite Zaydi
Zaydi
Houthi movement), in Iraq
Iraq
(Islamic State and Iraqi Shiite militias)[241] Increased caution and political learning in countries such as Algeria and Jordan
Jordan
where Islamist have chosen not to lead a major challenge against their governments. In Yemen
Yemen
Islah "has sought to frame its ideology in a way that will avoid charges of militancy".[241]

Another observer (Tarek Osman) notes with concern that

the failure to take power during the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
has led not to "soul-searching" in major Islamist groups about what went wrong, but instead to "antagonism and fiery anger" and a thirst for revenge. Partisans of political Islam
Islam
(although this does not include some prominent leaders such as Rached Ghannouchi
Rached Ghannouchi
but is particularly true in Egypt) see themselves as victims of an injustice whose perpetrators are not just "individual conspirators but entire social groups".[243]

Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant[edit] Main article: Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant "The Islamic State", formerly known as the "Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant" and before that as the "Islamic State of Iraq", (also called by the Arabic
Arabic
acronym Daesh), is a Wahhabi/ Salafi
Salafi
jihadist extremist militant group which is led by and mainly composed of Sunni Arabs from Syria
Syria
and Iraq.[244] In 2014, the group proclaimed itself a caliphate, with religious, political and military authority over all Muslims worldwide.[245] As of March 2015[update], it had control over territory occupied by ten million people[246] in Syria
Syria
and Iraq, and has nominal control over small areas of Libya, Nigeria, and Afghanistan.[247][248] (While a self-described state, it lacks international recognition.[249]) ISIL also operates or has affiliates in other parts of the world, including North Africa
North Africa
and South Asia[250][251] Originating as the Jama'at al- Tawhid
Tawhid
wal- Jihad
Jihad
in 1999, ISIL pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda in 2004, participated in the Iraqi insurgency that followed the invasion of Iraq
Iraq
by Western coalition forces in 2003, joined the fight in the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
beginning in 2011, and was expelled from al-Qaeda in early 2014, (which complained of its failure to consult and "notorious intransigence"[252][253]). ISIL gained prominence after it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in western Iraq
Iraq
in an offensive in June that same year.[254] The group is adept at social media, posting Internet videos of beheadings of soldiers, civilians, journalists and aid workers, and is known for its destruction of cultural heritage sites.[255] The United Nations (UN) has held ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes, and Amnesty International
Amnesty International
has reported ethnic cleansing by the group on a "historic scale". The group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the UN, the European Union
European Union
(EU) and member states, the United States, India, Indonesia, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Syria
Syria
and other countries. Sources of strength[edit] Charitable work[edit] Islamist movements such as the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, "are well known for providing shelters, educational assistance, free or low cost medical clinics, housing assistance to students from out of town, student advisory groups, facilitation of inexpensive mass marriage ceremonies to avoid prohibitively costly dowry demands, legal assistance, sports facilities, and women's groups." All this compares very favourably against incompetent, inefficient, or neglectful governments whose commitment to social justice is limited to rhetoric.[256] Dissatisfaction with the status quo[edit] The Arab world – the original heart of the Muslim world – has been afflicted with economic stagnation. For example, it has been estimated that in the mid 1990s the exports of Finland, a country of five million, exceeded those of the entire Arab world of 260 million, excluding oil revenue.[257] This economic stagnation is argued to have commenced with the demise of the Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate
in 1924, with trade networks being disrupted and societies torn apart with the creation of new nation states; prior to this, the Middle East had a diverse and growing economy and more general prosperity.[258] Strong population growth combined with economic stagnation has created urban agglomerations in Cairo, Istanbul, Tehran, Karachi, Dhaka, and Jakarta
Jakarta
each with well over 12 million citizens, millions of them young and unemployed or underemployed.[259] Such a demographic, alienated from the westernized ways of the urban elite, but uprooted from the comforts and more passive traditions of the villages they came from, is understandably favourably disposed to an Islamic system promising a better world[260]—an ideology providing an "emotionally familiar basis for group identity, solidarity, and exclusion; an acceptable basis for legitimacy and authority; an immediately intelligible formulation of principles for both a critique of the present and a program for the future."[261] Identity politics[edit] Islamism
Islamism
can also be described as part of identity politics, specifically the religiously-oriented nationalism that emerged in the Third World in the 1970s: "resurgent Hinduism in India, Religious Zionism in Israel, militant Buddhism in Sri Lanka, resurgent Sikh nationalism in the Punjab, 'Liberation Theology' of Catholicism
Catholicism
in Latin America, and of course, Islamism
Islamism
in the Muslim
Muslim
world."[262] These all challenged Westernized ruling elites on behalf of 'authenticity' and tradition.[citation needed] Islamic revival[edit] Further information: Islamic revival The modern revival of Islamic devotion and the attraction to things Islamic can be traced to several events. By the end of World War I, most Muslim
Muslim
states were seen to be dominated by the Christian-leaning Western states. It is argued that either the claims of Islam
Islam
were false and the Christian or post-Christian West had finally come up with another system that was superior, or Islam
Islam
had failed through not being true to itself. Thus, a redoubling of faith and devotion by Muslims was called for to reverse this tide.[263] The connection between the lack of an Islamic spirit and the lack of victory was underscored by the disastrous defeat of Arab nationalist-led armies fighting under the slogan "Land, Sea and Air" in the 1967 Six Day War, compared to the (perceived) near-victory of the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
six years later. In that war the military's slogan was "God is Great".[264] Along with the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
came the Arab oil embargo where the (Muslim) Persian Gulf oil-producing states' dramatic decision to cut back on production and quadruple the price of oil, made the terms oil, Arabs and Islam
Islam
synonymous—with power—in the world, and especially in the Muslim
Muslim
world's public imagination.[265] Many Muslims believe as Saudi Prince Saud al Faisal did that the hundreds of billions of dollars in wealth obtained from the Persian Gulf's huge oil deposits were nothing less than a gift from God to the Islamic faithful.[266] As the Islamic revival
Islamic revival
gained momentum, governments such as Egypt's, which had previously repressed (and was still continuing to repress) Islamists, joined the bandwagon. They banned alcohol and flooded the airwaves with religious programming,[74] giving the movement even more exposure. State-sponsorship[edit] Saudi Arabia[edit] See also: International propagation of conservative Sunni
Sunni
Islam Starting in the mid-1970s the Islamic resurgence was funded by an abundance of money from Saudi Arabian oil exports.[267] The tens of billions of dollars in "petro-Islam" largesse obtained from the recently heightened price of oil funded an estimated "90% of the expenses of the entire faith."[268] Throughout the Muslim
Muslim
world, religious institutions for people both young and old, from children's maddrassas to high-level scholarships received Saudi funding,[269] "books, scholarships, fellowships, and mosques" (for example, "more than 1500 mosques were built and paid for with money obtained from public Saudi funds over the last 50 years"),[270] along with training in the Kingdom for the preachers and teachers who went on to teach and work at these universities, schools, mosques, etc.[271] The funding was also used to reward journalists and academics who followed the Saudis' strict interpretation of Islam; and satellite campuses were built around Egypt
Egypt
for Al Azhar, the world's oldest and most influential Islamic university.[272] The interpretation of Islam
Islam
promoted by this funding was the strict, conservative Saudi-based Wahhabism
Wahhabism
or Salafism. In its harshest form it preached that Muslims should not only "always oppose" infidels "in every way," but "hate them for their religion ... for Allah's sake," that democracy "is responsible for all the horrible wars of the 20th century," that Shia
Shia
and other non- Wahhabi
Wahhabi
Muslims were infidels, etc.[273] While this effort has by no means converted all, or even most Muslims to the Wahhabist interpretation of Islam, it has done much to overwhelm more moderate local interpretations, and has set the Saudi-interpretation of Islam
Islam
as the "gold standard" of religion in minds of some or many Muslims.[274] Qatar[edit] Qatar stands out among state sponsors of Islamism
Islamism
as well. Over the past two decades, the country has exerted a semi-formal patronage for the international movement of the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood. Former Qatari Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani in particular has distinguished himself as one of the most dedicated supporter of the Muslim Brotherhood and of Islamist movements in general both in the Middle Eastern region and across the globe.[275] In 1999 the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
was disbanded in Qatar. The country’s longstanding support for the group has been often explained as determined by a strategic calculus that limited the role played by religion in Qatar.[276] As the director of the Center for International and Regional Studies at the Doha-based branch of Georgetown University, Mehran Kamrava, posited, Qatar presenting itself as the state patron of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
has caused religion in Qatar to not "play any role in articulating or forming oppositional sentiments."[276] Qatar’s patronage has been primarily expressed through the ruling family’s endorsement of Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood’s most representative figures, especially Yusuf al-Qaradawi. Qaradawi is a prominent, yet controversial Sunni
Sunni
preacher and theologian who continues to serve as the spiritual leader of the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood. An Egyptian citizen, Qaradawi fled Egypt
Egypt
for Qatar in 1961 after being imprisoned under President Gamal Abdul Nasser. In 1962 he chaired the Qatari Secondary Institute of Religious Studies, and in 1977 he founded and directed the Shariah
Shariah
and Islamic Studies department at the University of Qatar. He left Qatar to return to Egypt
Egypt
shortly before the 2011 Egyptian Revolution.[277] For twenty years, Qaradawi has hosted a popular show titled Shariah and Life on the Qatari-based media channel al-Jazeera, a government sponsored channel notoriously supportive of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
and Islamism
Islamism
and often designated as a propaganda outlet for the Qatari government.[278][279][280] From that platform, he has promoted his Islamist—and often radical views—on life, politics, and culture. His positions, as well as his controversial ties to extremist and terrorist individuals and organizations, made him persona non grata to the U.S., UK and French governments respectively in 1999, 2008, and 2012.[281][282] Beyond the visibility and political protection granted to Yussuf al-Qaradawi, Qatar has historically hosted several Muslim
Muslim
Brothers especially after Egyptian president Mohammed
Mohammed
Morsi, a Muslim Brotherhood representative, was overthrown in July 2013.[275] Before 2013, however, Qatar had made a substantial investment on Morsi’s leadership and had devolved about $10 million to Egypt
Egypt
since Morsi was elected, allegedly also to “buy political advantage” in the country.[283][284] Qatar’s political and financial support for Islamist movements and factions was not limited to the Egyptian case. Qatar is known to have backed Islamist factions in Libya, Syria
Syria
and Yemen. In Libya
Libya
in particular, Qatar has supported the Islamist government established in Tripoli.[285] During the 2011 revolution that ousted President Muammar Gaddafi, Qatar provided “tens of millions of dollars in aid, military training and more than 20,000 tons of weapons” to anti-Gaddafi rebels and Islamist militias in particular. The flow of weapons was not suspended after Gaddafi’s government was removed.[286][287] Qatar maintained its influence through key facilitators on the field, including cleric Ali
Ali
al-Sallabi, the leader of the Islamist militia “February 17 Katiba” Ismail al-Sallabi, and the Tripoli Military Council leader Abdel Hakim Belhaj.[286][287] Hamas, as well, has been among the primary beneficiaries of Qatar’s financial support.[288] Not only does the Gulf emirate host Hamas’ politburo continuously since 2012; Hamas
Hamas
leader Khaled Meshaal has often met with international delegations on Qatari territory.[287] More recently, Qatar has channeled material support to Hamas’ terrorist operations by exploiting its official commitment to finance Gaza reconstruction. Mostly through “truckloads of construction material being shipped into Gaza”, Qatar has funneled dual-use substances that could be employed to produce explosives into Gaza.[289][290][291] In a 2003 interview with Al-Hayat Hamas
Hamas
politburo declared that most of Qatar’s support was collected through charities and popular committees.[292] Qatar’s largest NGO, Qatar Charity, in particular has played a great role in Qatar’s mission to support Islamist worldwide. Officially through its “Ghaith” initiative but also through conspicuous donations that preceded the “Ghaith” program, Qatar Charity has financed the building or reconstruction of mosques and cultural institutes across the globe.[293] Just like Saudi Arabia, Qatar has devolved considerable energies to spreading Salafism
Salafism
and to “win areas of influence” in the countries that beneficiated from its support.[294][295] In France in particular Qatar has heavily invested in the Union des Organisations Islamiques des France (UOIF), an umbrella organization informally acting as the representative of the Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
in the country through which Qatar Charity has channeled funds for the Assalam mosque in Nantes (€4.4 million) and the mosque in Mulhouse (€2 million).[295] Western patronage[edit] During the 1970s and sometimes later, Western and pro-Western governments often supported sometimes fledgling Islamists and Islamist groups that later came to be seen as dangerous enemies.[296] Islamists were considered by Western governments bulwarks against—what were thought to be at the time—more dangerous leftist/communist/nationalist insurgents/opposition, which Islamists were correctly seen as opposing. The US spent billions of dollars to aid the mujahideen Muslim
Muslim
Afghanistan
Afghanistan
enemies of the Soviet Union, and non-Afghan veterans of the war returned home with their prestige, "experience, ideology, and weapons", and had considerable impact.[297] Although it is a strong opponent of Israel's existence, Hamas, officially created in 1987, traces back its origins to institutions and clerics supported by Israel
Israel
in the 1970s and 1980s. Israel tolerated and supported Islamist movements in Gaza, with figures like Ahmed Yassin, as Israel
Israel
perceived them preferable to the secular and then more powerful al-Fatah with the PLO.[298][299] Egyptian President Anwar Sadat – whose policies included opening Egypt
Egypt
to Western investment (infitah); transferring Egypt's allegiance from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to the United States; and making peace with Israel—released Islamists from prison and welcomed home exiles in tacit exchange for political support in his struggle against leftists. His "encouraging of the emergence of the Islamist movement" was said to have been "imitated by many other Muslim
Muslim
leaders in the years that followed." [300][301] This "gentlemen's agreement" between Sadat and Islamists broke down in 1975 but not before Islamists came to completely dominate university student unions. Sadat was later assassinated and a formidable insurgency was formed in Egypt
Egypt
in the 1990s. The French government has also been reported to have promoted Islamist preachers "in the hope of channeling Muslim
Muslim
energies into zones of piety and charity."[296] Western alienation[edit] Further information: Islam
Islam
and modernity

An Islamist protester in London
London
protesting over cartoons depicting Mohammed, 6 February 2006

Muslim
Muslim
alienation from Western ways, including its political ways.[302]

The memory in Muslim
Muslim
societies of the many centuries of "cultural and institutional success" of Islamic civilization that have created an "intense resistance to an alternative 'civilizational order'", such as Western civilization,[303] The proximity of the core of the Muslim world
Muslim world
to Europe
Europe
and Christendom where it first conquered and then was conquered. Iberia in the seventh century, the Crusades
Crusades
which began in the eleventh century, then for centuries the Ottoman Empire, were all fields of war between Europe
Europe
and Islam.[304]

In the words of Bernard Lewis:

For almost a thousand years, from the first Moorish landing in Spain to the second Turkish siege of Vienna, Europe
Europe
was under constant threat from Islam. In the early centuries it was a double threat—not only of invasion and conquest, but also of conversion and assimilation. All but the easternmost provinces of the Islamic realm had been taken from Christian rulers, and the vast majority of the first Muslims west of Iran
Iran
and Arabia were converts from Christianity ... Their loss was sorely felt and it heightened the fear that a similar fate was in store for Europe.[305]

The Islamic world
Islamic world
was aware of this European fear and hatred[citation needed] and also felt its own anger and resentment at the much more recent technological superiority of westerners who,

are the perpetual teachers; we, the perpetual students. Generation after generation, this asymmetry has generated an inferiority complex, forever exacerbated by the fact that their innovations progress at a faster pace than we can absorb them. ... The best tool to reverse the inferiority complex to a superiority complex ... Islam
Islam
would give the whole culture a sense of dignity.[306]

For Islamists, the primary threat of the West is cultural rather than political or economic. Cultural dependency robs one of faith and identity and thus destroys Islam
Islam
and the Islamic community (ummah) far more effectively than political rule.[307]

The end of the Cold War
Cold War
and Soviet occupation of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
has eliminated the common atheist Communist
Communist
enemy uniting some religious Muslims and the capitalist west.[308]

Response[edit]

This section is incomplete. (December 2017)

Criticism[edit] Main article: Criticism of Islamism Islamism, or elements of Islamism, have been criticized for: repression of free expression and individual rights, rigidity, hypocrisy, lack of true understanding of Islam, misinterpreting the Quran
Quran
and Sunnah, antisemitism,[309] and for innovations to Islam (bid‘ah), notwithstanding proclaimed opposition to any such innovation by Islamists. Counter-response[edit] The U.S. government has engaged in efforts to counter militant Islamism
Islamism
(Jihadism), since 2001. These efforts were centred in the U.S. around public diplomacy programmes conducted by the State Department. There have been calls to create an independent agency in the U.S. with a specific mission of undermining Jihadism. Christian Whiton, an official in the George W. Bush administration, called for a new agency focused on the nonviolent practice of "political warfare" aimed at undermining the ideology.[310] U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates called for establishing something similar to the defunct U.S. Information Agency, which was charged with undermining the communist ideology during the Cold War.[311] Parties and organizations[edit] Main articles: List of Islamic political parties, Category:Islamist groups, and Islamic extremism
Islamic extremism
§ Active Islamic extremist
Islamic extremist
groups See also[edit]

Clash of Civilizations Dominionism Islamicism (other)

Notes[edit]

^ As such, Salafi
Salafi
Jihadism
Jihadism
envisions the Islamist goals akin to that of Salafism
Salafism
instead of the traditional Islamism
Islamism
exemplified by the mid-20th century Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, which is considered by Salafi Jihadis as excessively moderate and lacking in literal interpretations of the scriptures.[101]

References[edit]

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Terrorist Shia
Shia
group is coy about revealing the sums it has received from Iran. ... Reports have spoken of figures ranging from 10 to 15 million dollars per month, but it is possible that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has received larger sums. It is only in recent years (after 1989) that Iran
Iran
has decreased its aid." from: Jaber, Hala, Hezbollah: Born with a vengeance, New York: Columbia University Press, (1997), p. 150 ^ 'Removing Saddam strengthened Iran' Archived 2011-06-05 at the Wayback Machine. Quote: "They went directly for the kind of things that make them very unpopular in the West and very popular on the Arab streets. So Iranian President [Mahmoud] Ahmadinejad started to attack Israel
Israel
and question the Holocaust." "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved 2007-07-03.  ^ "Ahmadinejad: Wipe Israel
Israel
off map October 28, 2005". Web.archive.org. 2007-03-12. Archived from the original on 2007-03-12. Retrieved 2012-04-21.  ^ Wright, Sacred Rage, (2001), p. 148 ^ "Masjid-ul-Haram: Sacred and forbidden". Ourdialogue.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-21.  ^ Wright, Lawrence, The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Knopf, (2006), pp. 103–04 ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage: The Wrath of Militant Islam, p. 155 ^ Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage: The Wrath of Militant Islam, p. 149 ^ Atkins, Stephen E. (2004). Encyclopedia of Modern Worldwide Extremists and Extremist Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 35. ISBN 9780313324857. Retrieved 5 October 2014.  ^ a b Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi
Wahhabi
Mission and Saudi Arabia. London: I.B.Tauris & Co Ltd. p. 174. In all, perhaps 35,000 Muslim
Muslim
fighters went to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
between 1982 and 1992, while untold thousands more attended frontier schools teeming with former and future fighters.  ^ Rashid, Ahmed, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia
Asia
(New Haven, 2000), p. 129. ^ "blowback revisited" Archived 2007-11-29 at the Wayback Machine. Foreign Affairs
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2005 Peter Bergen ^ "How the CIA created Osama bin Laden". Green Left Weekly. 2001-09-19. Retrieved 2007-01-09.  ^ "bin Laden interview with Peter Arnett, March 1997". Anusha.com. Retrieved 2012-06-08.  ^ Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam
Islam
Gilles Kepel
Gilles Kepel
pp. 205–17 ^ Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam
Islam
Gilles Kepel
Gilles Kepel
p. 207 ^ Rashid, Taliban
Taliban
(2000), pp. 26, 32 ^ Is Islamism
Islamism
a Threat? A Debate Middle East Quarterly, December 1999 ^ Rashid, Taliban, (2000), pp. 132, 139 ^ Encyclopedia of Islam
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and the Muslim
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World, (2004) ^ Rashid, Taliban
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Ali
Riaz (2003). ^ Wright, Lawrence, Looming Tower, (2006), p. 332 ^ "Timeline of modern Egypt". Gemsofislamism.tripod.com. Retrieved 2012-06-08.  ^ " Egypt
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frees 900 Islamist militants". English.aljazeera.net. Retrieved 2012-04-21.  ^ Mazih Ayubi, Political Islam, 1991, p. 73 ^ " Hamas
Hamas
imposes Sharia
Sharia
law in Gaza". VOLTAIRE NETWORK. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2015.  ^

"This is particularly the case in view of the scholarly debate on the compatibility of Islam
Islam
and democracy but even more so in view of Hamas's self-definition as an Islamic national liberation movement." The Palestinian Hamas: vision, violence, and coexistence, by Shaul Mishal & Avraham Sela, 2006, p. xxviii [1]; In this way the PA has been able to control the economic activities of its political adversaries, including the Hamas
Hamas
and other Islamic opposition groups. Investment in peace: politics of economic cooperation between Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority, by Shaul Mishal, Ranan D. Kuperman, David Boas, 2001, p. 85 [2]; " Hamas
Hamas
is a radical Islamic fundamentalist organization that has stated that its highest priority is a Jihad
Jihad
(holy war) for the liberation of Palestine ..." Peace and war: the Arab-Israeli military balance enters the 21st century, by Anthony H. Cordesman, 2002, p. 243. [3]; "One of the secrets behind the success of Hamas
Hamas
is that it is an Islamic and national movement at one and the same time ..." 'Hamas: Palestinian Identity, Islam, and National Sovereignty', by Meir Litvak, in Challenges to the cohesion of the Arabic
Arabic
State, by Asher Susser, 2008, p. 153. [4]; " Hamas
Hamas
is an Islamic fundamentalist movement founded in 1987..." Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues, by Gus Martin, 2009, p. 153. [5]; " Hamas
Hamas
is an Islamic jihadist organization..." Why Israel
Israel
Can't Wait: The Coming War Between Israel
Israel
and Iran, by Jerome R. Corsi, 2009, p. 39. [6]; "The Islamic Resistance Movement (Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islam- iyya), known by its acronym Hamas, is an Islamic fundamentalist organization which defines itself as the military wing of the Muslim
Muslim
Brethren." Anti-semitic motifs in the ideology of Hizballah and Hamas, by Esther Webman, 1994, p. 17. [7] "Understanding Islamism", Crisis Group Middle East/ North Africa
North Africa
Report N°37, 2 March 2005 " Hamas
Hamas
leader condemns Islamist charity blacklist". Reuters. 2007-08-23. Retrieved 2009-01-28.  Hider, James (2007-10-12). "Islamist leader hints at Hamas
Hamas
pull-out from Gaza". London: The Times Online. Retrieved 2009-01-28.  The New Hamas: Between Resistance and Participation. Middle East Report. Graham Usher, August 21, 2005 "Council on Foreign Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved May 27, 2010. 

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Further reading[edit]

Roy, Olivier (1994). The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. Retrieved 2 April 2015.  Ayubi, Nazih (1991). Political Islam. London: Routledge.  Esposito, John (1998). Islam
Islam
and Politics (Fourth ed.). Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press.  Mura, Andrea (2015). The Symbolic Scenarios of Islamism: A Study in Islamic Political Thought. London: Routledge.  Yazbeck Haddad, Yvonne; Esposito, John (eds.) (1998). Islam, Gender, and Social Change. New York: Oxford University Press. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Halliday, Fred (2003). Islam
Islam
and the Myth of Confrontation (2nd ed.). London, New York: I.B. Tauris.  Hassan, Riaz (2002). Faithlines: Muslim
Muslim
Conceptions of Islam
Islam
and Society. Oxford University Press. [dead link] Hassan, Riaz (2008). Inside Muslim
Muslim
Minds. Melbourne University Press.  Mandaville, Peter (2007). Transnational Muslim
Muslim
Politics. Abingdon (Oxon), New York: Routledge.  Martin, Richard C.; Barzegar, Abbas (eds.) (2010). Islamism: Contested Perspectives on Political Islam. Stanford University Press. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Rashwan, Diaa (ed.) (2007). The spectrum of Islamist movements. Schiler. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Sayyid, S. (2003). A Fundamental Fear: Eurocentrism and Emergence of Islamism
Islamism
(2nd ed.). London, New York: Zed Press.  Strindberg, Anders; Wärn, Mats (2011). Islamism. Cambridge, Malden MA: Polity Press.  Tausch, Arno (2015). The political algebra of global value change. General models and implications for the Muslim
Muslim
world. With Almas Heshmati and Hichem Karoui (1st ed.). Nova Science Publishers, New York. ISBN 978-1-62948-899-8.  Teti, Andrea; Mura, Andrea (2009). Jeff Haynes, ed. Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
and politics. Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics. Abingdon (Oxon), New York: Routledge.  Volpi, Frédéric (2010). Political Islam
Islam
Observed. Hurst.  Volpi, Frédéric (ed.) (2011). Political Islam: A Critical Reader. Routledge. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. 

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Denominations

Sunni Shia Ibadi Black Muslims Ahmadiyya Quranism Non-denominational

Life Culture

Animals Art Calendar Children Clothing Holidays Mosques Madrasas Moral teachings Music Philosophy Political aspects Qurbani Science

medieval

Social welfare Women LGBT Islam
Islam
by country

Law Jurisprudence

Economics

Banking Economic history Sukuk Takaful Murabaha Riba

Hygiene

Ghusl Miswak Najis Tayammum Toilet Wudu

Marriage Sex

Marriage contract Mahr Mahram Masturbation Nikah Nikah Mut‘ah Zina

Other aspects

Cleanliness Criminal Dhabiĥa Dhimmi Divorce Diet Ethics Etiquette Gambling Gender segregation Honorifics Hudud Inheritance Jizya Leadership Ma malakat aymanukum Military

POWs

Slavery Sources of law Theological

baligh kalam

 Islamic studies

Arts

Arabesque Architecture Calligraphy Carpets Gardens Geometric patterns Music Pottery

Medieval science

Alchemy and chemistry Astronomy Cosmology Geography and cartography Mathematics Medicine Ophthalmology Physics

Philosophy

Early Contemporary Eschatology Theological

Other areas

Astrology Creationism (evolution) Feminism Inventions Liberalism
Liberalism
and progressivism Literature

poetry

Psychology Shu'ubiyya Conversion to mosques

Other religions

Christianity

Mormonism Protestantism

Hinduism Jainism Judaism Sikhism

Related topics

Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism

Criticism Post-Islamism Qutbism Salafi
Salafi
movement

Islamophobia

Incidents

Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran
Quran
and miracles Symbolism

Islam
Islam
portal Category

v t e

Political ideologies

Left-wing politics Centrism Right-wing politics

Authoritarianism Anarchism Capitalism Christian democracy Collectivism Communalism Communism Communitarianism Conservatism Constitutionalism Distributism Environmentalism Extremism Fanaticism Fascism Feminism Fundamentalism Globalism Green politics Individualism Industrialism Intellectualism Islamism Liberalism Libertarianism Masculism Militarism Monarchism Nationalism Progressivism
Progressivism
(Progressive conservatism) Radicalism Reformism Republicanism Social democracy Socialism Utilitarianism

v t e

Religion and politics

General concepts

Anti-clericalism

Anticlericalism and Freemasonry

Caesaropapism Clericalism

Clerical fascism

Confessionalism Divine rule Engaged Spirituality Feminist theology

Thealogy Womanist theology

Identity politics Political religion Progressive Reconstructionism Religious anarchism Religious anti-Masonry Religious anti-Zionism Religious communism Religious humanism Religious law Religious nationalism Religious pacifism

Religion and peacebuilding

Religious police Religious rejection of politics Religious segregation Religious separatism Religious socialism Religious views on same-sex marriage Secularism

Laïcité Secular
Secular
religion Separation of church and state

Spiritual left State atheism State religion Theocracy Theonomy

Christianity and politics

Blaine Amendment Christian anarchism Christian anti-communism Christian anti-Masonry

Papal ban

Christian anti-Zionism Christian communism Christian corporatism Christian democracy Christian egalitarianism Christian environmentalism

Evangelical environmentalism

Christian fascism

German Christians National Catholicism Positive Christianity Protestant Reich Church

Christian feminism

Mormon feminism

Christian humanism Christian law Christian left

Evangelical left

Christian libertarianism Christian pacifism

Christian peacemaking

Christian reconstructionism Christian republic Christian right Christian socialism

In Utah

Christian state Christian Zionism Cisalpinism Dominion Theology Febronianism Gallicanism Liberation theology Papal state Pillarisation Political Catholicism Relations between the Catholic Church and the state

In Argentina

Sphere sovereignty Subsidiarity Temporal power Theodemocracy Ultramontanism

Neo-ultramontanism

Islam
Islam
and politics

Hui pan-nationalism Human Rights in Islam Imamate Islamic anarchism Islamic anti-Masonry Islamic anti-Zionism Islamic democracy Islamic fascism Islamic feminism Islamic law

by country

Islamic nationalism

In Pakistan In South Asia

Islamic pacifism Islamic republic Islamic socialism Islamic state Islamic Zionism Islamism

Criticism

Islamization Khilafat Petro-Islam Political quietism Taliban

Talibanization

Two-nation theory

Judaism and politics

Halachic state Jewish anarchism Jewish anti-Zionism

Haredim

Jewish Autonomism Jewish democracy Jewish fascism

Kahanism Revisionist Maximalism

Jewish feminism Jewish law Jewish left Jewish pacifism Jewish political movements Jewish right Jewish secularism Jewish socialism

Bundism

Humanistic Judaism Poale Zion Religious Zionism World Agudath Israel

Hinduism and politics

Akhand Bharat Hindu
Hindu
feminism Gandhism Hindu
Hindu
law Hindu
Hindu
modernism Hindu
Hindu
nationalism

Hindutva Hindu
Hindu
Rashtra Panun Kashmir Bangabhumi

Hindu
Hindu
revolution Hindu
Hindu
revivalism Hindu
Hindu
environmentalism Integral humanism Indigenous Aryans Rama Rajya Saffronisation Shuddhi Uniform civil code

Buddhism and politics

Buddhists anti-communism Buddhist feminism Buddhist law Buddhist modernism Buddhist nationalism

969 Movement Nichirenism Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism

Buddhist socialism Engaged Buddhism Humanistic Buddhism Secular
Secular
Buddhism

Other

American civil religion Imperial cult

Ancient Rome

Gottgläubig Khalistan movement Neopaganist feminism Religious aspects of Nazism

Creativity (religion) Nazi Satanism

Personality

.