The following list consists of notable concepts that are derived from
both Islamic and
Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the
Arabic language. The main purpose of this list is to disambiguate
multiple spellings, to make note of spellings no longer in use for
these concepts, to define the concept in one or two lines, to make it
easy for one to find and pin down specific concepts, and to provide a
guide to unique concepts of
Islam all in one place.
Separating concepts in
Islam from concepts specific to
or from the language itself, can be difficult. Many
Arabic secular meaning as well as an Islamic meaning. One
example is the concept of dawah. Arabic, like all languages, contains
words whose meanings differ across various contexts. The word
itself a good example.
Arabic is written in its own alphabet, with letters, symbols, and
orthographic conventions that do not have exact equivalents in the
Latin alphabet (see
Arabic alphabet). The following list contains
Arabic terms and phrases; variations exist, e.g.
din instead of deen and aqidah instead of aqeedah. Most items in the
list also contain their actual
ʿAbd (عبد) (for male) ʾAmah (أمة) (for female)
servant, worshipper, slave.
Muslims consider themselves servants and
worshippers of God. Common
Muslim names such as Abdullah (Servant of
God), Abdul-Malik (Servant of the King), Abdur-Rahmān (Slave of the
most Beneficent), Abdus-Salām (Slave of [the originator of] Peace),
Abdur-Rahîm (Slave of the most Merciful), all refer to names of
Traditionally describes good manners, as in etiquette. For example,
being courteous is good ʾadab. However, the term can be used very
broadly, and the proper translation would be "the proper way to go
about something," as in the example, ʾĀdāb al Qitāl, or, "The
Proper Ways of Fighting in War," (Qitāl in
Arabic means mortal
combat) in which the word "etiquette" does not befit the context. A
secondary meaning of ʾAdab is "literature".
call to salat (prayer), sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced
Azan, Athan and Adhan.
justice, especially distributive justice: social, economic, political,
Anno Hegirae The
Islamic calendar starts counting years starting from
the time when
Muhammad had to leave
Mecca and go to Medina, an event
known as the Hijra. The first day of the first Islamic year is 1
Muḥarram 1 (AH) and corresponds to 16 July 622 (CE).
literally "one." Islamically, ahad means One Alone, unique, none like
God. Al-Ahad is one of the names of God.
These are rulings and orders of the Qu'ran and Sunnah. A single ruling
is called a Ḥukm. Five kinds of orders:
Mustahab (preferred and recommended),
Makruh (disliked and not recommended), and
Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت )
members of Muhammad's Household. Also known among Shia as the
Maʿṣūmūn (معصومون) (infallibles; spiritually pure).
Ahl al-Fatrah ( أهل الفترة)
people who live in ignorance of the teachings of a revealed religion,
but according to the "Fitra", the "Natural Religion" innate to human
nature as created by God.
ʾAhl al-Kitāb (أهل الكتاب )
"People of the Book", or followers of pre-Islamic monotheistic
religions with some form of scripture believed to be of divine origin
which were mentioned in Quran: Jews, Christians.
hereafter or eternal life
The practice of virtue. Morals.
Sincerity and genuineness in religious beliefs.
Piety and righteousness and every act of obedience to Allah.
Literally "worlds", humankind, jinn, angels and all that exists.
Al Hijr (Kaaba)
A semi-circular wall north-west of Kaaba.
ʿalayhi -s-salām (عليه السلام)
"Peace be upon him" This expression normally follows after naming a
prophet (other than Muhammad), or one of the noble Angels (i.e.
Jibreel (Gabriel), Meekaal (Michael), etc.)
al-ḥamdu li-llāh (الحمد لله)
"Praise be to God!" Qur'anic exclamation and also same meaning as
Arabic name of God.
Allāhu ʾAkbar (الله أكبر)
"God is Greater (than anything or anyone, imaginable or unimaginable)"
One who knows. A scholar (in any field of knowledge); a scientist (who
knows science) or a theologian (who knows religion); similar to
Japanese sensei, "teacher".
the trust. Of all creation, only human beings & jinns carry the
"trust", which is free will.
ʾAmīr ul-Muʾminīn (أمير المؤمنين)
"Commander of the Faithful" Historically the title of the Caliph. In
some modern countries like Morocco, a ʾAmīr ul-Muʾminīn or
Commander of the faithful is the religious chief.
Muhammad's mother. Aminah fell sick and died in Abwa, near Madina
(then Yathrib) when
Muhammad was six years old.
Al-ʾAmr Bi'l Maʿrūf (الأمر بالمعروف)
Islamic doctrine of enjoining right. There exists in
(obligatory) principle of encouraging other people to do the right
Spoils of war. (See Sūrat al-ʾAnfāl (8:1)) (سورة
Muslim converts at
Medina who helped the
Mecca after the Hijrah.
Article of faith, tenet, creed, or dogma.
Islamic practice of shaving the head of the newborn male and
contributing the weight in silver for charity as well as 2 lambs.
Intelligence, intellect, mind, understanding
ʾArkān singular rukn (ركن/أركان)
The five rukn "pillars" of Islam. (See rukn)
A.S. (ʿAlayhi s-salām) (عليه السلام)
This acronym evokes a blessing and is appended to the names of the
prophets who came before Muhammad. It will also be applied to the
mothers of those prophets. When following a woman's name, the feminine
form is ʿAlayha s-salām.
ʾAṣl ( أصل ) (pl. ʾuṣūl)
Root, origin, source; principle.
ʾaslim taslam (أسلِم تسلَم)
"Submit to Islam" (See dawah)
ʾAsmāʾ Allāh al-Ḥusnā (أسماء الله الحسنى)
List of God's 99 names. According to a hadith, the one who enumerates
them all will enter Paradise.
The third salat prayer. The time of the day before sunset and after
noon. Also means "era".
The bridge by crossing which it is determined (judged) whether a
person would go to heaven or hell. How a person crosses the Sirat
depends on what they have done in their life and what they have
al-ʿAsharatu Mubashsharun bil-
Jannah or just ʿAsharatu Mubashsharah
العشرة المبشّرون بالجنة,
translit. ʿAsharatu l-mubashshirūn or Arabic: عشرة
المبشّر, translit. Asharatul-mubashshirūna bil
Jannah): The ten companions of
Muhammad who were promised paradise
Tenth day of the month of Muharram. It is the day God saved Moses and
the children of Israel from the Pharaoh. The grandson of Muhammad,
Imam Hussayn sacrificed his life along with 72 of his companions on
the sand dunes of Karbala.
Sunni Scholars recommended to fast during
this day. To the Shias, it is also a day on which they mourn the death
of the third Shia Imam,
Husayn ibn Ali, along with his family and
companions, who were killed in the famous battle in Karbala. They cry
and weep and organize lamentating programmes where they not only learn
how to live a proper Islamic life and improve their Spiritual Self but
also cry at the end of the ritual to show their true love and faith
towards imam Hussayn.
As-Salāmu ʿAlaykum (السلام عليكم)
The Islamic greeting; literally "Peace be upon you"; In addition,
wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu (ورحمة الله وبركاته)
means "and the Mercy of God and His blessing". The response to this
greeting is wa-ʿAlaykum as-Salām wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu
(وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته) --"And
on you be the Peace and Mercy of God and His Blessing".
ʾAstaghfir allāh (أستغفر الله)
"I seek forgiveness from God." Islamic expression.
Aʿudhu billah (أعوذ بالله ʾAʿūdhu billāh)
"I seek refuge in God". This is a paraphrase on the beginnings of the
two last suras in the Qur'an.
Friends, protectors, helpers, caretaker, maintainer. (singular: wali)
The parts of the body, male or female, must be covered in public but
not between spouses, such as, body parts must be concealed of a woman
before non-related men.(Non-related men means those she can marry
ʾĀyah (آية), plural ʾāyāt (آيات)
A sign. More specifically, a verse in the Qur'an.
Āyatullāh (آية الله, also spelled Ayatollah)
Sign of God Title given to highly ranked religious scholars in Sh'ia
Baitullāh (بيت الله baytu -llāh)
A mosque, literally "house of God". Specifically means the Ka'aba at
a group known as the Weepers, who wept because they could not
Muhammad to Tabuk.
a form of blessing.
Bārak Allāhu Fīkum (بارك الله فيكم)
Allah bless you; response to expression of thanks.
Barrier. Used in the
Qur'an to describe the barrier between sweet and
salty water. In theology, the one-way barrier between the mortal realm
and the spirit world which the deceased soul crosses and waits for
humankind, mankind, man, human(s), etc.
Insight, discernment, perceptivity, deep knowledge. Sometimes used by
Sufis to denote the ability to directly perceive a transcendental
The interior or hidden meaning. A person who devotes himself to
studying such hidden meanings is a batini.
B.B.H.N. (عليه الصلاة والسلام)
Blessed be His Name – acronym for S.A.W.S. See P.B.U.H (Peace Be
Innovation in religion, i.e. inventing new methods of worship. Bad
Islam are considered a deviation and a serious sin by many
Bidʿah sayyiʾah (بدعة سيئة)
Inquiry prohibited in Islam.
Bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi (بسم الله الرحمن
"In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful".
In general terms, it means a "cloak" or "outer garment". Specific
reference is to the "burda" of Muḥammad (see Qaṣīda al-Burda).
an oath of allegiance to a leader, traditionally the
Caliph or Imam.
Caliph (خَليفة) khalīfah
literally successor; refers to the successor of Muhammad, the ruler of
an Islamic theocracy.
atheist – from the root ad dahr meaning time. In Islam, atheists are
seen as those who think that time only destroys, hence the term ad
dahriyyah for the concept of atheism.
an Islamic figure similar to the Antichrist; means "liar" or
Dār al-ʿAhd (دار العهد)
the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its Christian tributary states.
Dār al-ʾAmn (دار الأمن)
means house of safety; refers to status of a
Muslim living in some of
the Western world.
Dār ad-daʿwa (دار الدعوة)
a region where
Islam has recently been introduced.
Dār al-ḥarb (دار الحرب)
means house of war; refers to areas outside
Muslim rule at war with
Dār al-Islām (دار الإسلام)
the abode, or land, of Islam.
Kufr (دار الكفر)
means domain of disbelief; the term originally refers to the
Quraish-dominated society of
Mecca between Mohammed's flight to Medina
(the Hijra) and the city's conquest.
Dār aṣ-Ṣulḥ ( دارالصلح )
domain of agreement
Dār ash-shahāda (دار الشهادة)
See Dar al-Amn
Darūd (الدرود، الصلاة على النبي)
the call to Islam, proselytizing.
an initiate of the
Sufi Path, one who practices Sufism
A devotional practice whereby the name of God is repeated in a
rhythmical manner. Remembrance of God; spiritual exercise; Muslims
believe that the primary function of prophets is to remind people of
Dhimmi (ذمّي) (pl. dhimam)
"protected person"; Jews and Christians (and sometimes others, such
as Buddhists, Sikhs, Hindus, and Zoroastrians), living in an Islamic
state who must pay special taxes and whose right to practice their
religion is subject to strict control under Islamic law.
Dhuhr (ظهر) (ẓuhr)
the second obligatory daily prayer.
(literally 'religion') the way of life based on Islamic revelation;
the sum total of a Muslim's faith and practice. Dīn is often used to
mean the faith and religion of Islam.
"blood money", recompense for loss of a life.
personal prayer, supplication
The physical Universe, as opposed to the Hereafter; sometimes spelled
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر)
Marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Fajarah (فجرة) (also fujjār (فجّار))
Wicked evil doers. Plural of "fājir" (فاجر).
dawn, early morning, and the morning prayer. The time of the day when
there is light in the horizon before sunrise.
deliverance, salvation, well-being.
"philosophy" The methods and content of Greek philosophy which were
brought into Islam. A person who tries to interpret
rationalist philosophy was called a faylasuf (فيلسوف),
Sufi term meaning extinction – to die to this life while alive.
Having no existence outside of God.
Faqīh (فقيه)(pl. fuqahāʾ)(فقهاء)
One who has a deep understanding of Islam, its laws, and
jurisprudence. (see fiqh)
the return of the Shia Mahdi
Farḍ (فرض), plural furūḍ (فروض)
a religious duty, or an obligatory action: praying 5 times a day is
fard Neglecting a fard will result in a punishment in the hereafter.
Farḍ ʿain ( فرض عين)
obligatory on every individual
Muslim to aid in any way he can.
Farḍ kifāyah (فرض كفاية)
an obligation on the
Muslim community as a whole, from which some are
freed if others take it up such as for jihad.
corrupt, invalid/violable (in Islamic finance)
anyone who has violated Islamic law; usually refers to one whose
character has been corrupted (plural "fāsiqūn").
the short, opening sura of the Qur'an, which begins "In the name of
God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Praise be to God, the Lord of
the Worlds..." These words hold an important place in
and forms the core of the salat.
legal opinion of an (alim) binding on him and on those who follow his
Fī ʾAmān allāh (في أمان الله)
"In the protection of God". Said when a person departs.
jurisprudence built around the shariah by custom (al-urf). Literally
means "deep understanding", refers to understanding the Islamic laws.
Fī sabīl allāh (في سبيل الله)
for the sake of Allah; common Islamic expression for performing acts
such as charity or
Jihad and for 'qatlu' (fighting in mortal combat
for the sake of Allah)
Fitna (pl. fitan) (فتنة)
trial or tribulation; also refers to any period of disorder, such as a
civil war, or the period of time before the end of the world or any
innate disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and beauty. Muslims
believe every child is born with fitrah.
the criterion (of right and wrong, true and false); for example, the
Qur'an as furqan.
vermin, evil from the root fasaqa meaning to deviate from the right
(verb in past tense) to forgive, to cover up (sins). A characteristic
heedlessness, forgetfulness of God, indifference
the unseen, unknown.
spoils of war, booty.
excessive uncertainty; also "the sale of what is not present" such
as fish not yet caught, crops not yet harvested.
(archaic) roughly, "raider": a holy warrior; a mujahid
full ablution of the whole body (see wudu).
Ghusl janaba is the
mandatory shower after having sexual discharge.
Ḥadath akbar (حدث أكبر)
major ritual impurity which requires
Niyyat for cleaning.
Ḥadath aṣghar (حدث أصغر)
minor ritual impurity
Hādhā min faḍl rabbī (هَذَا مِن فَضْلِ
Qur'anic expression and phrase meaning This is by the Grace of my
a guide, one who guides; A
Muslim name for God is The Guide, or
Ḥadīth (حديث ḥadīth) plural ahādīth
literally "speech"; recorded saying or tradition of
by isnad; with sira these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah
Ḥadīth mashhūr (حديث مشهور)
Well-known hadith; a hadith which reported by one, two, or more
Muhammad or from another Companion, but has later
become well-known and transmitted by an indefinite number of people
during the first and second generation of Muslims.
someone who knows the
Qur'an by heart. Literal translation = memorizer
Ḥājj (حاجّ) plural Ḥujjāj (حجّاج) and Ḥajīj
Pilgrim, one who has made the Hajj.
Ḥajj (حجّ) and Ḥijjah (plurals Ḥijjāt (حجّات) and
pilgrimage to Mecca. Sunnis regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam.
See Dhu al-Hijjah.
Ḥajj at-Tamattuʿ (حج التمتع)
Umrah during the
Hajj season, and on the Day of Tarwiah a
pilgrim gets into the state of
Ihram for Hajj. Before making ʿUmrah,
Miqat and declare the intention. End by sacrificing an
Ḥajj al-Qirān (حج القران)
At Miqat, declare intention to perform both
Hajj and '
After throwing the Jamrah of Al-'Aqabah, and getting hair shaved or
cut that take off his
Ihram garments and sacrifice animal.
Ḥajj al-ʾIfrād (حج الإفراد)
At Miqat, declare intention for
Hajj only. Maintain
Ihram garments up
to the Day of Sacrifice. No offering is required from him.
a ruler's or governor's title; in some
Muslim states, a judge. See
lawful, permitted, good, beneficial, praiseworthy, honourable. (See
A gathering or meeting for the primary purpose of learning about
Shaving of the head, particularly associated with pilgrimage to
pre-Islamic non-Jewish or non-Christian monotheists. Plural:
truth, reality, right, righteousness. Al-
Haqq is one of 99 names of
Good, beautiful, admirable. Also a categorization of a hadith's
authenticity as "acceptable". (other categorizations include authentic
Hawa (هوى) (pl. ʾahwāʾ (أهواء))
Vain or egotistical desire; individual passion; impulsiveness.
guidance from God.
literally "cover". It describes the covering of the body for the
purposes of modesty and dignity; broadly, a prescribed system of
attitudes and behaviour regarding modesty and dignity. (See abayah,
al-amira, burqa, chador, jilbab, khimar, milfeh, niqab, purdah,
Muhammad and his followers' emigration from
Mecca to Medina.
Literally, "migration". This holiday marks the beginning of the Muslim
New Year on the first day of the month of Muharram. See Rabi' al-awwal
and abbreviation AH.
Ḥikmah (also Hikmat) (حكمة)
Literally this means "wisdom" and refers to the highest possible level
of understanding attainable by a Muslim. In particular, it refers to
the illuminative, mystical sort of wisdom that a Gnostic or
wilderness reserve, protected forest, grazing commons; a concept of
One half of a juz', or roughly 1/60th of the Qur'an
Truce. Cease-fire (often temporary)
Ḥudūd (حدود) (sing. hadd)
Literally, limits or boundaries. Usually refers to limits placed by
Allah on man; penalties of the Islamic law (sharia) for particular
crimes described in the
Qur'an – intoxication, theft, rebellion,
adultery and fornication, false accusation of adultery, and apostasy.
ruling in the
Qur'an or Sunnah. Also spelled Hukum.
Ḥūrī (حورية ḥūrīya; pl. ḥūrīyāt حوريات)
beautiful and pure young men and women that
Muslims believe inhabit
Paradise, or Heaven.
submission, worship, but not limited to ritual: all expressions of
servitude to Allah, including the pursuit of knowledge, living a pious
life, helping, charity, and humility, can be considered ibadah.
Devil banished to Hell for his arrogance and disobedience; aka
Satan : He is the equivalent of Lucifer.
festival or celebration. Alternatively transliterated Eid.
ʿId ul-Adha (عيد الأضحى)
"the Festival of Sacrifice." The four-day celebration starting on the
tenth day of Dhul-Hijja.
ʿId ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر)
"the Festival of Fitr (Breaking the fast)." A religious festival that
marks the end of the fast of Ramadan.
a meal eaten by
Muslims breaking their fast after sunset during the
month of Ramadan.
state of consecration for hajj. Includes dress and or prayer.
perfection in worship, such that
Muslims try to worship God as if they
see Him, and although they cannot see Him, they undoubtedly believe He
is constantly watching over them.
Also Ahwat. A Precaution, either obligatory or optional.
ʾIḥtiyāṭ mustaḥabb(إحتياط مستحبّ)
A preferred precaution.
ʾIḥtiyāṭ wājib(إحتياط واجب)
An obligatory precaution.
miracle, the character of the
Qur'an in both form and content.
a certificate authorizing one to transmit a subject or text of Islamic
the consensus of either the ummah (or just the ulema) – one of four
bases of Islamic Law. More generally, political consensus itself.
Shi'a substitute obedience to the Imam; opposite of ikhtilaf
During the early times of Islam, the possibility of finding a new
solution to a juridical problem. Has not been allowed in conservative
Islam since the Middle Ages. However, Liberal movements within Islam
generally argue that any
Muslim can perform ijtihad, given that Islam
has no generally accepted clerical hierarchy or bureaucratic
organization. The opposite of ijtihad is taqlid (تقليد), Arabic
disagreement among the madhhabs (scholars) of a religious principle;
opposite of ijma.
honouring, hospitality, generosity – Dhul jalaali wal ikraam is one
of the 99 names of Allah.
mental or physical force.
deity, a god; including gods worshiped by polytheists.
all varieties of knowledge, usually a synonym for science
literally, leader; e.g. a man who leads a community or leads the
Shi'a sect use the term only as a title for one of the
twelve Allah-appointed successors of Muhammad.
ʾImāmah (إمامة) or imamate
Muhammad and the leadership of mankind.
ʾInna lilāhi wa ʾinna ʾilaihi rājiʿūn (إِنَّا
لِلّهِ وَإِنَّـا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعونَ)
Allah we belong and to Him is our return – said to mourners
the habitual inclination to give rather than take in life; the basis
Arabic term for the holy book called The
Gospel said to have been
given to Jesus, who is known as Isa in Arabic;
Muslims believe the
holy book has been lost and the
New Testament gospels (Matthew, Mark,
Luke, and John) are not the word of Allah, only Christian stories
ʾIn shāʾa -llāh (إن شاء الله)
"If God wills"; Inshallah is "resigned, accepting, neutral, passive.
It is neither optimistic nor pessimistic." 
the second call to prayer. Similar to the azhan.
apostasy (see murtadd). Also riddah ردة
Jesus – 'Isa ibn Maryam (English: Jesus son of Mary), (a matronymic
since he had no biological father). The
Qur'an asserts that
no sons and therefore, 'Isa is not the son of Allah.
'Isa as a nabi and rasul.
night; the fifth salat prayer
ʾIṣlāḥ (إصلاح )
"reform". This term may mean very different things, depending on the
context. When used in reference to reform of Islam, it may mean
modernism, such as that proposed by
Muhammad Abduh; or Salafi
literalism, such as that preached by
Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
ʾIslām (الإسلام) (help·info)
"submission to God". The
Arabic root word for
Islam means submission,
obedience, peace, and purity.
chain of transmitters of any given hadith
the night journey during which
Muhammad (محمّد)is said to have
visited Heaven. See miraj.
vaginal bleeding except
Haid and Nifas
public interest – a source of Islamic Law.
Negative reward for bad deeds that is tallied on qiyamah(judgment
day.) Opposite of thawab.
seclusion in the masjid for the purpose of worship usually performed
during the last 10 days of Ramadan.
ʾItmām al-hujjah (إتمام الحجة)
clarification of truth in its ultimate form.
Ittaqullah (اتقوا الله)
command to fear God or to be pious to Allah.
That which is allowed or permissible. As a rule, everything that is
not prohibited is allowed. (See halal, mustahabb, mandub)
the Hell-fire; Hell
the time of ignorance before
Islam was realized. Describes
Jalsa – sitting
"gathering"; i.e. a university, a mosque, or more generally, a
community or association.
A state of spiritual impurity that occur due to sexual intercourse or
ejaculation and necessitates major ritual ablution (ghusl),
Funeral. Ṣalāt al-Janāzah is a funeral prayer.
Paradise, Heaven, the Garden
Jazāka-llāhu khayran (جزاك اللهُ خيرًا)
"May God reward you with good." Islamic expression of gratitude.
struggle. Any earnest striving in the way of God, involving personal,
physical, for righteousness and against wrongdoing;
Jihād aṣ-ṣaghīr (جهاد الصغير)
Offensive jihad declared by caliph.
Jihād aṭ-ṭalab (جهاد الطلب)
Jihād ad-dafʿa (جهاد الدفعة)
Jihād bil-māl (جهاد بامال)
Jihād bis-saif ( جهاد بالسيف)
literally 'struggle by the sword'; holy war.
(pl. jalabib) a long, flowing, garment worn by some as a more
conservative means of fulfillment of sartorial hijab. (See also:
abaya. burka, chador)
Term for invisible beings, considered to roam the earth.
A tax specified in the Koran (9:29) to be paid by non-
Muslim political control.
To deny. Jaahid (the denier). Disbelief out of rejection. When there
comes to them that which they [should] have recognized, they refuse to
believe in (kafaru) it. ( 2:89) Accordingly, juhud includes rejection
(kufr at-taktheeb) and resistance (kufr al-'inaad)
Friday prayer or Sabbath.
an unclean state of body as in breaking Wudu
one of thirty parts of the Qur'an
cube-house; the cube-shaped building, i.e., in
Mecca toward which
Kāfir (كافر kāfir sing.; كفّار kuffār pl.)
from the word kafara, "to hide." Those who deliberately hide the
Muslims in non-Islamic countries or states, unbelievers,
truth-concealers; one who is ungrateful. Common degoratory term used
by different Islamic factions such as sunni and shias to denounce each
other as non-Muslims. Plural: Kāfirūn. Commonly used as an offensive
term for black people by white South Africans.
Kalām (علم الكلام) (ʿilm al-kalām)
Literally, "words" or "speech," and referring to oration. The name
applied to the discipline of philosophy and theology concerned
specifically with the nature of faith, determinism and freedom, and
the nature of the divine attributes.
Every kind of good
Caliph, more generally, one performing the duties of khilafa.
Creation – the act of measuring; determining, estimating and
calculating. Khalq is the noun form of the verb khalaqa (see bara,
The Creator, Allah.
the speaker at the Friday
Muslim prayer, or Jumu'ah prayer.
Complete recitation of the Qur'an.
a land tax.
goodness. See birr (righteousness) See qist (equity) See 'adl
(equilibrium and justice) See haqq (truth and right) See ma'ruf (known
and approved) See taqwa (piety.)
Controversy, dispute, discord.
Man's trusteeship and stewardship of Earth; Most basic theory of the
Caliphate; Flora and fauna as sacred trust; Accountability to; God for
harms to nature, failure to actively care and maintain. Three specific
ways in which khalifa is manifested in
Muslim practice are the
creation of haram to protect water, hima to protect other species
(including those useful to man), and by resisting infidel domination
Muslim lands, in jihad.
al-khulafāʾ ar-rāshidūn (الخلفاء الراشدون)
four first caliphs, believed by most
Muslims to be most righteous
rulers in history
Khimār (خمار) (pl. khumur (خُمُر) or ʾakhmirah
headcovering (Q. 24:31).
Khuluq (خُلُق) pl. ʾakhlāq (أخلاق)
humility, devotion, concentration (especially in prayer).
the sermon at Jumu'ah prayer.
book; The Qurʾān is often referred to as "Al-Kitāb" (The Book).
Unbelief, infidelity, blasphemy; also hubris. See
Kafir and Kuffar
Kufr al-ḥukm (كفر الحكم)
Disbelief from judgment.
Kufr al-ʿInād (كفر العناد)
Disbelief out of stubbornness
Kufr al-ʾInkār (كفر الإنكار)
Disbelief out of arrogance and pride.
Kufr al-ʾIstibdāl (كفر الإستبدال)
Disbelief because of trying to substitute Allaah's Laws.
Kufr al-ʾIstiḥlāl (كفر الإستحلال)
Disbelief out of trying to make HARAM into HALAL.
Disbelief due to mockery and derision
Kufr al-jahl (كفر الجهل)
Disbelief from not being aware of or not understanding.
Kufr al-juhud (كفر الجهد)
Disbelief from obstinacy after being presented with truth.
Kufr an-Nifāq (كفر النفاق)
Disbelief out of hypocrisy.
Kufr al-ʾIʿrāḍ (كفر الإعراض)
Disbelief due to avoidance.
God's command to the universe, 'Be!' is sufficient to create it.
Lā ilāha illā-llāh (لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا
"There is no god but God." The most important expression in Islam. It
is part of the first pillar of Islam. According to Islam, this is the
message of all the Prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, Jesus and
Labbayka -llāhumma (لبّيكَ اللّهُم)
God, I obey you (said during hajj)
Dirty, false, evil vain talk
Curse, execration, or imprecation.
Laylat al-Qadr (ليلة القدر)
the Night of Power, towards the end of Ramadan, when
the first revelation of the Qur'an.
pl. Madhāhib (مذاهب) school of religious jurisprudence (fiqh),
school of thought. Also see fiqh.
the fourth daily salat prayer
"a guide". More specifically al-
Mahdi (the guide) is a figure who will
appear with Prophet Jesus before the end of time, when God allows it,
to bring world peace, order and justice, after it has been overcome
with injustice and aggression.
Mahdūr ad-damm (مهدور الدم)
he whose blood must be wasted
a relative of the opposite gender usually described as being "within
the forbidden limits"; a better description is "within the protected
limits". means relatives who one can appear before without observing
hijab and who one cannot marry.
Maisir (ميسر )
gambling, game of chance
Means "detested", though not haraam (forbidden); something that is
disliked or offensive. If a person commits the Makruh, he does not
accumulate ithim but avoiding the Makhruh is rewarded with thawab.
angels (Sing. Malak). It was one of these mala'ika, Jibril (Gabriel)
who delivered Allah's revelation to Muhammad.
Mā malakat ʾaymānukum (ما ملكت أيمانكم)
one's rightful spouse (literally: what your right hands possess)
the rules specifying the requirements of a legally valid hajj
commendable or recommended. Failure to do it would not be a sin. (See
the methodology by which truth is reached
That which is abrogated. The doctrine of al-Nasikh wal-Mansukh
(abrogation) of certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation by others.
The principle is mentioned in the
Qur'an (2:106) see naskh
one of seven equal parts of the Qur'an
consensus of the community
Maqāṣid (مقاصد) sing. maqṣid (مقصد)
goals or purposes; such as the purposes of Islamic law
Maṣāliḥ (مصالح) sing. maṣlaḥah (مصلحة)
A person who is late for salat and has not joined the imam in the
Mā shāʾa -llāh (ما شاء الله)
Allah has willed it
the (Biblical) Messiah, Jesus Christ
Masjid (مسجد) pl. masājid, مساجد
place of prayer; mosque
Masjid al-Ḥarām (المسجد الحرام)
the mosque surrounding the Kaʿbah in Mecca.
Mawālī or mawālā (موالي)
Mawlā [mawlan (مولى)] [pl. mawālin (موالٍ)]
protector or master
Arabic word literally meaning "our lord" or "our master". It is
used mostly as a title preceding the name of a respected religious
leader, in particular graduates of religious institutions. The term is
sometimes used to refer to Rumi.
an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given
Muslim religious scholars or
Ulema preceding their names. Maulvi
generally means any religious cleric or teacher
Mecca (مكّة Makkah)
the holiest city in Islam
Medina (مدينة Madīnah)
"city"; Medinat-un-Nabi means "the City of the Prophet." See Hijra
the Resurrection; God will resurrect all of humankind to be judged.
Shi'as regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam.
a niche in the wall of all mosques, indicating the direction of prayer
In Arabic, millah means "religion," but it has only been used to refer
to religions other than Islam, which is din.
(see Millah) (Turkish word also meaning a nation, community, or a
people). In an Islamic state, "Ahl al Kitab" may continue to practice
their former religion in a semi-autonomous community termed the
a tower built onto a mosque from the top of which the call to prayer
a raised pulpit in the mosque where the
Imam stands to deliver sermons
methodology, e.g. methods, rules, system, procedures.
Mīqāt (ميقات )
the Ascension to the Seven Heavens during the Night Journey See also:
a person who performs the call to prayer
Al-Falaq and an-Nas, the "Surahs of refuge", should be said to
relieve suffering (also protect from Black Magic)
literally permissible; neither forbidden nor commended. Neutral. (See
person who recites Qur'an
an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law
(Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of "fatwa").
woman who wears hijab (polite form of hijabi).
unequivocal verses of Qur'an. (See mutashabehat.)
a person who wages war against God
Muḥammadun rasūl allāh (محمدٌ رسول الله)
Muhammad is the messenger of God." This statement is the second part
of the first pillar of Islam. This is the second most important
statement in Islam.
evil-doer a person who wages jihad (war) not in accordance with the
Qur'an. Plural mufsideen.
a person who performs good deed. Plural muhsineen. Opposite of
Muslims that accompanied
Muhammad when he traveled to
a fighter for Islam. Plural Mujāhidūn (مجاهدون).
a scholar who uses reason for the purpose of forming an opinion or
making a ruling on a religious issue. Plural: Mujtahidun.
are Islamic clergy. Ideally, they should have studied the Qur'an,
Islamic traditions (hadith), and Islamic law (fiqh).
Muslim who observes the commandments of the Qur'an.
hypocrite. Plural: Munafiqun
Muntaqabah (منتقبة) pl. muntaqabāt (منتقبات)
woman who wears niqab
Murābaḥah ( مرابحة)
a type of sharia-compliant mortgage (see Ijara)
Murtadd (مرتد) female apostate is Murtaddah
apostate (see irtidad see mahdur ad-damm.)
a copy, codex or redaction of the Qur'an.
Mushrik (مشرك)(pl. mushrikūn) (مشركون)
One who associates others in worship with God; a polytheist.
a follower of the religion of Islam. One who submits their will to
commendable or recommended. (See halal, mandub)
literally enjoyment; compensation paid to a divorced woman; when used
in the phrase nikāḥ al-mutʿah (نكاح المتعة) it refers to
equivocal verses of Qur'an. (See Muhakkamat.)
Muṭawwaʿ (مطوّع) plural muṭawwaʿūn (مطوّعون)
religious man in certain regions, a volunteer teacher
Muṭawwaʿūn (مطوّعون) (مطوعين) (singular muṭawwaʿ)
"agreed upon"—used to describe hadith that were narrated by many
witnesses through different narration chains (isnads) leading back to
literally, prophets. In the Islamic context, a Nabi is a man sent by
God to give guidance to man, but not given scripture. The Prophet
Abraham was a Nabi. This is in contrast to Rasul, or Messenger.
Plural: Anbiya. See: Rasul.
soul, the lower self, the ego/id
An optional, supererogatory practice of worship, in contrast to farida
Munkar (نكير و منكر)
two malaikah who test the faith of the dead in their graves
The doctrine of al-Nasikh wal-
Mansukh (abrogation) of certain parts of
the Qur'anic revelation by others. The principle is mentioned in the
Qur'an (2:106) see mansukh.
a known, clear legal injunction
the bleeding after childbirth (see Haid)
falsehood; dishonesty; hypocrisy
the matrimonial contract between a bride and bridegroom within Islamic
veil covering the face
prophethood. Shi'as regard this as the third Pillar of Islam.
a great munkar – prohibited, evil, dreadful thing.
Muslims believe angels were created from light and jinn from
an acronym that stands for "peace be upon him" a blessing which is
affixed to Muhammad's name whenever it is written. In some circles and
Sufis regard PBUH to signify "Peace and Blessings
Upon Him" (the
Rasul or Messenger of Allah). These are the primary
English explications of the P.B.U.H. acronym. The
Arabic version is
false imputation of unchastity specifically punished by sharia.
judge of Islamic Law
Muslims face during prayer
Qitāl fī sabīl allāh ( قتال في سبيل الله )
fight in the cause of Allah.
resurrection; return of the dead for the Day of Judgment
equitable retribution – a fine for murder if the heirs forgive the
perpetrator. (See hudud, tazeer)
to stand, a position of salat prayer
analogy – foundation of legal reasoning and thus fiqh
classification of a hadith that are believed to be narrated by
Muhammad from God.
closeness to God. Term is associated with Sufism.
Qur'an means recitation.
Muslims believe the
to be the literal word of God and the culmination of God's revelation
to mankind, revealed to
Muhammad in the year AD 610 in the cave Hira
by the angel Jibril.
Lord, Sustainer, Cherisher, Master.
R. A., raḍiya -llāhu ʿanhu (رضي الله عنه)
Allah be pleased with him. Variants are ʿanhā (her) and ʿanhum
Merciful; Ar-Rahman (الرحمن) means "The Most Merciful"
compassionate; Ar-Rahim (الرحيم) means "The Most Compassionate"
as in the Basmala
Raḥimaḥullāh (رحمه الله)
Allah have mercy on him. Usually used after mentioning the
companions of Muhammad
Raḥmatullāh (رحمة الله)
Mercy of Allah. Sometimes used as an alternative to
mentioning a righteous person by saying, rahmatullahi ʿilayh
(رحمة الله علیه): Mercy of
Allah be upon him/her
the practice of stoning
one unit of Islamic prayer, or Salat. Each daily prayer is made up of
a different number of raka'ah.
month of fasting when the
Qur'an was first revealed
Sunnis consider the first four caliphs as the "orthodox" or "rightly
guided" caliphs. They were Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and 'Ali.
messenger; Unlike prophets (Nabi), messengers are given scripture.
Moses (as), David (as), Jesus (as) and Mohammed (as) are considered
messengers. All messengers are considered prophets, but not all
prophets are given scripture. See: Nabi.
interest, the charging and paying of which is forbidden by the Qur'an
Muslims from infidels
apostasy, in which a person abandons
Islam for another faith or no
faith at all.
literally, message or letter. Used both in common parlance for mail
correspondences, and in religious context as divine message.
spirit; the divine breath which God blew into the clay of Adam.
Rukn (ركن) plural ʾArkān (أركان)
means what is inevitable. One of the five pillars of Islam. (See fard,
the bowing performed during salat.
blasphemy: insulting God (sabb Allah) or
Muhammad (sabb ar-rasūl or
patience, endurance, self-restraint
charity; voluntary alms above the amount for zakat.
Ṣaḥābah (الصحابة) (sing. Ṣāḥib) (صاحب)
companions of Muhammad. A list of the best-known Companions can be
found at List of companions of Muhammad.
"Sound in isnad." A technical attribute applied to the "isnad" of a
divine "tranquility" or "peace" which descends upon a person when the
Qur'an is recited.
Salaf (السلف الصالح)
(righteous) predecessors/ancestors. In Islam,
Salaf is generally used
to refer to the first three generations of Muslims. Anyone who died
after this is one of the khalaf or "latter-day Muslims".
Ṣalāt (صلاة) sala(t)
any one of the daily five obligatory prayers. Sunnis regard this as
the second Pillar of Islam
Prayer for guidance is done in conjunction with two rakaahs of
peace (see sulh)
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam (صلى الله عليه و سلم)
Allah bless him and grant him peace." The expression should be
used after stating Muhammad's name. See abbreviation: S.A.W. or
S.A.W.S. also P.B.U.H.
Allah is "The Eternal."
a river in heaven (al-firdaus)
S.A.W. (or S.A.W.S.)
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam
Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam (صلى الله عليه و سلم). See
fasting during the month of Ramadhan. The word sawm is derived from
(in everyday usage, equivalent to 'Mr.') a descendant of a relative of
Muhammad, usually via Husayn.
refer to some of the ceremonies used by various sufi orders
The testimony of faith: La ilaha illa Allah. Muhammadun rasulullah.
("There is no god but Allah.
Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.").
Sunnis regard this as the first Pillar of Islam. Also may be used as a
synonym for the term Istish'hād meaning martyrdom.
Shahīd (شهيد) pl. shuhadāʾ (شهداء)
witness, martyr. Usually refers to a person killed whilst fighting in
"jihād fī sabīl Allāh" (jihad for the sake of Allah). Often used
in modern times for deaths in a political cause (including victims of
soldiers, deaths in battle, et cetera) which are viewed by some
Muslims as a spiritual cause not just a political cause. But the real
Jihad is to defend
Islam in any way; thus, it could be in
an economic way or could refer to fighting for the rights of the
oppressed or the believers; most often it refers to mastering one's
own inclination for evil and shirk.
a spiritual master,
"the path to a watering hole"; Islamic law; the eternal ethical code
and moral code based on the Qur'an, Sunnah, Ijma, and Qiyas; basis of
Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)
a title bestowed upon the descendants of
Muhammad through Hasan, son
of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib
Evil being, who follows
Iblis or their temptations
A branch of
Islam who believe in
Imam Ali and his sons (Hassan and
Hussayn) as custodians of
Islam by the will of Mohammed.
idolatry; polytheism; the sin of believing in any divinity except God
and of associating other gods with God.
Majlis ash-shūrā (مجلس الشورى)
advisory council in a Caliphate
Sidrat al-Muntaha (سدرة المنتهى )
a lotus tree that marks the end of the seventh heaven, the boundary
where no creation can pass.
life or biography of Muhammad; his moral example – with hadith this
comprises the sunnah
aṣ-Ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm ( الصراط المستقيم)
the Straight Path
Subḥānahu wa taʿāla (سبحانه و تعالى)(abbreviated
expression used following written name or vocalization of
Arabic meaning highly praised and glorified is He.
Subḥān allāh (سبحان الله)
"Glory to God" – this phrase is often used when praising God or
exclaiming awe at His attributes, bounties, or creation.
Muslim mystic; See:
the meal eaten by fasting
Muslims just before dawn.
kneeling down, a position of salat.
bond that generates revenue from sales, profits, or leases rather than
A condition of peace, an armistice, or treaty. It is related to the
word muṣālaḥah (مصالحة) which means peace, conciliation, or
Sunnah (السنّة) or sunnat an-Nabī (سنّة النبي)
the "path" or "example" of Muhammad, i.e., what he did or said or
agreed to during his life. He is considered by
Muslims to be the best
human moral example, the best man to follow.
the largest denomination of Islam. The word
Sunni comes from the word
Sunnah (Arabic: سنة), which means the words and actions or example
of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Qur'an is composed of 114 suras
followers of the Ṣaḥābah
exegesis, particularly such commentary on the Qur'an
Ṭāghūt (طاغوت) (taghout)
originally Aramaic, meaning "false god"; also tyranny.
optional (supererogatory), late-night (pre-dawn) prayer
purification from ritual impurities by means of wudu or ghusl
pure, ritually clean
Uttering the formula of faith: "Lā ilāha illā -llāh", (i.e. "There
is no god but God")
'Tahnik' is an Islamic ceremony of touching the lips of a newborn baby
with honey, sweet juice or pressed dates.
Muslims believe the Bible Scriptures were
corrupted but the
Qur'an is in its original form.
to purify and reform society in order to move it toward greater equity
and justice, literally meaning to make new in present tense
a special manner of reciting the
Qur'an according to prescribed rules
of pronunciation and intonation.
Takāful ( التكتاقل)
Based on sharia Islamic law, it is a form of mutual insurance. See
a proclamation of the greatness of Allah; a
declaration of individual or group of previously considered
Takhrīj (تخريج الحديث )
The science of hadith extraction and authentication, including
validation of chains of transmitters of a hadith by this science's
scholars and grading hadith validity.
to follow the scholarly opinion of one of the four Imams of Islamic
'precaution', that one is allowed to hide his true beliefs in certain
circumstances or to lie to save himself of being killed or harmed.
righteousness; goodness; Piety:
Taqwa is taken from the verbe Ittaqua,
which means Avoiding, Fearing the punishment from
Allah for committing
sins. It is piety obtained by fearing the punishment of Allah.
extra prayers in
Ramadan after the Isha prayer.
the study of
Arabic grammar issued from the Qur'an
Muslim religious order, particularly a
slow, meditative recitation of the Qur'an
Taṣawwuf (التصوّف) or Sufism
Uttering the formula: "Subhan Allah", i.e. (Glory be to Allah)
Arabic text by means of diacritical marks. An integral
part of the
Arabic writing system. Literally meaning to form or
salutation at the end of prayer
Shia Ashura ceremony of self-flagellation by hitting head with sword.
total reliance on Allah.
Allah Almighty through the medium and intercession of another
Ka'bah during Hajj.
Divine help in getting to the purpose to one who deserves.
monotheism; affirmation of the Oneness of Allah.
Muslims regard this
as the first part of the Pillar of Islam, the second part is accepting
Muhammad as rasoul (messenger). The opposite of
Tawheed is shirk
Torah as revealed to Musa (Moses.)
all that is good as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods,
etc. Means "pure." The Shahaddath is tayyib.
Discretionary punishment – a sentence or punishment whose measure is
not fixed by the Shari'ah. (See hudud, qisas)
Purification of the Soul.
Reward for good deeds that is tallied on qiyamah (judgment day.)
Opposite of ithim.
ritual recitation of passages of the Qur'an.
state of motionlessness, calm
ʿUlamāʾ (علماء) or ulema
the leaders of Islamic society, including teachers, Imams and judges.
Ummah (الاُمّة) or umma
(literally 'nation') the global community of all
the lesser pilgrimage performed in Mecca. Unlike hajj, ʿumrah can be
performed throughout the year.
the branch of sharia that deals with punishment. (See hudud, qisas,
custom of a given society, leading to change in the fiqh
ʾUṣūl (أُصول) (sing. ʾaṣl)(أصل)
Fiqh (أصول الفقه)
the study of the origins and practice of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)
Wa ʿalaykum as-salām (وعليكم السلام)
Wa 'Alaykum as-Salaam!, meaning "and upon you be peace". (see
Muhammad was born on the twelfth day of
Rabi-ul-Awwal, the third month of the
Muslim year. His death
anniversary also falls on the same day, the word 'barah' standing for
the twelve days of Muhammad's sickness.
Waḥdat al-wujūd (وحدة الوجود)
"unity of being". Philosophical term used by some Sufis. Related to
revelation or inspiration of God to His prophets for all humankind
literal meaning is "weakness" or "feebleness". According to one
Muhammad explained it as "love of the world and dislike of
obligatory or mandatory see fard
friend, protector, guardian, supporter, helper
An endowment of money or property: the return or yield is typically
dedicated toward a certain end, for example, to the maintenance of the
poor, a family, a village, or a mosque. Plural: awqaf
traditional scribe, publisher, printer, notary and book copier
the middle way, justly balanced, avoiding extremes, moderation
the means by which one achieves nearness to
Allah (see tawassul )
a voluntary, optional night prayer of odd numbers rakaats.
ablution for ritual purification from minor impurities before salat
Yā Allāh (یا الله)
Ya Rasūl Allāh (یا رسول الله)
O, Messenger of God!. Term used by companions when interacting with
Yaʾjūj wa-Maʾjūj (يأجوج ومأجوج )
Gog and Magog
certainty, that which is certain
Yarḥamuk-Allāh (يرحمك الله)
"May God have mercy on you", said when someone sneezes; the same as
"(God) bless you" in English
Allāh Yarḥamuhu (الله يرحمه), fem.
"May God have mercy of his/her soul", (said when someone dies)
Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين)
Day of Reckoning, Awe
Yawm al-Ghaḍab (يوم الغضب)
Day of Rage, Wrath
Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة)
"Day of the Resurrection"; Day of Judgement
the Psalms revealed to King Daoud (David) عليه السلام
Zabīḥa (Dhabīḥah) (ذَبِيْحَة) see dhabiha
Islamic method of slaughtering an animal. Using a sharp knife the
animal's windpipe, throat and blood vessels of the neck are severed
without cutting the spinal cord to ensure that the blood is thoroughly
drained before removing the head. See halal
Islamic sub-sect of Shi'ah, popularly found in Yemen, with
similarities to Sunni
Zakāt (زكاة), Al-Māl
tax, alms, tithe as a
Muslim duty; Sunnis regard this as the fourth
Pillar of Islam. Neither charity nor derived from Islamic economics,
but a religious duty and social obligation.
Zakāt al-Fiṭr (زكاة الفطر)
Charity given at the end of Ramadan.
polytheists, wrong-doers, and unjust.
Zināʾ (زناء, زنى)
sexual activity outside of marriage (covering the English words
adultery and fornication)
Zulfiqar (Dhu-l-fiqār) (ذو الفقار)
Sword of Ali رضي الله عنه, presented to him by Muhammad
صلى الله عليه وسلم
Arabic words are created from three-letter "roots" which convey a
basic idea. For example, k-t-b conveys the idea of writing. Addition
of other letters before, between, and after the root letters produces
many associated words: not only "write" but also "book", "office",
"library", and "author". The abstract consonantal root for
Some Islamic concepts are usually referred to in Persian or Turkic.
Those are typically of later origin than the concepts listed here; for
completeness it may be best to list Persian terms and those unique to
Shi'a on their own page, likewise Turkic terms and those unique to the
Ottoman period on their own page, as these are culturally very
The word "crusade" in English is usually translated in
"ḥamlah ṣalībīyah" which means literally "campaign of
Cross-holders" (or close to that meaning). In
Arabic text it is
"حملة صليبية" and the second word comes from "ṣalīb"
which means "cross."
The verses in the
Qur'an that usually refers to as jihād verses have
the phrase "Qitāl fī sabīl allāh" (fighting for the sake of
99 Names of God
History of Islam
List of Christian terms in Arabic
List of English words of
Prophets of Islam
^ Sūrat al-ʾAnfāl corpus.quran.com
^ First line in Qurʾān
^ USC-MSA Compendium of
Muslim Texts Archived 2006-07-22 at the
Muhammad Akram (2013). What Is Wrong with Islamic Economics?:
Analysing the Present State and Future Agenda. Edward Elgar
Publishing. p. 402. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
^ Qazi, M.A. (1979). A Concise Dictionary of Islamic Terms. Lahore:
Kazi Publications. p. 15.
^ Bakri H. S. Al-Azzam. Certain Terms Relating to Islamic Observances:
Their Meanings with Reference to Three Translations of the Qur’an
and a Translation of Hadith. Universal-Publishers. p. 247.
^ a b c "The Islamic glossary: An explanation of names, terms and
Symbols". Retrieved 2007-12-06.
^ Habib Ali Jifri on
Shaykh al-Buti Archived 2013-11-10 at the Wayback
Machine. Marifah forum
^ Quintan Wiktorowicz. Radical
Muslim extremism in the
West. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. ISBN 0-7425-3641-6,
ISBN 978-0-7425-3641-8. Pg 18
^ hadith about wahn searchtruth.com
Suzanne Haneef, What Everyone Should Know about
Islam and Muslims,
(Kazi Publications, Chicago), popular introduction
Muzaffar Haleem, The Sun is Rising In the West, (Amana Publications,
Beltsville, MD 1999).
Muhammad for Beginners, Icon Books, 1994, some fun ,
from very modern
Sufi point of view.
Hans Wehr, A Dictionary of Modern Written
Arabic (Spoken Language
Services, Ithaca, NY, 1976). ed. J. Milton Cowan.
Islam in the World by
Malise Ruthven (Gantra Publications, 2006)
Free expressions with audio
Voiced Dictionary of Islamic and
Arabic Key Words